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5 Some Symbols, Conventions, and Equations
electrically charged entities centered on atoms or groups of atoms, known
as ions. The charges are due to the unequal distribution of the available
electrons between the ions, so that some have net positive charge and are
called cations and some have net negative charge and are called anions.
Faraday demonstrated the existence of ions by the phenomenon of electrolysis in which they are discharged at positive and negative poles of a
potential applied to a solution. Symbols for ions have superscripts showing the polarity of the charge and its value as charge numbers, i.e., multiples of the charge on one electron. A subscript, (aq), may be added where
needed to distinguish ions in aqueous solution from ions encountered in
other contexts, such as in ionic solids. The symbols are used to describe the
solution of any substances yielding electrolytes on dissolution, e. g:
hydrochloric acid gas
solid iron(II) chloride
Symbols like H+, Cl– and Fe2+ used to represent ions in equations do not
indicate their characteristic structures and properties that have very significant effects on corrosion and related phenomena. These structures are
described in Chapter 2.
Equations 1.1 and 1.2 represent complete reactions but sometimes the
anions and cations in solution originate from neutral species by complementary partial reactions, exchanging charge at an electronically conducting surface, usually a metal. To illustrate this process, consider the
dissolution of iron in a dilute air-free solution of hydrochloric acid, yielding hydrogen gas and a dilute solution of iron chloride as the products.
The overall reaction is:
Fe(metal) + 2HCl(solution) = FeCl2 (solution) + H2 (gas)
Strong acids and their soluble salts are ionized in dilute aqueous solution
as illustrated in Equations 1.1 and 1.2 so that the dominant species present
in dilute aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and iron(II) chloride are
not HCl and FeCl2 but their ions H+ + Cl and Fe2+ + 2Cl . Equation 1.1 is
therefore equivalent to:
Fe + 2H+ + 2Cl– = Fe2+ + 2Cl + H2
The Cl– ions persist unchanged through the reaction, maintaining electric
charge neutrality, i.e., they serve as counter-ions. The effective reaction is
the transfer of electrons, e–, from atoms of iron in the metal to hydrogen
ions, yielding soluble Fe2+ ions and neutral hydrogen atoms which combine to be evolved as hydrogen gas. The electron transfer occurs at the conducting iron surface where the excess of electrons left in the metal by the
solution of iron from the metal are available to discharge hydrogen ions
supplied by the solution:
Fe(metal) → Fe 2+ (solution) + 2e (in metal)
2e (in metal) + 2H+ (solution) → 2H(metal surface) → H2 (gas)
Processes like those represented by Equations 1.5 and 1.6 are described as
electrodes. Electrodes proceeding in a direction generating electrons, as in
Equation 1.5. are anodes and electrodes accepting electrons, as in Equation
1.6 are cathodes. Any particular electrode can be an anode or cathode
depending on its context. Thus the nickel electrode:
Ni → Ni2+ + 2e–
is an anode when coupled with Equation 1.6 to represent the spontaneous
dissolution of nickel metal in an acid but it is an cathode when driven in
the opposite direction by an applied potential to deposit nickel from solution in electroplating:
Ni2+ + 2e– → Ni(metal)
Representation of Corrosion Processes
The facility with which the use of electrochemical equations can reveal
characteristics of corrosion processes can be illustrated by comparing the
behavior of iron in neutral and alkaline waters.
Active Dissolution of Iron with Oxygen Absorption
Iron rusts in neutral water containing oxygen dissolved from the atmosphere. The following greatly simplified description illustrates some general features of the process. The concentration (strictly the activity defined
later in Section 2.1.3) of hydrogen ions in neutral water is low so that the
evolution of hydrogen is replaced by the absorption of dissolved oxygen
as the dominant cathodic reaction and the coupled reactions are:
Fe → Fe2+ + 2e–
/ O2 + H2 O + 2e– → 2OH–
The use of the half quantity of oxygen in Equation 1.10 is a formal convention to match the mass balance in the two equations. The two reactions
simultaneously introduce the ions Fe2+ and OH– into the solution, which
co-precipitate, again with simplifying assumptions, as the sparingly soluble compound Fe(OH)2 :
Fe2+ (solution) + 2OH–(solution) → Fe(OH)2 (precipitate)
In this system, the transport of Fe 2+ and OH – ions in the electrolyte
between the anodic and cathodic reactions constitutes an ion current. The
example illustrates how a corrosion process is a completed electric circuit
with the following component parts:
An anodic reaction.
A cathodic reaction.
Electron transfer between the anodic and cathodic reactions.
An ion current in the electrolyte.
Methods for controlling corrosion are based on inhibiting one or another
of the links in the circuit.
