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10 Amorphous (Ferrous and Non-Ferrous) Alloys

10 Amorphous (Ferrous and Non-Ferrous) Alloys

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3: 150



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



Amorphous Fe-3Cr- 13P-7C alloys containing 2 at% molybdenum, tungsten or other metallic elements are passivated by anodic polarisation in 1 N

HCI at ambient temperature”. Chromium addition is also effective in

improving the corrosion resistance of amorphous cobalt-metalloid and

nickel-metalloid I 3 . l 4 alloys (Fig. 3.67). The combined addition of chromium

and molybdenum is further effective. Some amorphous Fe-Cr-Mometalloid alloys passivate spontaneously even in 12 N HCI at 60°C. Critical

concentrations of chromium and molybdenum necessary for spontaneous

passivation of amorphous Fe-Cr-Mo-13P-7C and Fe-Cr-Mo-18C alloys in

hydrochloric acids of various concentrations and different temperatures are

shown in Fig. 3.68”.



Chromium content, x, at %

Fig. 3.67 Changes in corrosion rates of amorphous Fe-, Co- and Ni-base alloys measured in

1 N HCI at room temperature as a function of alloy chromium content 1 3 . l4



Some metal-metal alloys also form an amorphous structure. From a

corrosion point of view, amorphous metal-metal alloys containing valve

metals are particularly useful. In strong acids with high oxidising power,

such as boiling nitric acid, the alloys whose corrosion resistance is based

mostly on the presence of chromium are corroded, but amorphous alloys

containing valve metals, such as tantalum, show very high corrosion resistance which is much higher than that of the crystalline metal (Fig. 3.69)16.

Some of these alloys are spontaneously passive even in azeotropic boiling

6~ HCI”. Phosphoric acid does not contain a particularly aggressive

anion, but because of their high boiling points, boiling concentrated

phosphoric acids are quite corrosive. As shown in Fig. 3.701*, amorphous

Ni-Ta alloys are more corrosion resistant than crystalline tantalum metal in

hot concentrated phosphoric acid, and various amorphous alloys have corrosion resistance comparable with crystalline tantalum metal.



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



0



5



10



15



20



25



30



35



3: 151



40



Chrornium/at .%

Fig. 3.68 Critical concentrations of chromium and molybdenum necessary for spontaneous

passivation of amorphous Fe-Cr-Mo- 13P-7C and Fe-Cr-Mo-18C alloys in hydrochloric acid

of various concentrations and temperatures Is



102



---_ Boiling 9~ HN03



1



- Boiling 9~ HN03 + 100 ppm Cr6+



10'



00



7



.

0



L

E

.



100



E



01

4-



I



c 10-1

0



V VA A

0

0 Ti



Stainless

steel



+



I



Ni-Ta

Ni-Nb

Ni-N b-Ta



3: 152



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS

102



Crystalline

304L



Amorphous



T!



(at%)



Cr

10'



-



-~316L



N



E



N



7



100



-d,

m



c



I



C



:.



lo-'



-



b



Fe base (Ni, Cr, Mo, Ta, P, C)

Ni - (0 10) Cr-20P



Alloy 8-2

/Alloy C-276



-



2

0

V



10-2



1

1



-



Ta



I



-



Ni - 34Cr-18Mo-16Si-4B

Ni - (10 20) Cr - (1 10) Mo - (P, C)

Ni - (10 30) Ta -(30 10) Nb

Ni - 30Ta - 10 Ti

Ni - (1 10) Ta - 17P

Ni - 15Cr - (0 10) Ta - 17P

Ni - (10 20) M o - (P, 6 , Si)

Ni - (15 20) Cr - (P,B, Si)

Ni - 38Cr - 20 Mo - 1OP



--



-



-



1



Ni - (30



10-3 -



-



-



-



- 50) Ta



63 mass % P205 at 433K



Fig. 3.70 Corrosion rates of amorphous and crystalline alloys measured in 87 wt% H,PO, at

