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Chapter 10. Environmental Science: Modern Library
and discoveries etc. motivate pupils and stimulate reading for the sake of recreation and
3. Teaching the techniques of searching references
School library teaches the techniques of searching references by a proper use of the
variety of material, contained therein. A definite procedure is followed in purchasing,
organizing, storing, issuing and receiving books, periodicals, pamphlets and other materials
in the library room.
4. Providing opportunities to pupils to assume responsibilities
The pupils are taught to keep books with care, to serve on library communities, to act as
library assist’s’ and other odd jobs connected with library service. They learn to work in cooperation with others, to help other pupils in the selection of books and to assist them in the
solution of some of their’ problems. It gives them an insight into human relationships; to
understand economic efficiency and to take action as responsible citizens, when need arises.
Essential Equipment for the Library
In the library room shelves contain books of all types as well as albums of records,
films, filmstrips, school made slides and the like, arranged in a definite order, subject and
2. Tables and Chairs
The tables in a library should be of proper height and size and the chairs, strong and
comfortable to accommodate students and teachers to read and work in the library. The
librarian should be provided with a separate chair and desk to discharge his duties effectively.
3. Filling Cabinets for Catalogue Cards
Cabinets and drawers of a standard size accommodate catalogue cards easily.
4. Racks for Newspapers and Magazines
Daily newspapers as well as journals and magazines in different languages, on all
subjects are placed in different racks, especially got prepared for this purpose. These racks
are placed in different corners of the library room or in the reading room, attached to the
library of that teachers and pupils come and read them in their vacant periods. Lock
magazine covers are essential for journals and magazines. They preserve the magazines and
journals from soil and theft. Rods in special frames may be used for the daily newspapers.
5. Bulletin Boards
Bulletin boards are used for displaying book-jackets and other illustrative material to
advertise new arrivals in the library for those who are not regular visitors. A portion of the
space, allocated to the library is used for the bulletin boards.
6. Storage Room and Work Room
The library storage room stores books that need binding and equipment essential for
the audiovisual material. A workroom or an adequate closet space with a big table is used
for mending books, mounting pictures and preparing books for the shelves.
Important Library Resources for Environmental Studies.
(A) Book Resources
These are essential for meeting individual needs in reading for presenting different
points of view and for providing rich background of understanding of the people, the processes
and the places, so essential in Environmental Studies instruction. Book resources include
A number of good textbooks in history, geography, civics, economics and Environmental
Studies are available in the library. In view of the rapidly changing human life in all parts
of the world, new and revised editions of standard textbooks must be purchased for school
library for supplying most up-to-date knowledge to pupils and teachers.
2. Unit Booklets
In addition to textbooks, a number of unit booklets should also be available in the
Environmental Studies library. These booklets are on a variety of topics ranging from family
life and neighborhood to people of other land and places.
3. Reference Materials
These include reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, biographies,
bibliographies, directories and government bulletins etc.
4. Literary Materials
These include biographies, fiction, folklore, short stories, travel books, books of adventure
and hero-stories, romance, drama and poetry to provide reading for enjoyment and pleasure
to all concerned.
5. Source Books
These include diaries, minutes and proceedings of meetings, original accounts of travelers
and contemporary historians, manuscripts and timetable etc.
(B) Non-book Resources
These include current events periodicals and magazines about various aspects of life,
including art literature, music, dance etc. as these reflect social tends of the period.
Pamphlets are usually written about one specific topic and generally illustrated with
pictures, photographs and drawings. The Environmental Studies teacher should keep himself
in touch with currently published pamphlets, connected with his subject. As most of the
pamphlets are published by various government agencies and bureaus for specialized services
these are low priced. They provide important information about different walks of social,
economic and political life.
A local newspaper is a must for every school library as it highlights local events,
happenings, issues, personalities and developments, correlated with the immediate social
and physical environments of the pupils. One or two daily newspapers of all-India circulation
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE :
are also desirable for the library. A good newspaper is a mirror of the world events. Its study
is essential for all teachers and students of Environmental Studies to keep themselves
informed of all that is happening around them in the national and international fields.
4. Special Documents and Publications
Almost all the state governments publish brochures, yearly calendars or data books or
activities within the states. Important business, concerns, railways and tourist bureaus also
publish folders, containing rich information about various places, regions and towns. These
provide primary source materials.
5. Audio-visual or Non-reading Materials
Non-reading materials play a very important role in Environmental Studies program.
Many of these materials present information difficult to obtain through reading. They add
realism and furnish the class with a common background of experience.