The Fe(OH)2 is precipitated from the solution but it is usually deposited
back on the metal surface as a loose defective material which fails to stifle
further reaction, allowing rusting to continue. In the presence of the dissolved oxygen it subsequently transforms to a more stable composition in
the final rust product. The rusting of iron is less straightforward than this
simplified approach suggests and is described more realistically in
Passivity of Iron in Alkaline Water
Iron responds quite differently in mildly alkaline water. The anodic reaction yielding the unprotective soluble ion, Fe2+ as the primary anodic
product, is not favored and is replaced by an alternative anodic reaction
which converts the iron surface directly into a thin, dense, protective layer
of magnetite, Fe3 O4 , so that the partial reactions are:
3Fe + 8OH– = Fe3 O4 + 4H2 O + 8e–
/ O2 + H2 O + 2e– = 2OH–
Information on conditions favoring protective anodic reactions of this
kind is important in corrosion control. Pourbaix diagrams, explained in
Chapter 3, give such information graphically and within their limitations
they can be useful in interpreting observed effects.
Economic Effects of Metallic Corrosion in the United States, National Bureau of
Standards Special Publication, 1978.
in Corrosion Processes
Origins and Characteristics of Structure
Conventional symbols are convenient for use in chemical equations, as
illustrated in the last chapter, but they do not indicate the physical forms
of the atoms, ions, and electrons they represent. This chapter describes
these physical forms and the structures in which they exist because they
control the course and speed of reactions.
There is an immediate problem in describing and explaining these structures because they are expressed in the conventional language and symbols of chemistry. Atoms can be arranged in close-packed arrays, open
networks or as molecules, forming crystalline solids, non-crystalline
solids, liquids, or gases, all with their own specialized descriptions. The
configurations of the electrons within atoms and assemblies of atoms are
described in terms and symbols derived from wave mechanics, that are
foreign to many applied disciplines that need the information.
A preliminary task is to review some of this background as briefly and
simply as possible, for use later on. At this point it is natural for an
applied scientist to enquire whether an apparently academic digression is
really essential to address the practical concerns of corrosion. The answer
is that, without this background, explanations of even basic underlying
principles can only be given on the basis of postulates that seem arbitrary
and unconvincing. With this background, it is possible to give plausible
explanations to such questions as, why water has a special significance in
corrosion processes, why some dissolved substances inhibit corrosion
whereas others stimulate it, what features of metal oxides control the protection they afford and how metallurgical structures have a key influence
on the development of corrosion damage. Confidence in the validity of
fundamentals is an essential first step in exercising positive corrosion
The term, phase, describes any region of material without internal boundaries, solid liquid or gaseous, composed of atoms, ions or molecules
organized in a particular way. The following is a brief survey of various
kinds of phase that may be present in a corroding system and applies to
metals, environments, corrosion products, and protective systems.
126.96.36.199 Crystalline Solids
Many solids of interest in corrosion, such as metals, oxides and salts are
crystalline; the crystalline nature of bulk solids is not always apparent
because they are usually agglomerates of microscopic crystals but under
laboratory conditions, single crystals can be produced that reveal many of
the features associated with crystals, regular outward geometrical shapes,
cleavage along well-defined planes and anisotropic physical and mechanical properties. The characteristics are due to the arrangement of the atoms
or ions in regular arrays generating indefinitely repeated patterns
throughout the material. This long-range order permits the relative positions of the atoms or ions in a particular phase to be located accurately by
standard physical techniques, most conveniently by analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by monochromatic X-rays transmitted through the
material. The centers of the atoms form a three-dimensional array known
as the space lattice of the material.
Space lattices are classified according to the symmetry elements they
exhibit. A space lattice is described by its unit cell, that is the smallest part
of the infinite array of atoms or ions that completely displays its characteristics and symmetry. The lattice dimensions are specified by quoting the
lattice parameters, that are the lengths of the edges of the unit cell. The complete structure is generated by repetition of the unit cell in three dimensions. Crystallographic descriptions embody the assumption that atoms
and ions are hard spheres with definite radii. Strictly, atomic and ion sizes
are influenced by local interactions with other atoms, but the assumption
holds for experimental determination of atomic arrangements and lattice
parameters in particular solids.
A wide range of space lattices is needed to represent all of the structures
of crystalline solids of technical interest. Geometric considerations reveal
fourteen possible types of lattice, fully described in standard texts.* All
that is needed here is a brief review of structures directly concerned with
metals and solid ionic corrosion products. These are the close-packed
cubic structures and the related hexagonal close-packed structure.