160"C'*



Passive Film

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study l9 of the spontaneously passive

amorphous Fe-lOCr-13P-7C alloy in 1 N HCI revealed that the passive

film consists of C r 3 + , 0 2 - OH,

and H 2 0 , and hence the passive film

has been called a passive hydrated chromium oxyhydroxide film

(CrO,(OH), - &nH20). Subsequent investigations have revealed that

chromium enrichment occurs not only in passive films formed on amorphous

13-15.20-22

, but also in those on c r y ~ t a l l i n e alloys

~ ~ - ~ ~whose corrosion

resistance is owing to the presence of chromium. It has been shown26that

the resistance against passivity breakdown is higher when the chromium content of the passive film is higher. Thus, the higher the ability of an alloy to

concentrate chromic ion in the passive film, the higher is the corrosion

resistance of the alloy. The concentration of chromic ion in passive films

formed on amorphous alloys is far higher than the concentration in films on

crystalline alloys (Table 3.59).

The passive films formed by the addition of sufficient amounts of valve

metals to amorphous nickel-valve-metal alloys are exclusively composed of

valve-metal oxyhydroxides or oxides such as TaO2(OH)I6, NbO, (OH)I6 or

Ta, 0,l8.Consequently, amorphous alloys containing strongly passivating

elements, such as chromium, niobium and tantalum, have a very high ability



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS A N D NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



Table 3.59



3: 153



Concentration of chromic ion in passive films formed on amorphous alloys and

stainless steels in I N HCI at ambient temperature



~



C r 3 +/ Total metallic ions



Amorphous alloys

Fe-IOCr-13P-7C

Fe-3Cr-ZMo-13P-7C

Co-1OCr-20P

Ni-IOCr-20P

Stainless steel

Fe-3OCr-QMo)

Fe-I9Cr-(2Mo)



Passivation



Reference



0.97

0.57

0.95

0.87



Spontaneous

Anodic polarisation

Spontaneous

Spontaneous



21

22



0.75



Anodic polarisation

Anodic polarisation



24

25



0.58



19

I1



to concentrate beneficial ions in their passive films and have a high corrosion

resistance resulting from spontaneous passivation.



Chemical Homogeneity

The high corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys disappears on heat treatment that produces c r y ~ t a l l i s a t i o n ~Figure

~ ~ ’ ~ . 3.71 shows an example of the



103 -



5



N



E



3>



102-



c

.In

C

W



-0

c



10’L



3



u



100 -



lo-‘



~



10-2L

-0.5



0



0.5



1.0



1.5



2.0



Potential (S.C.E.)

Fig. 3.71 Change in polarisation curve of amorphous Fe-IOCr-13P-7C alloy in 1 N HCI with

the time of heat treatment at 723 K. The time of heat treatment is expressed in the figure in

minutes3’



3: I54



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



effect of heat treatment in the case of Fe-IOCr-l3P-7C3’. A microcrystalline metastable phase is formed in the amorphous matrix by heat treatment

at 703 K for 100 min. The alloy becomes no longer spontaneously passive in

1 N HCl as soon as the microcrystalline phase appears in the amorphous

matrix, and the anodic dissolution current continues to increase with increasing time of heat treatment. This occurs because of the introduction of

chemical heterogeneity into the homogeneous single phase of the amorphous

alloy. Rapidly solidified microcrystalline stainless steels also have high pitting corrosion

and detrimental defects on which a stable

passive film does not form are mostly precipitates and segregates of impurities 34. The chemically homogeneous single-phase nature of amorphous

alloys which are free of defects resulting in the formation of a uniform

passive film is responsible for the high corrosion resistance of these alloys.



