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4 To Fill in the Justice Gap: The Need for Institutional Solutions

4 To Fill in the Justice Gap: The Need for Institutional Solutions

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang



Federal/Provincial/Territorial Heads of Prosecutions Subcommittee on the Prevention of

Wrongful Convictions, The Path to Justice: Preventing Wrongful Convictions. Available at:


First death penalty prisoner executed in Beijing following restoration of SPC review [Beijing

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For Misjudged case of Zhao Zuohai Being Solved, the HPC Setting up 9 May as ‘A Warning

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Hubei Man Convicted of Wife’s Murder Ten Years Ago Exonerated, Congressional-Executive

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III Financials, in About Us, Innocence Project. Available at: http://www.innocenceproject.org/


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In Retrial of the LENG Guoquan Case, Original Sentences Being Changed to Life Imprisonment

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Innocent man freed after 12 years in prison, Shanghai Daily (27 April 2013). Available at: http://


Interview with [Lawyer] Tian Wenchang, Mixed feelings about the CPL Revision draft [Tian

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Judicial reform: Court orders, The ECONOMIST (7 December 2013). Available at: http://


Latest judicial reform to improve judicial independence: chief justice, Xinhua Net [xinhua wang] (12

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Liaoning Provincial Police’s 2006 Provisions on Examination and Appraisal of LawEnforcement Quality [Liaoning sheng gong’an jiguan zhifa zhiliang kaohe pingyi guiding],

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Misjudged case of Zhao Zuohai Being Solved, the HPC Setting up 9 May as ‘A Warning Day’

[zhi zhao zuohai mengyuan suishi an gaopo sheng fayuan jiang wuyue jiuri shewei jingshi

ri], Dahe Net [dehe wang] (3 June 2010). Available at: http://www.dahe.cn/xwzx/dhfd/jrfd/


New miscarriage of justice highlights the need for legal reforms, say experts, People’s Daily

Online (12 May 2010). Available at: http://en.people.cn/90001/90776/90882/6983588.html

Nie Shubin—wrongly executed, Amnesty International, AI (23 March 2008). Available at: http://


Official Calls for Protection of Suspects’ Rights, China Daily [zhongguo ribao] (20 November

2006). Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-11/20/content_737426.htm

Official pledges reforms in China’s petition system, China Daily (28 November 2013). Available

at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-11/28/content_17138758.htm

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CHN/CO/4, (12 December 2008), para.11. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cat/docs/CAT.C.CHN.CO.4.pdf

Ohio Innocence Project, University of Cincinnati College of Law. Available at: http://teachlaw.


Other Projects Around the World, Innocence Project. Available at: http://www.innocenceproject.


Our Work. Available at: http://www.innocenceproject.org/

Police officers fired for using lunatic as scapegoat, People’s Daily Online (18 May 2010).

Available at: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90782/90872/6988604.html

Public Security Bureau Compensates SHE Xianglin for Wrongful Imprisonment, CongressionalExecutive Commission on China (28 October 2005). Available at: www.cecc.gov/


Reform Through the Courts, Innocence Project. Available at: http://www.innocenceproject.org/


Retrial of 1995 robbery, theft cases opens in E China, Xinhua Net [xinhua wang] (26 June 2013).

Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-06/26/c_132486098.htm

Revealing the Crucial Details of NIAN Bin Withdrawing His Confession in the Case: There Is

A Doubtful Edition Point in the Video of Interrogations [jiemi nianbin an fan’an guanjian

xijie shenxun shipin cun keyi jianjie dian], IFENG [fenghuang wang] (13 September 2014).

Available at: http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140913/41971755_0.shtml

Review: What do we expect from ‘She Xianglin Murder Case’ [pinglun; she xianglin shaqi an

rang women qidai shenme], E North [beifang wang] (13 May 2015). Available at: http://


Revising the Criminal Procedure Law: What’s the Meaning of No Self-criminalization [xingsu

fa xiugai: bude qiangpo zizheng youhe yiyi], Think’ Again [fei chang shi] Issue No. 315 (19

July 2012). Available at: http://news.cntv.cn/special/thinkagain/selfincrimination/

Righting Wrongful Convictions in China. Global Times (29 December 2014). Available at: http://


Senior judge suspended after wrongful conviction, China Daily [zhongguo ribao] (19 May 2010).