The Librarian as a Resource Person
1. A trained librarian maintains school library as an important resource centre to
provide planned, expert service and guidance to teachers and students. At least one
full-time librarian, with a permanent assistant should be provided to every secondary
SCDOOI. They should be given a separate workroom and adequate office space to
2. Creating creates an atmosphere of friendliness, self-control and self-direction. A
whole-time trained librarian helps the students in acquiring good study habits and
in developing a love of good books. He works with teachers in making the library,
an important resource centre and a living agency. He makes available the needed
resource materials to Environmental Studies classes.
Collateral Reading and the Library
Collateral and supplementary reading form an essential part of Environmental Studies
programmed. The students collect information about various facts and movements after
consulting many books and periodicals, besides their text-books for solving problems, doing
assignments and participating in discussion etc. Library resource can furnish a rich supply
of books, periodicals and pamphlets for; collateral reading. Textbook material must be
supplemented by additional reference reading. The students should be encouraged to read
widely on topics of their own interest, both for the sake of information and entertainment.
They should be guided how to select, read and make use of the knowledge thus obtained to
form good reading habits along with proper study procedures. They should be encouraged
to take notes and to keep a regular record of their readings.
Suggestions for Motivating Pupils to Utilize Library
1. Reading List
The teacher for each pupil should fix a minimum amount of supplementary reading in
the beginning of the year. Lists of different types of books, both fiction and non-fiction,
especially connected with Environmental Studies instruction, should be prepared by the
teacher in consultation with the librarian. These should be provided to all pupils and they
may be asked to read the required number of books, out of which not more than half may
2. Marks for Supplemental Reading
The teacher should set apart some marks in his subject for supplementary reading.
They may be added to the total number of marks, the child receives in Environmental
Studies at the end of the session. This will definitely motivate the pupils to read.
3. Questions in Tests
At least one question out of supplementary readers with adequate choice for different
categories of pupils, should be given in the question paper, and it must be attempted
4. Programmed for Supplementary Reading
While teaching a certain unit about a particular period in Environmental Studies the
teacher should bring with him such books which contain interesting accounts of living
conditions in those days and read out a few paragraphs in the class from those books. He
should also give to his pupils the names of the books, the names of the authors and those
of their publishers and ask them to collect material there from, connected with the unit
under study. After a day or two he may ask a pupil who has gone through a certain book
and prepared reports and notes, to stand up and read out what he has collected, pertaining
to the lesson in hand.
Teacher’s Duty in Motivating Library Studies
The teacher should himself be a wide reader familiar with all the books published in
his field. He should see that all those books are available to students in the school library.
He should also be a regular reader of newspapers and periodicals. A good selection of
newspapers and magazines should be available in the school library. Pupils should be
encouraged to make use of this material. If the teacher has himself formed a habit of
reading a daily newspaper, at least one or two monthly magazines pertaining to his own
subject and making current affairs basis of the study of some important units in
Environmental Studies he can motivate the study of newspapers and magazines available
in the school library. He should keep a record of the reading of each pupil. A careful
checking of pupil’s reading may help him in evaluating books while preparing his lists of
library books for various grades, from year to year.
LIST OF BOOKS AND OTHER INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR HISTORY
A. Books on Teaching of Environmental History
Aggarwal, J.C., Teaching of Environmental History: A Practical Approach. New Delhi,
Vikas Publishing House. Pvt. Ud. 1992.
Beals, A.C.F., A Guide to the Teaching of Environmental History in Schools. London,
University of London Press,1937.
Binning, AC., and Binning, D.R, Teaching in Environmental Studies in Schools, New
York. OK Graw Hill Book Co., 1952
Bloch, Margate Historian’s Craft. Manchester University Press, 1959.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE :
Brown, C.F., The Environmental History Room. London, Historical Association, Pamphlet
No. 86, 1948,
Chaudhary, K.P., Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching Indian Environmental History. Delhi,
Atma Ram & Sons, 1965.
Chaudhary, K.P., Contents of Environmental History in Indian Schools. New Delhi,
Ministry of Education, Government of India, 1953.
Chaudhary, K.P., The Effective Teaching of Environmental Environmental Studies in
India. A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers, New Delhi, NCERT, 1975.
Chaudhary, K.P., Preparation of Lesson Notes. Calcutta, Bookland, 1955.
Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, New York, Dryden/Press 1954.
Dobbson, D.P., A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. London, Methuen,
Dymond, D., A Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. London, McMilan, 1929.
Findlay, I.J., Environmental Studies and its Place’ in Education. London,University of
London Press, 1923.