Fast Passivation

When the chromium-enriched passive film is formed on amorphous and

crystalline iron-chromium alloys, containing no noble metals such as nickel,

the composition of the alloy surface just under the chromium-enriched

passive film is almost the same as that of the bulk alloy24.Hence, the formation of a chromium-enriched passive film results from selective dissolution of alloy constituents unnecessary for passive film formation. When an

alloy is able to passivate, fast active dissolution of the alloy results in rapid

enrichment with beneficial ions. The passivating ability is, therefore, closely

related to the activity of the alloyI4. The thermodynamically metastable

nature of amorphous alloys is responsible for their high reactivity when they

are not covered by a passive film, and hence is responsible for the fast

passivation by the formation of the film in which the beneficial ions are

highly concentrated. As shown in Fig. 3.67 for iron-, cobalt- and nickelbased alloys, when the alloy chromium content is not high enough to cause

spontaneous passivation, the more active iron-based alloys dissolve rapidly

and the more noble nickel-based alloys dissolve slowly. The fast dissolution

in iron-based alloys is effective in concentrating the chromic ions, so that

iron-based alloys passivate spontaneously with the addition of a small

amount of chromium. In contrast, the slowly dissolving noble nickel-based

alloys require the addition of larger amounts of chromium for spontaneous

passivation.



Metastable Nature

Amorphous alloys are in a thermodynamically metastable state, and hence

essentially they are chemically more reactive than corresponding thermodynamically stable crystalline a l l ~ y ’ * ”If~ an

~ ~amorphous

.

alloy crystallises

to a single phase having the same composition as the amorphous phase,

crystallisation results in a decrease in the activity of the alloy related to the

active dissolution rate of the alloy35.

Since amorphous alloys can be regarded as metallic solids with a frozenin melt structure, the liquid structure freezes at different temperatures



3: 155

depending upon quenching conditions with the consequent formation of

different amorphous states. Accordingly, even for amorphous alloys of the

same composition, anodic dissolution currents are not always identical

owing to different structural relaxation inten~ities~~-~'.

AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



Effect of Metalloids

As can be seen in Fig. 3.67, the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys

changes with the addition of metalloids, and the beneficial effect of a metalloid in enhancing corrosion resistance based on passivation decreases in the

order phosphorus, carbon, silicon, boron39 (Fig. 3.72). This is attributed

partly to the difference in the speed of accumulation of passivating elements

due to active dissolution prior to passivationm.

20

L



Fe-I OCr-136-7X



m

W

>.



.

E

E



a,



5



10



c

0

.u)



2



L



0

0



0



Si



B



0.2-



C



P



I



I



L



m



Fe-10 Cr-13P-7X

in 0 . 1 HzSO,

~



W



,z

E

E

a;

c



I



.-0

In



9

0



0



0



a



a



The effect of metalloids on the corrosion resistance of alloys also varies

with the stability of polyoxyanions contained in their films. Phosphorus and

carbon contained in iron-chromium-metalloid alloys do not produce

passive films of phosphate and carbonate in strong acids, and so do not interfere with the formation of the passive hydrated chromium oxyhydroxide



3: 156



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



film20*40.

In contrast, boron-containing alloys require the addition of large

amounts of chromium to increase the passivating ability by concentrating the

chromium oxyhydroxide in the surface films because the films contain

chromium

The thickness of the passive films discussed above is up to 3-4 nm. In contrast, the surface film on an amorphous Cu-40Zr alloy continues to grow to

over 100nm in 1 N H 2 S 0 4 ,but the addition of only 2 at% phosphorus is

effective in depressing the film growth to a few tens of n a n ~ m e t r e s ~The

'~~~.

addition of a few atomic percent of phosphorus to amorphous Ni-30Ta

alloys results in a decrease in the corrosion rate in boiling 6 N HCI by about

four orders of magnitude ".

The corrosion rate of amorphous Ni-P alloys in 1 N HCI is lower than

those of crystalline nickel metal and amorphous Fe-P-C alloy by factors of

about 5 and 250, respectively, and is further decreased by the addition of

various elements43(Fig. 3.73).

I



-



1



Amorphous

Ni-M- (18 20) P



-



1M HCI 30°C

10-7



Crystalline

600



Ni



-



7



Iu)

N.



Fig. 3.73 Average corrosion rates of amorphous Ni-P alloys measured in 1 N HCI at 30°C.

Included are average corrosion rates of crystalline nickel and nickel-base alloys43



Silicon-containing amorphous metal-metalloid alloys form surface films.

