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Chapter 10. Environmental Science: Modern Library

Chapter 10. Environmental Science: Modern Library

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and discoveries etc. motivate pupils and stimulate reading for the sake of recreation and


3. Teaching the techniques of searching references

School library teaches the techniques of searching references by a proper use of the

variety of material, contained therein. A definite procedure is followed in purchasing,

organizing, storing, issuing and receiving books, periodicals, pamphlets and other materials

in the library room.

4. Providing opportunities to pupils to assume responsibilities

The pupils are taught to keep books with care, to serve on library communities, to act as

library assist’s’ and other odd jobs connected with library service. They learn to work in cooperation with others, to help other pupils in the selection of books and to assist them in the

solution of some of their’ problems. It gives them an insight into human relationships; to

understand economic efficiency and to take action as responsible citizens, when need arises.

Essential Equipment for the Library

1. Shelves

In the library room shelves contain books of all types as well as albums of records,

films, filmstrips, school made slides and the like, arranged in a definite order, subject and

section wise.

2. Tables and Chairs

The tables in a library should be of proper height and size and the chairs, strong and

comfortable to accommodate students and teachers to read and work in the library. The

librarian should be provided with a separate chair and desk to discharge his duties effectively.

3. Filling Cabinets for Catalogue Cards

Cabinets and drawers of a standard size accommodate catalogue cards easily.

4. Racks for Newspapers and Magazines

Daily newspapers as well as journals and magazines in different languages, on all

subjects are placed in different racks, especially got prepared for this purpose. These racks

are placed in different corners of the library room or in the reading room, attached to the

library of that teachers and pupils come and read them in their vacant periods. Lock

magazine covers are essential for journals and magazines. They preserve the magazines and

journals from soil and theft. Rods in special frames may be used for the daily newspapers.

5. Bulletin Boards

Bulletin boards are used for displaying book-jackets and other illustrative material to

advertise new arrivals in the library for those who are not regular visitors. A portion of the

space, allocated to the library is used for the bulletin boards.

6. Storage Room and Work Room

The library storage room stores books that need binding and equipment essential for

the audiovisual material. A workroom or an adequate closet space with a big table is used

for mending books, mounting pictures and preparing books for the shelves.

Important Library Resources for Environmental Studies.



(A) Book Resources

These are essential for meeting individual needs in reading for presenting different

points of view and for providing rich background of understanding of the people, the processes

and the places, so essential in Environmental Studies instruction. Book resources include

the following:

1. Text-books

A number of good textbooks in history, geography, civics, economics and Environmental

Studies are available in the library. In view of the rapidly changing human life in all parts

of the world, new and revised editions of standard textbooks must be purchased for school

library for supplying most up-to-date knowledge to pupils and teachers.

2. Unit Booklets

In addition to textbooks, a number of unit booklets should also be available in the

Environmental Studies library. These booklets are on a variety of topics ranging from family

life and neighborhood to people of other land and places.

3. Reference Materials

These include reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, biographies,

bibliographies, directories and government bulletins etc.

4. Literary Materials

These include biographies, fiction, folklore, short stories, travel books, books of adventure

and hero-stories, romance, drama and poetry to provide reading for enjoyment and pleasure

to all concerned.

5. Source Books

These include diaries, minutes and proceedings of meetings, original accounts of travelers

and contemporary historians, manuscripts and timetable etc.

(B) Non-book Resources

1. Periodicals

These include current events periodicals and magazines about various aspects of life,

including art literature, music, dance etc. as these reflect social tends of the period.

2. Pamphlets

Pamphlets are usually written about one specific topic and generally illustrated with

pictures, photographs and drawings. The Environmental Studies teacher should keep himself

in touch with currently published pamphlets, connected with his subject. As most of the

pamphlets are published by various government agencies and bureaus for specialized services

these are low priced. They provide important information about different walks of social,

economic and political life.

3. Newspapers

A local newspaper is a must for every school library as it highlights local events,

happenings, issues, personalities and developments, correlated with the immediate social

and physical environments of the pupils. One or two daily newspapers of all-India circulation




are also desirable for the library. A good newspaper is a mirror of the world events. Its study

is essential for all teachers and students of Environmental Studies to keep themselves

informed of all that is happening around them in the national and international fields.

4. Special Documents and Publications

Almost all the state governments publish brochures, yearly calendars or data books or

activities within the states. Important business, concerns, railways and tourist bureaus also

publish folders, containing rich information about various places, regions and towns. These

provide primary source materials.

5. Audio-visual or Non-reading Materials

Non-reading materials play a very important role in Environmental Studies program.