Ghate, V.D., The Teaching of Environmental Studies, Delhi Oxford University Press,
Ghosh, K.D., Creative Teaching of Environmental Studies. Calcutta, Oxford University
Gustavson, Carlg, A Preface to Environmental Studies. New York, McGraw Hill, 1955.
Hill, C.P., Suggestions on the Teaching of Environmental Studies Towards World
Understanding. Paris, UNESCO, 1954.
Johnson, H. Teaching of Environmental Studies in Elementary and Secondary Schools.
New York, Macmillan, 1942.
Knowlton, D.C. Making Environmental Studies Graphic. New York, Scribner, 1925.
Kochhar, S.K., Teaching of Environmental Studies. New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt.
Ministry of Education, Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers, London, H.M. Stationery
Ministry of Education, Teaching of Environmental Studies.” London, H.M. Stationery
Office, Pamphlet No. 23, 1950.
National Institute of Education, Improving Instruction in Environmental Studies. Vol.
II, New Delhi, 1969.
NCERT, Teaching Environmental Studies in Secondary Schools. A Handbook for
Environmental Studies Teachers. New Delhi, NCERT, 1970.
Pandey, B.N. and Khosla, D.N., Student Teaching and Evaluation. New Delhi, NCERT,
Srivastava, H.S. and Udin, Qamar, Sample Unit Tests in Environmental Studies. New
Delhi, NCERT, 1982.
Vajrwswari, R.A., Handbook for Environmental Studies Teachers. New Delhi, Allied
B. BOOKS ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Basham, A.L., The wonder that was India. London Sidgnick & Jack son, 1985.
Basham, A.L., The Indian Sub-continent in Historical Perspective. London School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1954.
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Environmental Studies and Culture of Indian People. Vol. I,
Bombay, the Author.
Bose, M.L.A., Social and Cultural Environmental Studies of Ancient India. New Delhi,
Burke, S.M., Akbar the Greatest Mughar. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1989.
Carr, I.R,What is Environmental Studies? London, Macmillan & Company, 1961.
Chandri, Bipin, etc., Freedom Struggle. New Delhi, N.B.T., 1972.
Colling Wood, R.G., The Ideal of Environmental Studies. London, Oxford University
Colling Wood, R.G., The Ideal of Environmental Studies. London,Oxford University
Desai, A.R., Social Background of Indian Nationlism. Bombay, Popular Prakashan..
Dutt, R.C., Environmental Studies of Ancient and Modern India. New Delhi, Arlbant,
1990.Edwardes, Michael Environmental Studies of India. New Delhi, Asia Publishing, House,
Goal. P.L., The Imperial Guptas. Varanasi Vidyalaya Prakashan, 1974.
Ghos, H.R., Outline Environmental Studies of the Indian People. Delhi, Publications
Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1961.
Guide to Environmental Literature
Sari, Parsed, Short Environmental Studies of Muslim Rule in India. Allahbad, The
Indian Press Ltd., 1965.
Jain, Krishan Lat, Hindu Raki in the World. Delhi, Akshat Pub. 1989.
Kosambi,. D.D., An Introduction to Indian Environmental Studies. Bombay, Popular,
Kumar, Nirmala, The Stream of Indian Culture. Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,
Lal, B.B. and Gupta, (Eds.), Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, New Delhi” Books and
Law, D.A. (Eds.), Indian National Congress, New Delhi, Oxford University Press,1989.
Mahajan, Y.D., Ancient India. New Delhi, S. Chand & Co., 1989.
Majumdar, R.C. and Chopra, P.N., Main Currents of Indian Environmental Studies,
New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1979.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE :
Majumdar, R.C. (Ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Bombay, Bharatiya
Vidya Bhavan, 1951.
Ministry of Information, India, Early History. New Delhi, Publications Division,
Government of India, 1988.
Fuller, H. and Trepan, R., Muir’s Historical Atlas—Medieval and Modem. London,
George Phillip and Sons Ltd., 1962.
Gilbert, Martin, Recent History Atlas 1870 to the Present Day. London, Weidenfold and
Kina and Rio, Oxford Pictorial Atlas of Indian History. Madras, Oxford University
Patron, James. The American Heritage Pictorial Atlas of United States’ History. 1966.
Name of Producer Distributor
1. Producer: Almeryn Studio, Bombay, Distributor, Christian Association for Radio
and TV, Jablpur.
