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4 Educators, Lawyers and Individuals

4 Educators, Lawyers and Individuals

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EDUCATORS, LAWYERS AND INDIVIDUALS



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CODE OF CONDUCT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY

RESOLUTION 34/169 (1979)

Article 1

Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfil the duty imposed upon them by law, by serving

the community and by protecting all persons against illegal acts, consistent with the high

degree of responsibility required by their profession.

Article 2

In the performance of their duty, law enforcement officials shall respect and protect human

dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons.



Obviously, the human rights alluded to include provisions of the basic international (and indeed

regional) instruments. Inevitably, it is necessary for all law enforcement officials to be aware of the provisions and accordingly their impact and effect on the scope of their work. Elements of human rights

training thus have to be incorporated inter alia into police training. Some of the issues concerning the

treatment of detainees are discussed in more detail in Chapter 11. Note that such a requirement has a

precedent: the Geneva Conventions on the conduct of hostilities and protection of injured armed forces

and the civilian population must be taught to all members of armed forces within each and every State.

For a State to discharge its positive obligation under international human rights law, all officials

must be aware of the relevant international standards.

Question



Consider mechanisms by which States can discharge this positive obligation and ensure the practice of law enforcement officials

conforms to the international standard.

Similarly, lawyers require knowledge of human rights and the mechanisms for their enforcement.

Through lawyers pushing the boundaries of international human rights, the parameters of protection will become clear. Consider the progress in the United Kingdom: England has a common law

tradition with a strong civil liberties flavour, yet since the introduction of the Human Rights Act

1998 (extracted above) lawyers have embraced human rights and fundamental freedoms with

haste, resulting in a comprehensive jurisprudence in but a few years. More generally, if lawyers

are unaware of the opportunities available at the international and regional levels to enforce and

implement human rights, progress towards securing and realising rights will be slow.



8.4.1 Education

Education is a right recognised by international law. It appears in several treaties:

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION 1948, Article 26

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and

fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional

education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible

to all on the basis of merit.

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD 1989

Article 28

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this

right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:



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(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general

and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take

appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial

assistance in case of need;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate

means;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all

children;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out

rates.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is

administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity and in conformity with the

present Convention.

3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters

relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance

and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge

and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of

developing countries.



Obviously these provisions impose obligations on the State. However, the right to education also

imposes obligations as to the nature of the education provided. ‘Education involves much more

than the transmission of knowledge and skills’, as the then Special Rapporteur commented in

a report on her Mission to the United States of America (UN Doc. E/CN.4/2002/60/Add.1,

para 76). Note therefore the international espoused purpose of education.

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION 1948, Article 26(2)

Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the

strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall

further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

VIENNA DECLARATION OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS 1993, para. 33

The World Conference on Human Rights reaffirms that States are duty-bound, as stipulated

in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic,

Social and Cultural Rights and in other international human rights instruments, to ensure

that education is aimed at strengthening the respect of human rights and fundamental

freedoms. The World Conference on Human Rights emphasizes the importance of

incorporating the subject of human rights education programmes and calls upon States

to do so. Education should promote understanding, tolerance, peace and friendly relations

between the nations and all racial or religious groups and encourage the development of

United Nations activities in pursuance of these objectives. Therefore, education on

human rights and the dissemination of proper information, both theoretical and practical,

play an important role in the promotion and respect of human rights with regard to all

individuals without distinction of any kind such as race, sex, language or religion, and

this should be integrated in the education policies at the national as well as international

levels. The World Conference on Human Rights notes that resource constraints and

institutional inadequacies may impede the immediate realization of these objectives.



EDUCATORS, LAWYERS AND INDIVIDUALS



Note in particular the link to international peace and security. Arguably, everyone has a duty

to respect and preserve international peace and security. By making this link, the United Nations

avoids complicated issues over jurisdictional competence (or at least attempts to). Comprehensive

information on the obligation to provide education and on the nature of education permeates many

international documents. Key provisions are found in the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD 1989

Article 29

1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:

(a)



The development of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to

their fullest potential;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the

principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) The development of respect for the child’s parents, his or her own cultural identity, language

and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country

from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of

understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples,

ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the

liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always

to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the

requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum

standards as may be laid down by the State.