Available at: www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-05/19/content_9868838.htm

SHE Xianglin Being Detained 3,995 Days, Who Were Estimated to Obtain RMB 220,000 as

State Compensation [she xianglin bei jiya sanjiu jiuwu tian yuji kehuo ershi erwan guojia

peichang], China Net [zhonghua wang] (8 April 2005). Available at: http://news.china.com/


SHE Xianglin who were detained for 3,995 days are expected to obtain state compensation

for RMB 220,000 [she xianlin bei jiya sanjiu jiuwu tian yuji kehuo ershi erwang guojia

peichang], China [zhonghua wang] (8 April 2005). Available at: http://news.china.com/zh_


Six Push Hands of the Misjudged Case of ZHAO Zuohai [Zhao Zuohai An De Liuda Tuishou],

Tengxun Review [Tengxun Pinglun] (11 May 2011). Available at: http://view.news.qq.com/




State Compensation Standards for Mental Injury Solatium Being Promulgated with the

Minimum of No Less than RMB 1,000 [guojia peichang jingshen sunhai fuweijin biaozhun

chutai zuidi bu shaoyu yiqian], China Worker Net [zhonggong wang] (13 October 2014).


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Support the Exonerated, Innocence Project. Available at: http://www.innocenceproject.org/


Suspects in the Fuqing explosion case were acquitted and nine cameras were set downstairs to

monitor them and their family [Fujian baozha an xianfan beipan wuzui jia louxia you jiuge

jiankong jingtou], Nandu Weekly [dandu zhoukan] (20 May 2013). Available at: http://news.


Swift Handling and Severe Punishment: The Paradox of Strike Hard in the Year of 1983 [congzhong congkuai yijiu basan NIAN yanda de beilun], South Daily [nanfang dushi bao]

(6 November 2008). Available at: http://www.tianshui.com.cn/news/whzx_news/2008


Ten Typical Events in 2014 during China’s Implementing the Rule of Law [erling yisi nian zhongguo fazhi shishi shida dianxing shijian], CSU (2 March 2015). Available at: http://law.csu.edu.


The Beginning and Ends of the Wrongful Conviction in the DU Peiwu Case [du peiwu cuo’an de

qianqian houhou], People [renmin wang] (3 November 2000). Available at: http://view.news.


The Beijing Police Annual Report Was Released to Show that the Detection Rate of Murder

Cases Rose up to 99.16% [Beijing jingfang niandu gongzuo baogao chulu ming’an po’an

lvda baifen zhi jiushi jiudian yiliu], China Net [zhongguo wang] (24 January 2014).

Available at: http://www.china.com.cn/news/2014-01/24/content_31289621.htm

The Case of Retrying Huugjilt in Inner Mongolia [neimeng gu hufe jiletu zaishen an], China

Court Net [zhongguo fayuan wang] (6 January 2015). Available at: http://www.chinacourt.


The CCP Central Committee’s Decision on Some Major Issues Concerning the Construction

of a Harmonious Socialist Society ([zhonggong zhongyang guanyu goujian shehui zhuyi

hexie shehui ruogan zhongda wenti de jueding]), People [renmin wang] (18 October 2006).