2. Producer, EBF, USA; Distributor Photo phone Pvt. Ltd.
3. Producer, EBSS, U.S.A.; Distributor. Photo phone Pvt. Ltd.
4. Producer, EBF, U.S.A.; Distributor, Photo phone pvt. Ltd.
5. Saki Vlhar Road, Bombay. Do Producer Common Ground, London: Distributor,
NEIE Sapporo, Bender, and Bombay.
6. Christopher Columbus.
7. Florence Nightingale.
8. Pasteur and Microbes.
IMPORTANT SOURCES OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS
1. British Council Raffia drag, New Delhi.
2. Children’s Film Society of India (CFSI).
3. Department of Instructional Education of each state-Films
Not merely a depository of books Environmental Studies library a resource centre
extensively used by all members. As a resource centre, it reaches every classroom, every
pupil and teacher and even the community. It helps the teacher to enrich curriculum and
facilitate personal and professional reading. It helps the students to gain meaningful
experiences in reading, thinking and forming independent judgments. It provides for
recreational and hobby interests to the community. It is also a storehouse of all types of
teaching aids including maps, charts, pictures, models, and manuscripts etc, which are
easily accessible to all concerned. It can lift classroom teaching to new heights and give new
depth to the learning experiences and the personal lives of all students.
1. Why does the library occupy an increasingly important place in the environmental science
program? What are the important functions of school library?
2. What should be the essential equipment for a school library? Mention the various books
resources for environmental studies instruction.
3. What use should be made of newspapers and magazines in a high school? How can a
environmental science teacher encourage his pupils to read them?
4. Why is it essential for every secondary school to have a whole-time librarian?
5. How can the teacher motivate his students to read library books?
Environmental Science :
Modern and Effective Teacher
“We are, however, convinced that the most important factor in the contemplated
educational reconstruction is the teacher-his personal qualities, his educational qualifications,
his professional training and the place that he occupies in the school as well as in the
community. The reputation of a school! And its influence on the life of the community
invariably depends on the kind of teachers working in it.
—Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
Since ancient times, the teacher’s role in the teaching-learning process has been pivotal,
because the teacher is that person who influences the personality of the child at a large
extent. So, he himself should have some desirable qualities of physical, moral and executive.
The importance of the teacher has enhanced even after that, the role and importance of the
teacher has not declined because for the concerned subject that he teaches. So, up to a great
extent, the success or failure of commerce education depends on the Environment teacher.
—Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
Stated-Of all the different tractors which influence the quality of education and its
contribution to national development, the quality, competence and characters of teachers
are undoubtedly the most significant, nothing recruits to the teaching profession, providing
them with the best possible preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in
which they can be fully effective. In view of the rapid expansion of educational facilities
expected during the next three plans, and specially in view of the urgent need to raise
standards to the highest level and to keep them continually improving, these problems have
now acquired unprecedented importance and urgency. The efficiency of the teaching profession
and its contribution to national development in general and educational importance in
particular will depend largely on its social status and morale. This will, in its turn, depend
upon two Inter-related factors: economic status and civic rights of teachers, and their
professional competence, characters and sense of dedication.”
1. Sir John Adam
“In case the teacher wants to be a man-maker then it is essential that he should possess
specific qualities of character, intellect, and personality.”
2. Dr. Radha Krishnan
“The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. He acts as the pivot for the
transmission of intellectual traditions and technical skill, from generation to generation he
helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.”
3. Binning and Binning
“Teaching is a progressive occupation and the teacher must ever be a student.”
4. Henry Adams
“A parent gives life, but a parent gives no more. A murderer takes life and his deeds
stop there. A teacher affects eternity, he can never tell where his influence stops.”
5. Prof. Humanyun Kabir
“Teachers are literally the arbiters of a nation’s destiny.” The above mentioned definitions
show that a teacher of commerce or other subject cannot do justice to his teaching profession
unless he is also efficient and experienced in inculcating the interest of subject in the
QUALITIES OF A ENVIRONMENT TEACHER
A.S. Barr (1958), mentioned the following characteristics of successful teacher (as
quoted by N.R. Saxena):
1. Good cultural background.
2. Substantial knowledge of the subject taught.
3. Substantial knowledge of professional practices and techniques.
4. Substantial knowledge of human development and learning.
5. Skill in the use of language-spoken and written.
6. Skill in human relationships.
7. Skill in research and educational problem solving.
8. Effective work habits.
9. Interest in professional growth.
10. Interest in school and community.
11. Interest in professional cooperation.
12. Interest in teaching.
13. Interest in the subject.
14. Interest in the pupils.
In America, Dr. F.L. Clapp (1913) suggested 10 qualities for being a good teacher such