Question



To what extent do resource implications (Vienna Declaration) limit the nature of education as opposed to the basic provision

of education?

Arguably education holds the key to the future of the human rights movement which has characterised international development in the last 50 years. Strong parallels can be drawn between the

right to education and the development of respect for human dignity; the involvement of human

rights in the equation strengthens this connection.

Having compared and contrasted the various provisions on education, Professor Manfred

Nowak extracts four principal goals of education in accordance with international human rights.

Nowak, M, ‘The Right to Education’ in Eide, A, Krause, K, and Rosas, A (eds), Economic,

Social and Cultural Rights, 2nd edn, 2001, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, pp 245–71 at p 251

Notwithstanding all the controversies about the universality of human rights preceding the

Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, one may conclude that there exists today at least a

fairly broad universal consensus on the major aims and objectives of the right to education: a)

to enable a human being freely to develop his or her personality and dignity; b) to enable a

human being to actively participate in a free society in the spirit of mutual tolerance and respect

for other civilisations, cultures and religions; c) to develop respect for one’s parents, the

national values of one’s country and for the natural environment; and d) to develop respect for

human rights, fundamental freedoms and the maintenance of peace.



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Education is not just directed at children. Children obviously benefit from compulsory and free

primary education and an evolving right to free education at subsequent levels. (Note the potential

problem of university tuition fees.) Education extends to tertiary level (university) and beyond into

community education and lifelong learning. As discussion enters the realm of adult learning

(including universities in this), there is clearly an element of individual responsibility. It is not

simply the State discharging an obligation, but rather an individual seeking educational provision.

In this respect human rights education is most successful: teaching those who want to learn is

easier than teaching those obliged to learn. However, this concept also places an onus on universities and further education centres to ensure that appropriate quality of education is provided.

UNESCO WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST

CENTURY 1998

Article 1 – Mission to Educate, to Train and to Undertake Research

We affirm that the core missions and values of higher education, in particular the mission to

contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole, should be

preserved, reinforced and further expanded, namely, to:

(a)



educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all

sectors of human activity, by offering relevant qualifications, including professional

training, which combine high-level knowledge and skills, using courses and content

continually tailored to the present and future needs of society;

(b) provide opportunities (espace ouvert) for higher learning and for learning throughout life,

giving to learners an optimal range of choice and a flexibility of entry and exit points within

the system, as well as an opportunity for individual development and social mobility in

order to educate for citizenship and for active participation in society, with a worldwide

vision, for endogenous capacity-building, and for the consolidation of human rights,

sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice;

(c) advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide, as part of its

service to the community, relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and

economic development, promoting and developing scientific and technological research

as well as research in the social sciences, the humanities and the creative arts;

(d) help understand, interpret, preserve, enhance, promote and disseminate national

and regional, international and historic cultures, in a context of cultural pluralism and

diversity;

(e) help protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which

form the basis of democratic citizenship and by providing critical and detached perspectives to assist in the discussion of strategic options and the reinforcement of humanistic

perspectives;

(f) contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including

through the training of teachers.



Similarly, within Europe, the European Union and Council of Europe promulgate education

grounded in cross-cultural democratic values. European bodies are particularly concerned with

developing plurilingual skills and historical and cultural understanding. The work of the OSCE also

impinges on this (as part of its Human Dimension). European integration and the harmonious

coexistence of many small States is aided by developing appropriate education strategies underpinned by mutual tolerance and enhanced understanding of interrelated histories and cultural

differences (Recommendation Rec (2000) 24 of the Committee of Ministers on the Development

of European Studies for Democratic Citizenship).