Sputter-deposited Fe-Si alloys containing 25 at.% or more silicon are passivated by anodic polarisation in dilute sulphuric acid owing to the formation

of a S O , film". Melt-spun amorphous Fe-39Ni-lOB-12Si alloy is more

resistant against pitting corrosion than the amorphous Fe-40Ni-20B alloy



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



3: 157



owing to the formation of a silicon-enriched surface film45.An increase in

the silicon content of amorphous Fe-B-Si alloys extends the passive potential rangeM. Increasing the silicon content of amorphous Fe-1OCr-5MoB-Si alloys leads to a decrease in current densities in both the active and

passive regions in 6 N HCl at 25°C without changing the open circuit corrosion potential owing to the formation of a SiOJike substance along with

the hydrated oxyhydroxide film4’.



Passivity Breakdown

The chemically homogeneous amorphous alloys with high passivating ability

form uniform passive films in which beneficial ions are highly concentrated.

Passivity breakdown occurs in the form of general corrosion only when the

whole film is dissolved under very aggressive condition^^^. The high passivating ability also provides high resistance against crevice c o r r o s i ~ n ~ ~ * ~ ~ .

The crevice corrosion potentials and protection potentials of these alloys are

very high.



Active Path Corrosion

Stress-corrosion cracking based on active-path corrosion of amorphous

alloys has so far only been found when alloys of very low corrosion resistance are corroded under very high applied stressess’~52.

However, when the

corrosion resistance is sufficiently high, plastic deformation does not affect

the passive current density or the pitting potential”, and hence amorphous

alloys are immune from stress-corrosion cracking.



Hydrogen Embrittlement

Amorphous alloys are capable of absorbing far higher amounts of hydrogen

than conventional crystalline steelss4.Thus, some amorphous alloys fail by

hydrogen embrittlement when they are corroded under tensile-stressed conditions. However, increasing corrosion resistance by alloy modifications,

such as increasing the chromium and/or molybdenum contents of amorphous iron-based alloys, reduces hydrogen absorption and hence hydrogen

embrittlement 5 5 .



Oxidation

The oxidation behaviour of amorphous alloys studied below their crystallisation temperature is not greatly different from that of crystalline metals,

although the presence of large amounts of metalloids complicates the

situation 56-58.

The amorphous structure favours internal oxidation unless a protective

oxide film is formed as, for example, under low oxygen partial pressuress9.



3: I58



AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



Production Methods

The thickness of amorphous alloys is dependent upon production methods.

Rapid quenching from the liquid state, which is the most widely used

method, produces generally thin amorphous alloy sheets of 10-30 pm thickness. This has been called melt spinning or the rotating wheel method. Amorphous alloy powder and wire are also produced by modifications of the melt

spinning method. The corrosion behaviour of amorphous alloys has been

studied mostly using melt-spun specimens.

Laser and electron beam processing are effective methods for preparing

amorphous surface alloys covering conventional crystalline bulk metals60-61.

Sputter deposition is capable of producing thick alloys. The corrosion

behaviour of amorphous sputter deposits is similar to that of their melt-spun

amorphous counterpart^^^*^^. However, sputter deposits prepared using

conventional sputtering apparatus have never been defect-free, and hence

the substrate metals are corroded in aggressive environments@. Technological improvements to the sputter deposition process have enabled the

preparation of defect-free sputter deposits. Sputtering is particularly

suitable for the production of special amorphous alloys such as Cu-Ta"',

A1-NbM and A1-Ta',

which cannot be prepared even in crystalline phase

mixtures by conventional methods, e.g. melting, because the boiling points

of copper and aluminium are far lower than the melting points of the valve

metals. These alloys containing tantalum or niobium have very high corrosion resistance.

Various amorphous alloys can be prepared by plating6'. Plating is particularly suitable for the preparation of thinner amorphous alloys than is

possible by melt spinning, e.g. < 1 pm, although production of defect-free

alloys is difficult.

Ion implantation and ion mixing produce amorphous alloys as thin as only

several tens of nanometres. Implantation of metalloids such as phosphorus

in austenitic stainless steel has been known to produce amorphous surface

alloys having high corrosion r e s i ~ t a n c e ~ * * ~ ~ .

K. HASHIMOTO



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AMORPHOUS (FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS) ALLOYS



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