The closest possible packing for atoms (or ions) of the same radius is
produced by stacking layers of atoms so that the whole system occupies
the minimum volume, as follows. Spheres arranged in closest packing in
a single layer have their centers at the corners of equilateral triangles, as
shown in Figure 2.1. For a stack of such layers to occupy minimum volume, the spheres in every successive layer are laid in natural pockets
between contiguous atoms in the underlying layer. Simple geometry
* e.g., Taylor, cited in “Further Reading.”
shows that the atoms of a layer in a stack are sited in alternate pockets of
the underlying layer, e.g., at the centers of either the upright triangles or the
inverted triangles in Figure 2.1. This option leads to two diffent simple
stacking sequences; in one, the positions of the atoms are in register at
every second layer in the sequence ABAB . . . , generating the hexagonal
close-packed lattice and in the other they are in register at every third layer
in the sequence ABCABC . . . , generating the face-centered cubic lattice.
Assembly of spheres representing the closest packed arrangement of atoms in two dimensions. The pockets at the centers of the equilateral triangles are sites for atoms in a similar
layer superimposed in the closest-packed three-dimensional arrangement.
The Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Lattice
The hexagonal symmetry is derived from the fact that an atom in a closepacked plane is coordinated with six other atoms, whose centers are the
corners of a regular hexagon. In three dimensions, every atom in the HCP
lattice is in contact with twelve equidistant neighbors. Geometric considerations show that the axial ratio of the unit cell, i.e., the ratio of the lattice
parameters normal to the hexagonal basal plane and parallel to it is 1.633.
The Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Lattice
The ABCABC . . . stacking sequence confers cubic symmetry that is apparent in the unit cell, illustrated in Figure 2.2(a), taken at an appropriate
angle to the layers. Although the atoms are actually in contact, unit cells
are conventionally drawn with small spheres indicating the lattice points
to reveal the geometry. As the name suggests, the unit cell has one atom at
every one of the eight corners of a cube and another atom at the center of
every one of the six cube faces. Every atom is in contact with twelve equidistant neighbors, i.e., its coordination number is 12. Every one of the eight
corner atoms in the FCC unit cell is shared with seven adjacent unit cells
and every face atom is shared with one other cell, so that the cell contains
the equivalent of four atoms, (8corner atoms × 1/8 ) + (6face atoms × 1/2 ).
Unit cells: (a) face-centered cubic; (b) body-centered cubic; and (c) simple cubic.
The FCC lattice completely represents the structures of many metals
and alloys but its use is extended to provide convenient crystallographic
descriptions of some complex structures, using its characteristic that the
spaces between the atoms, the interstitial sites, have the geometry of regular polyhedra. The concept is to envision atoms or ions of one species
arranged on FCC lattice sites with other species occupying the interstices. Considerable use is made of this device later, especially in the
context of oxidation, where a class of metal oxides collectively known as
spinels have significant roles in the oxidation-resistance of alloys. This
application depends on the geometry and number of interstices.
Inspection of the FCC unit cell illustrated in Figure 2.2(a) reveals that
there are two kinds of interstitial sites, tetrahedral and octahedral. A tetrahedral site exists between a corner atom of the cell and the three adjacent face
atoms and there are eight of them wholly contained within every cell.
Octahedral sites exist both at the center of the cell between the six face
atoms and at the middles of the twelve edges, every one of which is shared
with three adjacent unit cells, so that the number of octahedral interstices
per cell is 1 + (12 × 1/4 ) = 4. Since the cell contains the equivalent of four
atoms, the FCC structure contains two tetrahedral and one octahedral
spaces per atom. The ratios of the radii of spheres that can be inscribed the
interstitial sites to the radius of atoms on the lattice is 0.414 for tetrahedral
sites and 0.732 for the octahedral sites. These radius ratios indicate the
sizes of interstitial atoms or ions that can be accommodated.
The Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) Lattice
The BCC structure is less closely packed than the HCP and FCC structures.
The unit cell, illustrated in Figure 2.2(b), has atoms at the corners of a cube
and another at the center. It has the equivalent of 2 atoms and there are 12
tetrahedral and 3 octahedral interstitial sites with the geometries of irregular polyhedra. Corner atoms at opposite ends of the cell diagonals are contiguous with the atom at the center so that the coordination number is 8.
The Simple Cubic Lattice
The simple cubic lattice, illustrated in Figure 2.2(c), can be formed from
equal numbers of two different atoms or ions if the ratio of their radii is
between 0.414 and 0.732, as explained later in describing oxides. The structure is geometrically equivalent to an FCC lattice of the larger atoms or
ions with the smaller ones in octahedral interstitial sites.