EDUCATORS, LAWYERS AND INDIVIDUALS



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The United Nations concluded its Decade for Human Rights Education in December 2004 and

launched a World Programme for Human Rights Education. The rationale underpinning this

initiative was partly the need to develop awareness of human rights. Generating an awareness of

human rights clearly empowers individuals to call their State to account for violations and effects,

over time, a cultural shift towards promotion and respect of norms of international human rights

law. 2009 was the International Year of Human Rights Learning. As noted above, the UN Declaration

on Human Rights Education and Training 2011 adds further weight to these initiatives.

Perhaps that is the final frontier for human rights – creating an environment in which all

human beings can and do learn of their ‘birthright’ of human rights. With knowledge comes

empowerment (as the Millennium Declaration and multiple United Nations declarations enforce).

With empowerment comes the possibility of grass-roots activism and non-governmental organisations influencing State authorities. Thereafter, consumerism ethics can influence global business

and corporations themselves may elect to acknowledge, at least in part, basic human rights

standards. All of the foregoing should help to affect a cultural shift towards respect for human

rights. There are many problems with individuals passively waiting for the State to conform to

international and regional norms. There is a limit to the power of international and regional organisations as regards enforcement of international human rights (see Chapters 5, 6 and 9). Accordingly,

it is perhaps reasonable to extend to non-State actors (individuals, non-governmental organisations

and multinational corporations) the opportunity to embrace, claim and develop international

human rights. They can best exploit the opportunities presented by National Institutions (see

Chapter 7), and can bring a State to account nationally and, if applicable (see Chapters 5 and 6)

internationally. If the international and regional systems along with States cannot be relied on to

secure human rights, alternative avenues of reinforcing the message of human rights must be

employed.



Further Reading

Alfredsson, G., ‘The Right to Human Rights Education’ in Eide, A., Krause, K., and Rosas, A. (eds),

Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 2nd edn, 2001, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 273–88.

Alston, P. (ed.), Non-State Actors and Human Rights, 2005, Oxford: OUP.

Arajarvi, P., ‘Article 26’ in Alfredsson, G., and Eide, A. (eds), The Universal Declaration of Human

Rights, a common standard of achievement, 1999, The Hague: Kluwer, pp. 551–74.

Backer, L., ‘Human Rights and Legal Education in the Western Hemisphere: Legal Parochialism

and Hollow Universalism’ (2002) 21 Penn State International Law Review 115.

Baxi, U., ‘Human Rights Education: the Promise of the Third Millennium’ in Andreopoulos, G., and

Claude, R. (eds), Human Rights Education for the Twenty-first Century, 1997, Philadelphia:

University of Pennsylvania Press.

Baxi, U., ‘Human Rights Education’ in Smith, RKM, and van den Anker, C (eds), The Essentials of

Human Rights, 2005, London: Hodder Arnold, pp 159–62.

Blowfield, M. and Murray, A., Corporate Responsibility, 2nd edn, 2011, Oxford: OUP.

Breed, L., ‘Regulating our 21st-Century Ambassadors: A New Approach to Liability for Human

Rights Violations Abroad’ (2002) 42 Virginia Journal of International Law 1005.

Breen, C., ‘The role of NGOs in the formulation of and compliance with the Optional Protocol to

the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict’

(2003) 25.2 Human Rights Quarterly 453.

Carey, H., and Richmond, O., Mitigating Conflict: the role of NGOs, 2003, London: Frank Cass.

Crane, A., et al (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, 2008, Oxford: OUP.

Crick, B., et al. Education for citizenship and the teaching of democracy in schools, Final report of

the Advisory Group on Citizenship, 1998, London: QCA.

Joseph, S., ‘Pharmaceutical Corporations and Access to Drugs: the “Fourth Wave” of Corporate

Human Rights Scrutiny’ (2003) 25.2 Human Rights Quarterly 425.



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Josselin, D., and Wallace, W. (eds), Non-State Actors in World Politics, 2001, London: Palgrave.

Kuper, A., Global Responsibilities: Who Must Deliver on Human Rights, 2005, London: Taylor and

Francis.

Lillich, R., ‘The Teaching of International Human Rights Law in US Law Schools’ (1983) 77

American Journal of International Law 855.