Many of these materials present information difficult to obtain through reading. They add

realism and furnish the class with a common background of experience.

The Librarian as a Resource Person

1. A trained librarian maintains school library as an important resource centre to

provide planned, expert service and guidance to teachers and students. At least one

full-time librarian, with a permanent assistant should be provided to every secondary

SCDOOI. They should be given a separate workroom and adequate office space to

function effectively.

2. Creating creates an atmosphere of friendliness, self-control and self-direction. A

whole-time trained librarian helps the students in acquiring good study habits and

in developing a love of good books. He works with teachers in making the library,

an important resource centre and a living agency. He makes available the needed

resource materials to Environmental Studies classes.

Collateral Reading and the Library

Collateral and supplementary reading form an essential part of Environmental Studies

programmed. The students collect information about various facts and movements after

consulting many books and periodicals, besides their text-books for solving problems, doing

assignments and participating in discussion etc. Library resource can furnish a rich supply

of books, periodicals and pamphlets for; collateral reading. Textbook material must be

supplemented by additional reference reading. The students should be encouraged to read

widely on topics of their own interest, both for the sake of information and entertainment.

They should be guided how to select, read and make use of the knowledge thus obtained to

form good reading habits along with proper study procedures. They should be encouraged

to take notes and to keep a regular record of their readings.

Suggestions for Motivating Pupils to Utilize Library

1. Reading List

The teacher for each pupil should fix a minimum amount of supplementary reading in

the beginning of the year. Lists of different types of books, both fiction and non-fiction,

especially connected with Environmental Studies instruction, should be prepared by the

teacher in consultation with the librarian. These should be provided to all pupils and they

may be asked to read the required number of books, out of which not more than half may

be fiction.



2. Marks for Supplemental Reading

The teacher should set apart some marks in his subject for supplementary reading.

They may be added to the total number of marks, the child receives in Environmental

Studies at the end of the session. This will definitely motivate the pupils to read.

3. Questions in Tests

At least one question out of supplementary readers with adequate choice for different

categories of pupils, should be given in the question paper, and it must be attempted


4. Programmed for Supplementary Reading

While teaching a certain unit about a particular period in Environmental Studies the

teacher should bring with him such books which contain interesting accounts of living

conditions in those days and read out a few paragraphs in the class from those books. He

should also give to his pupils the names of the books, the names of the authors and those

of their publishers and ask them to collect material there from, connected with the unit

under study. After a day or two he may ask a pupil who has gone through a certain book

and prepared reports and notes, to stand up and read out what he has collected, pertaining

to the lesson in hand.

Teacher’s Duty in Motivating Library Studies

The teacher should himself be a wide reader familiar with all the books published in

his field. He should see that all those books are available to students in the school library.

He should also be a regular reader of newspapers and periodicals. A good selection of

newspapers and magazines should be available in the school library. Pupils should be

encouraged to make use of this material. If the teacher has himself formed a habit of

reading a daily newspaper, at least one or two monthly magazines pertaining to his own

subject and making current affairs basis of the study of some important units in

Environmental Studies he can motivate the study of newspapers and magazines available

in the school library. He should keep a record of the reading of each pupil. A careful

checking of pupil’s reading may help him in evaluating books while preparing his lists of

library books for various grades, from year to year.



A. Books on Teaching of Environmental History

Aggarwal, J.C., Teaching of Environmental History: A Practical Approach. New Delhi,

Vikas Publishing House. Pvt. Ud. 1992.

Beals, A.C.F., A Guide to the Teaching of Environmental History in Schools. London,

University of London Press,1937.

Binning, AC., and Binning, D.R, Teaching in Environmental Studies in Schools, New

York. OK Graw Hill Book Co., 1952

Bloch, Margate Historian’s Craft. Manchester University Press, 1959.




Brown, C.F., The Environmental History Room. London, Historical Association, Pamphlet

No. 86, 1948,

Chaudhary, K.P., Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching Indian Environmental History. Delhi,

Atma Ram & Sons, 1965.

Chaudhary, K.P., Contents of Environmental History in Indian Schools. New Delhi,

Ministry of Education, Government of India, 1953.

Chaudhary, K.P., The Effective Teaching of Environmental Environmental Studies in

India. A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers, New Delhi, NCERT, 1975.

Chaudhary, K.P., Preparation of Lesson Notes. Calcutta, Bookland, 1955.

Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, New York, Dryden/Press 1954.

Dobbson, D.P., A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. London, Methuen,


Dymond, D., A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. London, McMilan, 1929.