Some characteristic metal structures are summarized in Table 2.1
Crystal Structures of Some Commercially
Important Pure Metals
Aluminum, Nickel, α-Cobalt,
Copper, Silver, Gold, Platinum,
Lead, Iron (T > 910°C and
Lithium, Chromium, Tungsten,
Titanium (> 900°C),
Iron (T < 910°C and > 1400°C).
Magnesium, Zinc, Cadmium,
Titanium (< 900°C).
Tin (tetragonal), Manganese
(complex), Uranium (complex).
Example 1: Description of Perovskite Structure
The structure of perovskite with the empirical formula, CaTiO3, can be
described as either:
1. A body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice with calcium ions at the
corners of the unit cell, a titanium at the center and all octahedral
vacancies occupied by oxygen ions,
2. A face-centred cubic (FCC) lattice with calcium ions at the corners of the unit cell, oxygen ions at the centers of the faces and
every fourth octahedral vacancy (the one entirely between oxygen ions) occupied by titanium.
Show that these descriptions are compatible with the numbers of atoms in
There are two ions in the BCC unit cell. The eight corner sites, all shared
eight-fold, together contribute one calcium ion and the unshared center
site contributes one titanium ion. The oxygen ions occupy the octahedral
vacancies at the centers of the six faces, all shared two-fold, contributing
three oxygen ions. Hence the description yields the same relative numbers
of calcium, titanium and oxygen ions in the structure, i.e., 1:1:3, as atoms
in the formula. Incidentally, the basic BCC structure can also be envisioned
as two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, one of calcium ions and the
other of titanium ions.
There are four ions in the FCC unit cell. The eight shared corner sites
together contribute one calcium ion and the six shared face sites together
contribute three oxygen ions. One quarter of the octahedral sites are occupied by titanium ions and since there are four such sites per unit cell, they
contribute one titanium ion. This description also yields the same relative
numbers of the ions in the structure as atoms in the formula.
Liquid phases are arrays of atoms with short-range structural order and
the atoms or groups of atoms can move relatively without losing cohesion,
conferring fluidity. Liquid structures are less amenable to direct empirical
study than solid structures. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the average
distribution of nearest neighbor atoms around any particular atom but
other evidence of structure can be acquired, particularly for solutions. Liquid metal solutions can show discontinuities in properties at compositions
that correspond to changes in the underlying solid phases. The most familiar liquid, water, is highly structured because hydrogen-oxygen bonds
have a directional character. Its bulk physical properties, excellent solvent
powers and behavior at surfaces are striking manifestations of its structure, as explained later in this chapter.
188.8.131.52 Non-Crystalline Solids
Certain solid materials, including glasses and polymeric materials have
short-range order but the atoms or groups of atoms lack the easy relative
mobility characteristic of liquids.
In gaseous phases, attractions between atoms or small groups of atoms
(molecules) are minimal, so that they behave independently as random
entities in constant rapid translation. The useful approximation of the
hypothetical ideal gas assumes that the atoms or molecules are dimensionless points with no attraction between them. It is often convenient to use
this approximation for the “permanent” real gases, oxygen, nitrogen and
hydrogen and for mixtures of them. Certain other gases of interest in corrosion, e.g., carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and chlorine deviate from the
approximation and require different treatment.
The Role of Electrons in Bonding
A phase adopts the structure that minimizes its internal energy within
constraints imposed by the characteristics of the atoms that are present. In
general, this is achieved by redistributing electrons contributed by the
individual atoms. The resulting attractive forces set up between the individual atoms are said to constitute bonds if they are sufficient to stabilize a
structure. A description of the distributions of electrons among groups or
aggregates of atoms that constitute bonds between them must be preceded
by a description of the electron configurations in isolated atoms.
An isolated atom comprises a positively charged nucleus surrounded by
a sufficient number of electrons to balance the nuclear charge. The order of
the elements in the Periodic Table, reproduced in Table 2.2, is also the
order of increasing positive charge on the atomic nucleus in increments, e+,
equal but opposite to the charge, e on a single electron. The positive
charges on the nuclei are balanced by the equivalent numbers of electrons,
that adopt configurations according to the energies they possess.
Classical mechanics break down when applied to determine the energies of electrons moving within the very small dimensions of potential
fields around atomic nuclei. The source of the problem was identified by
the recognition that electrons have a wave character with wavelengths
comparable with the small dimensions associated with atomic phenomena and an alternative approach, wave mechanics, pioneered by de Broglie
and Schrodinger, was developed to deal with it. This approach abandons
any attempt to follow the path of an electron with a given total energy
moving in the potential field of an atomic nucleus and addresses the conservation of energy using a time-independent wave function as a replacement for classical momentum. It turns out that the probability that the