Macleod, S., and Parkinson, J. (eds), Global Governance and the Quest for Justice: Corporations,

Governance and Globalisation, 2005, Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Monshipouri, M., Welch, C., and Kennedy, E., ‘Multinational Corporations and the Ethics of Global

Responsibility: problems and possibilities’ (2003) 25.4 Human Rights Quarterly 965.

Muntarbhorn, V., ‘Education for Human Rights’ in Symonides, J. (ed.), Human Rights: New

Dimensions and Challenges, 1998, Aldershot: Ashgate/Dartmouth/ UNESCO, pp. 281–301.

Murray, R., and Wheatley, S., ‘Groups and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’

(2003) 25.1 Human Rights Quarterly 213.

Nowak, M., ‘The Right to Education’ in Eide, A., Krause, K., and Rosas, A. (eds), Economic, Social

and Cultural Rights, 2nd edn, 2001, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 245–71.

Nowak, M., ‘Prioritising Human Rights Education and Training’ (2004) 3 European Human Rights

Law Review 235.

Pasternak, S., ‘The International Legal Obligation to Teach Worldism in US Classrooms’ (1999) 10

Indiana International and Comparative Law Review 51.

Poullaos, I., ‘The Nature of the Beast: Using the Alien Tort Claims Act to Combat International

Human Rights Violations’ (2002) 80 Washington University Law Quarterly 327.

Steiner, H., ‘The University’s Critical Role in the Human Rights Movement’ (2002) 15 Harvard

Human Rights Journal 317.

Stone, A., ‘Human Rights Education and Public Policy in the United States: Mapping the Road

Ahead’ (2002) 24 Human Rights Quarterly 537.

Tomasevski, K., Human rights in education as prerequisite for human rights education, 2001, Right to

Education Primers 4, Lund: Raoul Wallenberg Institute.

Tomasevski, K., Report on the right to education by the Special Rapporteur (2004) UN Doc. E/

CN.4/2004/45.

UNESCO, World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-first Century 1998: Vision and Action,

1998, Paris: UNESCO.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights Defenders:

Protecting the Right to Defend Human Rights, Fact Sheet No. 29, 2004, Geneva: OHCHR.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Working with the United

Nations Human Rights Programme: A Handbook for Civil Society, 2008, Geneva: OHCHR.

United Nations, Plan of Action for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education 1995–2004:

Human rights education – lessons for life (1996), UN. Doc. A/51/506/Add.1, Appendix, 12

December 1996.

United Nations, Revised draft plan of action for the first phase (2005–2007) of the World Programme

for Human Rights Education, UN Doc. A/59/525/Rev.1, 2 March 2005.

United Nations, Draft plan of action for the second phase (2010–2014) of the World Programme for

Human Rights Education, UN Doc. A/ HRC/15/28, 27 July 2010.

Van Tuijl, P, ‘NGOs and human rights: sources of justice and democracy’ (1999) 52(2) Journal of

International Affairs 493.

Waldron, F. and Ruane, B. (eds), Human Rights Education – reflections on theory and practice, 2010,

Dublin: Liffey Press.

Weiss, T., and Gordenker, L. (eds) NGOs, the UN and Global Governance, 1996, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.



Websites

Information on Non-Governmental Organisations appears in Chapter 1.

www.unglobalcompact.org: The United Nations’ Global Compact.

www.unhchr.ch/business.htm: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights: Business and

Human Rights: A Progress Report.



WEBSITES



www.ilo.org: The International Labour Organisation.

www.oecd.org: The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

www.amnesty.org.uk/business: Amnesty International UK Business Group.

www.right-to-education.org: the website established by the former United Nations Rapporteur on

education, Katarina Tomasevski, and now maintained by the current rapporteur.

www.unesco.org: UNESCO’s portal with various instruments on education.

www.europa.eu.int: The European Union’s portal with links to its social policy and law provisions.



