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G. Spectral Evolution in Associated Liquids

G. Spectral Evolution in Associated Liquids

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Iwaki et al.

environments. There is a direct inverse correlation between the strength of

the hydrogen bond and the O–H stretching frequency: the lowest frequency

O–H stretch is associated with the strongest hydrogen bond and vice

versa (86,87). Pumping the O–H stretch of associated alcohol oligomers

is known to result in a vibrational predissociation process which breaks

the hydrogen bond (88–91), so the transition from D 1 ! 0 is accompanied by hydrogen bond cleavage. Vibrational predissociation in associated

alcohols reduces the vibrational lifetime from tens or more picoseconds to

¾1 ps (88–92).

Figure 22 shows some data on methanol pumped in the O–H

stretching region by a 35 cm 1 wide pulse at 3400 cm 1 . When the pump

and probe pulses are time coincident, a coherent artifact is observed at an

anti-Stokes shift of 3400 cm 1 . By about 2 ps this artifact has vanished

Figure 22 O–H stretching region of neat methanol with 3400 cm 1 pumping.

The peak at 3400 cm 1 is a coherent artifact. After the artifact has disappeared, the

spectrum of O–H stretching excitations decays and the peak of the OH stretching

spectrum shifts to higher energy. Methanol molecules with higher frequency O–H

stretching transitions and weaker hydrogen bonding decay more slowly. (From

L. K. Iwaki et al., unpublished.)

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Ultrafast IR-Raman Spectroscopy


and the spectrum of the remaining methanol excitations can easily be seen.

The O–H stretching population decays in just a few picoseconds. During

this short lifetime, the O–H spectrum undergoes a time-dependent change

in shape, with the spectral peak continuously moving toward the region of

higher energy. A similar motion toward higher O–H stretching frequency

is seen in Fig. 11. There is no noticeable spectral evolution in the daughter

C–H stretch excitations, between 2750 and 3000 cm 1 , which are excited

by O–H stretch decay. The shape change in the O–H spectrum is attributed

to frequency-dependent vibrational relaxation rates. Decay of vibrational

excitations at the higher frequency end of the spectrum appears to be slower

than at the lower frequency end. Therefore, methanol molecules with the

weakest hydrogen bonds have the longest VER lifetimes.

This effect is understood by considering the dispersal of the

¾3400 cm 1 of energy liberated in the D 1 ! 0 transition. Figure 22

shows that very little of the O–H stretching excitation is transferred

to the nearby C–H stretching region. Instead, the energy is used to

populate fundamental excitations of vibrations in the 1000–1500 cm 1

range, such as O–H bending, C–H bending, and C–O stretching

excitations (L. K. Iwaki et al., unpublished). Exciting these vibrations

requires the simultaneous emission of a large number of phonons equal

to 1000–2000 cm 1 . This would be a high-order inefficient multiphonon

process. Populating these vibrations while simultaneously breaking a

hydrogen bond is a much faster and more efficient process, because

breaking a hydrogen bond in methanol releases 1000–2000 cm 1 of

energy (87).


The IR-Raman technique has been used for over 20 years, but only in the

last few years has suitable laser instrumentation been developed to monitor

the flow of vibrational energy throughout polyatomic molecules in liquids.

The new results are remarkable. For example, although it had been known

since the earliest transient spontaneous Raman experiments that C–H and

O–H stretch decay takes a few picoseconds, now we can see that the VC

process initiated by pumping higher frequency vibrations can last for more

than 150 ps (e.g., ACN in Fig. 16). New results also show us the need to

move beyond the vibrational cascade picture of VC. A quite new development is the ability to study the interactions between vibrations on the

same molecule via combination band pumping. Although experiments so

far have been mainly limited to polyatomic liquids consisting of relatively

Copyright © 2001 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Iwaki et al.

small molecules, the CCl4 results suggest a new way of studying VC

in larger molecules — or even macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or

nanoparticles — by monitoring the flow of energy from the large molecules

to CCl4 or another molecular probe in the surroundings.

The IR-Raman technique is one of several new ultrafast twodimensional vibrational spectroscopies (78,93–95), which have begun to

revolutionize our understanding of condensed phase vibrational dynamics.