Available at: http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64093/64094/4932424.html

The CCP’s Central Political-Legal Committee Issued the First Guideline on Preventing Unjust

Cases [zhongyang zhengfawei chutai shouge fang yuanjia cuoan zhidao yijian], Xinhua

Net [xinhua wang] (13 August 2013). Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/201308/13/c_116929042.htm

The Central Committee of the Political Legal Committee Issuing the First Guideline of

Preventing Wrongful Convictions [zhongyang zhengfa wei chutai shouge fang yuanjia

cuo’an zhidao yijian], Legal Daily [fazhi ribao] (6 September 2013). Available at: http://


The Chinese Communist Party Central Committee’s Decision on Some Major Issues in

Comprehensively Promoting the Rule of Law [zhonggong zhongyang guanyu quanmian tuijin yifa zhiguo ruogan zhongda wenti de jueding], Xinhua Net [Xinhua wang] (30 October

2014). Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2014-10/30/c_127159908_4.htm

The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (Full text after amendment on March 14,

2004), National People’s Congress [quanguo renmin daibiao dahui] (15 November 2007).

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The Conviction Rate of Chinese Criminal Cases Being nearly 100% [zhongguo xingshi an dingzui lv jin baifen zhibai], 360doc. Available at: http://www.360doc.cn/3g/article.aspx?id=




The CPC Central Office and the Office of the State Council Issue the Regulation on Recording,

Reporting and Accountability of Leading Cadres’ Intervening in Judicial Activities or

Involving Specific Cases [zhonggong zhongyang bangong ting guowu yuan bangong ting

yinfa lingdao ganbu sifa huodong chashou juti anjian chuli de jilu tongbao he zeren zhuijiu guiding], Central Government Portals [zhongyang zhengfu menhu wangzhan] (30 March

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The Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China [2012 Revision] (full-text)

[zhonghua renmin gonghe guo xingshi susong fa erling yi’er nian xiuzheng quanwen],

CHINA NET [zhongguo wang] (18 March 2012). Available at: http://www.china.com.cn/


The Daily, Adult and youth correctional services: Key indicators, Statistics Canada (8 December

2009). Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/091208/dq091208a-eng.htm

The Eighth Amendment to the Criminal Law, National People’s Congress, 41 Beijing, Order of

the President of the People’s Republic of China (2011)

The Focus of First Case of Excluding Illegal Evidence in China: Whether Fatigue in

Investigation is Torture or not, China Youth Daily [zhongguo qingnian bao] (3 September

2011). Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2011-09/03/c_121958850.htm

The Former Deputy Chief of the Hothot Police: Obvious Traces of Using Trickery or Coercion

to Extract Confessions in the Wrongful Conviction of Inner Mongolia [hushi yuan gong’an

fu juzhang neimeng yuan’an zhong you mingxian yougong bigong henji], New Culture

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The Former Director of the Inner Mongolia Public Security Bureau Who Killed A Person and

Kept the Detection Rate to Be 95% During His Term [neimeng sharen gong’an tingchang

rennei po’an lv baifen zhi jiushi wu fasheng huge yuan’an], Oriental Today [dangfang jinbao]

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The Information Office of the State Council, or China’s Cabinet, Progress in China’s Human

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The Innocence Project, New York: Innocence Project (6 June 2012)

The Journalist Submitted Five Documents for Internal Reference to Promote Rectifying the

Huugjilt Case and Hugged Huugjilt’s Parents with Tears after Retrial [jizhe wupian neican zhu huge fan’an zaishen hou yuqi fumu hanlei xiangyong], Niurenqushi (16 December

2014). Available at: http://www.niurenqushi.com/news/1/17939.html

The Legal System in China, World Savvy Monitor (2014). Available at: http://worldsavvy.org/



The Local Judicial Watch of 2014: Chinese Acquittal Rates Continued to Be Close to Zero’

[erling yisi defang sifa guancha: zhongguo wuzui lv chixu quling], Caixin News [caixin xinwen] (12th February 2015). Available at: http://china.caixin.com/2015-02-12/100783530.


The Loss of Evidence in the Injustice of Inner Mongolia, New Developments on the Huugjilt

Case of the Inner Mongolia Injustice [neimeng yuan’an zhengju diushi neimeng yuan’an

huge jile tu an xin jinzhan], Kekegold Net [keke huangjin wang] (4 November 2014).