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Chapter 9



Reforming the International and Regional

Human Rights Systems



Chapter Contents

9.1



The Bigger Picture – Human Rights

and United Nations Reform



302



The Human Rights Council – Review

Process



332



Towards Universal Ratification of Key

Instruments



334



9.4



Dissemination and Technology



334



9.5



Regional Reforms



337



9.2

9.3



REFORMING THE INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS SYSTEMS



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Modern international human rights law is a comparatively young system. As States become more

accustomed to the idea of external organisations being interested in how people are treated within

a State, and as notions of national sovereignty change, so too international human rights law

evolves. International human rights law has matured into a distinct branch of international law and

politics, as well as a central aspect of theoretical disciplines. Nevertheless, the system is constantly

changing, and needs to change. As Navanethem Pillay noted in 2011, ‘[t]here is no denying that

treaty bodies’ own success over the past four decades is now straining the system at its seams’

(Launch of the Poznan Statement, Human Rights Council 16th Session, 7 March 2011).

Current issues on reforming the human rights system include:









UN reforms and evaluating the Human Rights Council.

Increasing the efficiency of treaty monitoring bodies.

Key challenges remaining in securing universal human rights.



Many issues preventing the full realisation of human rights have been identified in the preceding

chapters. Problems prevail at the regional as well as international levels. Inevitably, the very nature

of international law exercises a restraint on developing a system of effectively implemented and

protected human rights. Considerable advancements have been made over the last 60 years: the

evolution of a permanent court within the structure of the Council of Europe has exerted a strong

influence over the development of human rights not only in Europe, but also in the other regional

systems; the expansion in ratified treaties under the United Nations system has led to increased

human rights protection (at least on paper); and the continual rise in popular awareness of human

rights has contributed towards the development of a human rights global culture. However, realising international human rights remains beset by problems as recognised by the Vienna World

Conference some 20 years ago.

VIENNA PROGRAMME OF ACTION 1993

17. The World Conference on Human Rights recognises the necessity for a continuing adaptation

of the United Nations human rights machinery to the current and future needs in the promotion

and protection of human rights, as reflected in the present Declaration and within the framework of a balanced and sustainable development for all people. In particular, the United Nations

human rights organs should improve their coordination, efficiency and effectiveness.



The need to improve the coordination, effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations human

rights organs remains an issue high on the international agenda. The importance of ensuring an

effective functioning human rights system is self-evident.

Bayefsky, A, The UN Human Rights Treaty System: Universality at the Crossroads

If rights are not followed by remedies, and standards have little to do with reality, then the rule

of law is at risk. The extent of the shortfalls in the implementation of the treaties now threatens

the integrity of the international legal regime. Ratification for a very large number of participants in the treaty system has become an end in itself. The large numbers of ratifications

reflect the widely held view by states parties that there are not serious consequences associated with ratification. The price of joining has generally been appearing relatively infrequently,

before a small number of individuals, in comparatively remote sites in Geneva and New York,

for a brief period of time taken up by frequent monologues by state representatives or

committee members. Many states parties ratified precisely because the international scheme

was evidently dysfunctional and the lack of democratic institutions at home made the likelihood

of national consequences comfortably remote.



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Considerable impetus was given to calls for reform by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges

and Changes whose report the then Secretary-General transmitted to the General Assembly during

its 59th session in December 2004. Kofi Annan opined that the report ‘offers the United Nations a

unique opportunity to refashion and renew our institutions’. Human rights issues formed but a

tiny fraction of the report. However, it was followed by the then Secretary-General’s own report In

larger freedom, towards development, security and human rights for all, UN Doc. A/59/2005. That report was

directed towards the meeting of the heads of State in September 2005 which reviewed progress

towards the Millennium Declaration. Many of the matters raised were on the agenda of the General

Assembly at its December 2005 meeting. The reform process was then given further impetus with

the High Commissioner’s report on Strengthening the United Nations human rights body treaty system (UN Doc

A/66/860, June 2012). Many of the issues raised have been addressed in previous reports and

reviews.

This chapter will focus on two distinct issues: first, overall reform of the United Nations and

its human rights monitoring system and second, the processes currently underway to improve the

treaty monitoring bodies (conventional mechanisms) operating under the auspices of the United

Nations. Progress towards the latter is ongoing, the former is more extensive and many of those

aspects proposed will address the issues raised elsewhere. Finally, some additional comments will

be made as to the current and pending regional reforms.