Findlay, I.J., Environmental Studies and its Place’ in Education. London,University of

London Press, 1923.

Ghate, V.D., The Teaching of Environmental Studies, Delhi Oxford University Press,


Ghosh, K.D., Creative Teaching of Environmental Studies. Calcutta, Oxford University

Press, 1951.

Gustavson, Carlg, A Preface to Environmental Studies. New York, McGraw Hill, 1955.

Hill, C.P., Suggestions on the Teaching of Environmental Studies Towards World

Understanding. Paris, UNESCO, 1954.

Johnson, H. Teaching of Environmental Studies in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

New York, Macmillan, 1942.

Knowlton, D.C. Making Environmental Studies Graphic. New York, Scribner, 1925.

Kochhar, S.K., Teaching of Environmental Studies. New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt.

Ltd, 1989.

Ministry of Education, Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers, London, H.M. Stationery

Office, 1950.

Ministry of Education, Teaching of Environmental Studies.” London, H.M. Stationery

Office, Pamphlet No. 23, 1950.

National Institute of Education, Improving Instruction in Environmental Studies. Vol.

II, New Delhi, 1969.

NCERT, Teaching Environmental Studies in Secondary Schools. A Handbook for

Environmental Studies Teachers. New Delhi, NCERT, 1970.

Pandey, B.N. and Khosla, D.N., Student Teaching and Evaluation. New Delhi, NCERT,


Srivastava, H.S. and Udin, Qamar, Sample Unit Tests in Environmental Studies. New

Delhi, NCERT, 1982.



Vajrwswari, R.A., Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. New Delhi, Allied

Publishers, 1973.


Basham, A.L., The wonder that was India. London Sidgnick & Jack son, 1985.

Basham, A.L., The Indian Sub-continent in Historical Perspective. London School of

Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1954.

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Environmental Studies and Culture of Indian People. Vol. I,

Bombay, the Author.

Bose, M.L.A., Social and Cultural Environmental Studies of Ancient India. New Delhi,

Concept, 1980.

Burke, S.M., Akbar the Greatest Mughar. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1989.

Carr, I.R,What is Environmental Studies? London, Macmillan & Company, 1961.

Chandri, Bipin, etc., Freedom Struggle. New Delhi, N.B.T., 1972.

Colling Wood, R.G., The Ideal of Environmental Studies. London, Oxford University

Press, 1961

Colling Wood, R.G., The Ideal of Environmental Studies. London,Oxford University

Press, 1951.

Desai, A.R., Social Background of Indian Nationlism. Bombay, Popular Prakashan..

Dutt, R.C., Environmental Studies of Ancient and Modern India. New Delhi, Arlbant,

1990.Edwardes, Michael Environmental Studies of India. New Delhi, Asia Publishing, House,


Goal. P.L., The Imperial Guptas. Varanasi Vidyalaya Prakashan, 1974.

Ghos, H.R., Outline Environmental Studies of the Indian People. Delhi, Publications

Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1961.

Guide to Environmental Literature

Sari, Parsed, Short Environmental Studies of Muslim Rule in India. Allahbad, The

Indian Press Ltd., 1965.

Jain, Krishan Lat, Hindu Raki in the World. Delhi, Akshat Pub. 1989.

Kosambi,. D.D., An Introduction to Indian Environmental Studies. Bombay, Popular,


Kumar, Nirmala, The Stream of Indian Culture. Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,


Lal, B.B. and Gupta, (Eds.), Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, New Delhi” Books and

Books, 1989.

Law, D.A. (Eds.), Indian National Congress, New Delhi, Oxford University Press,1989.

Mahajan, Y.D., Ancient India. New Delhi, S. Chand & Co., 1989.

Majumdar, R.C. and Chopra, P.N., Main Currents of Indian Environmental Studies,

New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1979.




Majumdar, R.C. (Ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Bombay, Bharatiya

Vidya Bhavan, 1951.

Ministry of Information, India, Early History. New Delhi, Publications Division,

Government of India, 1988.

Fuller, H. and Trepan, R., Muir’s Historical Atlas—Medieval and Modem. London,

George Phillip and Sons Ltd., 1962.

Gilbert, Martin, Recent History Atlas 1870 to the Present Day. London, Weidenfold and

Nicholson, 1967.

Kina and Rio, Oxford Pictorial Atlas of Indian History. Madras, Oxford University

Press, 1973.

Patron, James. The American Heritage Pictorial Atlas of United States’ History. 1966.

Name of Producer Distributor

1. Producer: Almeryn Studio, Bombay, Distributor, Christian Association for Radio

and TV, Jablpur.