Available at: http://www.kekegold.com/yule/rdxw/2014-11-04/307494.html

The Media Summaries Major Wrongful Convictions that Were Rectified after the Eighteenth

Representative Conference of the Chinese Communist Party [meiti pandian shiba da hou

jiuzheng de zhongda yuanjia cuoan], RMZXB [renmin zhengxie wang] (4 December 2014).

Available at: http://www.rmzxb.com.cn/yw/fd/2014/12/04/414470_10.shtml

The Ministry of Public Security Deployed Strike Hard Campaigns in the Year of 2010, Lasting

Seven Months [gong’an bu bushu erling yiling NIAN yanda zhengzhi xingdong chixu

qige yue], China News Net [zhongguo xinwen wang] (13 June 2008). Available at: http://




The Ministry of Public Security’s Notice on Further Strengthening and Improving Criminal

Enforcement Work in Handling Cases to Practically Prevent Wrongful Convictions [gong’an

bu guanyu jin yibu jiaqiang he gaijin xingshi zhifa ban’an gongzuo qieshi fangzhi fasheng

yuanjia cuo’an de tongzhi], Law-lib (5 June 2013). Available at: http://www.law-lib.com/law/


The Murder Wife Case of She Xianglin of Huibei Province: How the Innocent Person Was

Wrongfully Convicted [Hubei she Xianglin Shaqi an: Yuanan shi Zenyang Xingcheng

De?], Xinhua Net [Xinhua wang] (7 April 2005), http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2005-04/07/content_2800483.htm

The Notice on Further Doing Well Open Trial Work in the Second Instance of Capital Cases

[guanyu jinyi bu zuohao sixing anjian di ershen kaiting shenli gongzuo de tongzhi], Jincao

[zhongguo qiye jicheng wang] (7 December 2005). Available at: http://www.jincao.com/


The Opinion of Further Strictly Handling Cases by Law to Ensure the Quality of Death Penalty

Cases [guanyu jin yibu yange yifa ban’an quebao banli sixing anjian zhiliang de yijian],

Xinhua Net [xinhua wang] (12 March 2007). Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/


The Political Bureau of the Central Committee’s Studying to further Promote Social Stability

and Long-Term Governance in Xinjiang [zhongyang zhengzhi ju yanjiu jin yibu tuijin xinjiang shehui wending he changzhi jiu’an gong’zuo], The Central Government Web Portal

[zhongyang zhengfu menhu wangzhan] (26 May 2014). Available at: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2014-05/26/content_2687490.htm

The Political Bureau of the Central Committee’s Studying to further Promote Social Stability

and Long-Term Governance in Xinjiang [zhongyang zhengzhi ju yanjiu jin yibu tuijin xinjiang shehui wending he changzhi jiu’an gong’zuo], The Central Government Web Portal

[zhongyang zhengfu menhu wangzhan] (26 May 2014). Available at: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2014-05/26/content_2687490.htm

The Political Legal Committee Issuing the Guideline of Preventing Wrongful Convictions

[zhengfa wei chutai fang yuanjia cuo’an zhidao yijian], Xinhua Net [xinhua wang] (14

August 2013). Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/mrdx/2013-08/14/c_132628296.htm

The Second Five-Year Reform Outlines for the People’s Court [renmin fayuan di erge wunian

gaige gangyao], China Judge (26 October 2005). Available at: http://www.china-judge.com/


The Situation of National Courts in Hearing Various Kinds of Cases in 2011 [erling yiyinian

quanguo fayuan shenli gelei anjian qingkuang], The Supreme People’s Court of the People’s

Republic of China (SPC) [zhonghua renmin gonghe guo zuigao renmin fayuan] (8 June

2012). Available at

The SPC and SPP’s Regulation on Some Issues in Oral Hearings of Capital Cases in the Second

Instance (Trial Implementation) [zuigao renmin fayuan zuigao renmin jiancha yuan guanyu

sixing di ershen anjian kaiting shenli ruoan wenti de guiding shixing], China [zhongguo

wang] (25 September 2006). Available at: http://www.china.com.cn/law/txt/2006-09/25/content_7189389.htm

The SPC Held Oral Hearings to Review A Capital Case, in Its First Time After Restoring the