9.1 The Bigger Picture – Human Rights and United

Nations Reform

The former Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, was long a proponent of change within the United

Nations Organisation, a role enthusiastically embraced by his successor, Ban Ki-Moon. A number of

initiatives aimed at reforming the organisation and increasing its efficiency have resulted. These are

ongoing. To an extent, the existing system has come under increasing pressure and opened itself to

criticism as the UN membership expanded and more States ratified human rights treaties. This

expansion has been contemporaneous to the maturation of the UN system with a greater understanding on the responsibilities incumbent on States emerging through the work of treaty bodies

and special procedures. Finally high profile incidences of systematic violations of human rights

and/or instances of abuse of State powers have focused attention on the failings of the current

system as a framework to protect individuals against the might of certain States. The collective

nature of responsibility to all people is evident from the Millennium Declaration.

UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DECLARATION 2000

1. We, heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New

York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the

Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and

just world.

2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual

societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality

and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the world’s people,

especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future

belongs.

3. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United

Nations, which have proved timeless and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to

inspire have increased, as nations and peoples have become increasingly interconnected and

interdependent.



THE BIGGER PICTURE – HUMAN RIGHTS AND UNITED NATIONS REFORM



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4. We are determined to establish a just and lasting peace all over the world in accordance

with the purposes and principles of the Charter. We rededicate ourselves to support all efforts

to uphold the sovereign equality of all States, respect for their territorial integrity and political

independence, resolution of disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles

of justice and international law, the right to self-determination of peoples which remain under

colonial domination and foreign occupation, non-interference in the internal affairs of States,

respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the equal rights of all without

distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.

5. We believe that the central challenge we face today is to ensure that globalization

becomes a positive force for all the world’s people. For while globalization offers great opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly shared, while its costs are unevenly distributed. We recognize that developing countries and countries with economies in transition face

special difficulties in responding to this central challenge. Thus, only through broad and

sustained efforts to create a shared future, based upon our common humanity in all its diversity, can globalization be made fully inclusive and equitable. These efforts must include policies

and measures, at the global level, which correspond to the needs of developing countries and

economies in transition and are formulated and implemented with their effective participation.



The prevalence of conflict, the impact of the US ‘War on Terror’ in Iraq, Afghanistan and indeed

within the US itself, the so-called ‘Arab Spring’, unprecedented (in recent times) natural

disasters and a political climate which appears to recognise that the world is changing made

an appropriate response necessary. These combined to prompt the work of the former

Secretary-General in his report In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all, UN Doc.

A/59/2005.

In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all, UN Doc.

A/59/2005

154. Clearly our Organization, as an organization, was built for a different era. Equally clearly,

not all our current practices are adapted to the needs of today. That is why Heads of State and

Government, in the Millennium Declaration, recognized the need to strengthen the United

Nations to make it a more effective instrument for pursuing their priorities.

155. Indeed, ever since I took office as Secretary-General in 1997, one of my main priorities

has been to reform the internal structures and culture of the United Nations to make the

Organization more useful to its Member States and to the world’s peoples. And much has been

achieved. Today, the Organization’s structures are more streamlined, its working methods

more effective and its various programmes better coordinated, and it has developed working

partnerships in many areas with civil society and the private sector. In the economic and social

spheres, the Millennium Development Goals now serve as a common policy framework for the

entire United Nations system, and indeed for the broader international development community. United Nations peacekeeping missions today are much better designed than they used to

be, and have a more integrated understanding of the many different tasks involved in preventing

a recurrence of fighting and laying the foundations of lasting peace. And we have built strategic

partnerships with a wide range of non-State actors who have an important contribution to

make to global security, prosperity and freedom.

156. But many more changes are needed. As things stand now, different governance

structures for the many parts of the system, overlapping mandates and mandates that reflect

earlier rather than current priorities all combine to hobble our effectiveness. It is essential to

give managers real authority so that they can fully align the system’s activities with the



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