2. Producer, EBF, USA; Distributor Photo phone Pvt. Ltd.

3. Producer, EBSS, U.S.A.; Distributor. Photo phone Pvt. Ltd.

4. Producer, EBF, U.S.A.; Distributor, Photo phone pvt. Ltd.

5. Saki Vlhar Road, Bombay. Do Producer Common Ground, London: Distributor,

NEIE Sapporo, Bender, and Bombay.

6. Christopher Columbus.

7. Florence Nightingale.

8. Pasteur and Microbes.


1. British Council Raffia drag, New Delhi.

2. Children’s Film Society of India (CFSI).

3. Department of Instructional Education of each state-Films


Not merely a depository of books Environmental Studies library a resource centre

extensively used by all members. As a resource centre, it reaches every classroom, every

pupil and teacher and even the community. It helps the teacher to enrich curriculum and

facilitate personal and professional reading. It helps the students to gain meaningful

experiences in reading, thinking and forming independent judgments. It provides for

recreational and hobby interests to the community. It is also a storehouse of all types of

teaching aids including maps, charts, pictures, models, and manuscripts etc, which are

easily accessible to all concerned. It can lift classroom teaching to new heights and give new

depth to the learning experiences and the personal lives of all students.




1. Why does the library occupy an increasingly important place in the environmental science

program? What are the important functions of school library?

2. What should be the essential equipment for a school library? Mention the various books

resources for environmental studies instruction.

3. What use should be made of newspapers and magazines in a high school? How can a

environmental science teacher encourage his pupils to read them?

4. Why is it essential for every secondary school to have a whole-time librarian?

5. How can the teacher motivate his students to read library books?



Environmental Science :

Modern and Effective Teacher


“We are, however, convinced that the most important factor in the contemplated

educational reconstruction is the teacher-his personal qualities, his educational qualifications,

his professional training and the place that he occupies in the school as well as in the

community. The reputation of a school! And its influence on the life of the community

invariably depends on the kind of teachers working in it.

—Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)

Since ancient times, the teacher’s role in the teaching-learning process has been pivotal,

because the teacher is that person who influences the personality of the child at a large

extent. So, he himself should have some desirable qualities of physical, moral and executive.

The importance of the teacher has enhanced even after that, the role and importance of the

teacher has not declined because for the concerned subject that he teaches. So, up to a great

extent, the success or failure of commerce education depends on the Environment teacher.

—Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)

Stated-Of all the different tractors which influence the quality of education and its

contribution to national development, the quality, competence and characters of teachers

are undoubtedly the most significant, nothing recruits to the teaching profession, providing

them with the best possible preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in

which they can be fully effective. In view of the rapid expansion of educational facilities

expected during the next three plans, and specially in view of the urgent need to raise

standards to the highest level and to keep them continually improving, these problems have

now acquired unprecedented importance and urgency. The efficiency of the teaching profession

and its contribution to national development in general and educational importance in

particular will depend largely on its social status and morale. This will, in its turn, depend

upon two Inter-related factors: economic status and civic rights of teachers, and their

professional competence, characters and sense of dedication.”




1. Sir John Adam

“In case the teacher wants to be a man-maker then it is essential that he should possess

specific qualities of character, intellect, and personality.”

2. Dr. Radha Krishnan

“The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. He acts as the pivot for the

transmission of intellectual traditions and technical skill, from generation to generation he

helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.”

3. Binning and Binning

“Teaching is a progressive occupation and the teacher must ever be a student.”

4. Henry Adams

“A parent gives life, but a parent gives no more. A murderer takes life and his deeds

stop there. A teacher affects eternity, he can never tell where his influence stops.”

5. Prof. Humanyun Kabir

“Teachers are literally the arbiters of a nation’s destiny.” The above mentioned definitions

show that a teacher of commerce or other subject cannot do justice to his teaching profession

unless he is also efficient and experienced in inculcating the interest of subject in the



A.S. Barr (1958), mentioned the following characteristics of successful teacher (as

quoted by N.R. Saxena):

1. Good cultural background.

2. Substantial knowledge of the subject taught.

3. Substantial knowledge of professional practices and techniques.

4. Substantial knowledge of human development and learning.

5. Skill in the use of language-spoken and written.

6. Skill in human relationships.

7. Skill in research and educational problem solving.

8. Effective work habits.

9. Interest in professional growth.

10. Interest in school and community.

11. Interest in professional cooperation.

12. Interest in teaching.

13. Interest in the subject.

14. Interest in the pupils.

In America, Dr. F.L. Clapp (1913) suggested 10 qualities for being a good teacher such


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