Although IR-Raman methods are complementary to IR pump-probe

measurements, especially two-color pump-probe, a stellar advantage of the

IR-Raman technique is the ability to simultaneously obtaining the entire

vibrational spectrum with an optical array, as illustrated in Figs. 9, 11,

20, and 22. The big disadvantage of the IR-Raman technique is the weak

Raman signal, which is easily overwhelmed by even tiny amounts of optical

background. However, the IR-Raman technique allows us to study the time

evolution of vibrational populations even at lower frequencies inaccessible

to today’s ultrashort IR lasers and to study the time evolution of the optical

lineshape with unprecedented accuracy.


This work was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research contract

F49620-97-1-0056, U.S. Army Research Office contract DAAH04-96-10038, and National Science Foundation grant DMR-9714843. L.K.I. and

S.T.R. acknowledge support from an AASERT fellowship, DAAG55-98-10191, from the Army Research Office.








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Coulomb Force and Intramolecular

Energy Flow Effects for Vibrational

Energy Transfer for Small Molecules

in Polar Solvents

James T. Hynes

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, and Ecole Normale Sup´erieure,

Paris, France

Rossend Rey

Universitat Polit`ecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain


Molecular vibrational energy transfer (VET) in solution is a phenomenon of

long standing and — as the present volume attests — continuing interest

and importance (1–11). In this chapter, we discuss two aspects of solution

phase VET: (1) the role of electrostatic Coulomb forces and (2) polyatomic

VET, i.e., the involvement of noninitially excited vibrational modes in a

polyatomic in the vibrational relaxation. While perhaps not lying currently

in the mainstream of theoretical effort in solution phase VET — which

is often focused on diatomics immersed in simple fluids — these topics

represent rivulets that we anticipate will soon emerge in full flood, as more

complex molecular solutes and solutions come under increasing modern

experimental and theoretical scrutiny.

Both of these topics are readily motivated, since obviously most

vibrating bonds or modes are polar to some degree and most common

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Hynes and Rey

molecular solvents are polar, and most molecules are polyatomic. (But we

should hasten to add that in this chapter, “polyatomic” will usually turn

out to mean triatomic, a first foray into the area which opens a window on

the possibilities but which remains within the reach of current theoretical

and (detailed) experimental probes.) However, there are further aspects to

the motivation, here illustrated by just two examples. First, to the degree

that the Coulomb force issue is important, the isolated binary collision

ideas so fruitful in simple systems (1,3,4,6) will need to be replaced, since

long-ranged solute-solvent interactions will certainly differ in character

from short-range binary collisions. Second, the polyatomic aspect brings

in the question — pervasive in chemical dynamics — of the competition

of intramolecular versus intermolecular energy transfer. Indeed, an alternate

title for this topic could be intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR)

in solution, although we will mainly focus on this topic at low excitation

energies, rather than the higher energies more commonly associated with

IVR. And while chemical reactions in solution are beyond the scope of this

chapter, contemplation of the microscopic level course of a paradigm solution reaction such as the SN 2 reaction between chloride ion and the methyl

chloride molecule in water solvent (12) quickly shows that these two VET

topics must be comprehended if we are ever to have a detailed molecular

level description of the pathway and dynamics of solution reactions. As a

further connection to reactions in solution, it is evident that the issues of the

present chapter lie at the very heart of the ability to induce, and to induce

in any selective way, such reactions (13–15). Finally — but assuredly not

the least of motivations — assorted advances in experimental techniques

are following the probing of a variety of molecular systems in which the

issues of this chapter come to the fore.

It should also be frankly acknowledged here that there are a

variety of theoretical challenges associated with these problems that are

not highlighted at all in this chapter. These range from formulation

questions involving quantum versus classical issues in calculating rates

(see, for example, Chapter 16) to the quantum chemical electronic structure

issues of solute intramolecular force fields. These and other difficulties

certainly impede the theoretical ability to confidently predict VET rates

and mechanisms, but not the desire to try.

The outline of this chapter is as follows. In Section II we treat the

Coulomb force issue, progressing from a polar molecule in water to the

case of the cyanide ion in water, concluding with a brief discussion of

the special effects arising when the solute charge distribution is not fixed.

In Section III we deal with the polyatomic issue, for which much less

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