Final Review Power [zuigao fa kaiting fuhe sixing an xi shouhui sixing hezhun quan hou

shouci], China Court [zhongguo fayuan wang] (19 June 2013). Available at: http://www.chinacourt.org/article/detail/2013/06/id/1014830.shtml

The SPC Issuing the Directive on Establishing and Improving Working Mechanisms for

Preventing Wrongful Convictions [zuigao renmin fayuan yinfa guanyu jianli jianquan fangfan xingshi yuanjia cuoan gongzuo jizhi de yijian], China Court [zhongguo fayuan] (9

October 2013). Available at: http://www.chinacourt.org/law/detail/2013/10/id/147221.shtml

The SPC’s Directive on Establishing and Improving Work Mechanisms for Preventing Unjust

Cases (full text) [zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu jianli jianquan fangfan xingshi yuanjia cuoan

gongzuo jizhi de yijian], Legal Daily (21 November 2013). Available at: http://legal.people.




The SPC’s First Oral Hearing in the Review of Death Sentences to Revise them to the Death

Penalty with A Suspension of Execution [zuigao fayuan sixing fuhe shouci kaiting gaipan

sihuan], Supreme People’s Court Review of Death Sentences Lawyers Website [zuigao renmin fayuan sixing fuhe lvshi wang] (12 January 2014). Available at: http://www.zgrmfy.com/


The SPC’s Measures on Listening to Opinions of Defense Lawyers in Reviewing Death Penalty

Cases [guanyu banli sixing fuhe anjian tingqu bianhu lvshi yijian de banfa], China Court

[zhongguo fayuan wang] (19 January 2015). Available at: http://www.chinacourt.org/law/


The SPC’s Regulation on Some Issues of Reviewing Capital Cases [zuigao renmin fayuan

guanyu fuhe sixing anjian ruogan wenti de guiding], 66 LAW [hualv wang] (13 August

2012). Available at: http://www.66law.cn/topic2010/sxfhdsfjs/75033.shtml

The SPC’s Work Report (the 5th Conference of the 11th National’s People’s Congress), The

SPC (13 April 2012). Available at: http://www.court.gov.cn/qwfb/gzbg/201204/t20120413_


The SPP’s Opinions on Implementing the Criminal Justice Policy of Combing Punishment with

Leniency in the Procuratorial Work [zuigao renmin jiancha yuan guanyu zai jiancha gongzuo

zhong guance kuanyan xiangji xingshi sifa zhengce de ruoan yijian], The Supreme People’s

Procuratorate of the People’s Republic of China [zhonghua renmin gonghe guo zuigao renmin jiancha yuan] (21 June 2008). Available at: http://www.spp.gov.cn/site2006/2008-0621/0002419100.html

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, White Paper on

Socialist Legal System with Chinese Characteristics. China (27 October 2011). Available at:


The Supreme People’s Court, The Supreme People’s Court’s Directive on Directive on

Establishing and Improving Working Mechanisms for Preventing Wrongful Convictions in

Criminal Cases [zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu jianli jianquan fangfan xingshi yuanjia cuoan

gongzuo jiazhi de yijian], The The SPC (31 July 2014). Available at: http://www.court.gov.


The victim of a murder case that occurred eighteen years ago is still alive, hundreds of people claimed innocence in executing the suspect [shiba nianqian de suishi an beihai ren

reng huozhe xianfan bei qiangjue bairen hanyuan], Chinese Businessman Net—Chinese

Businessman Times [huashang wang huangshang bao] (16 June 2005). Available at: http://


The victim still alive, The executed peasant’s family to seek justice [Beihai ren reng zaishi bei qiangjue nongmin de jiaren yutao gongdao], Democracy and legal System Times

[minzhu yu fazhi shibao] (13 February 2006). Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/chinanews/2006-02/13/content_6226081.htm

The Wrongful Death Penalty Case of A Policeman DU Peiwu from Yunnan Province [Yunnan

jingcha du peiwu sixing yuan’an], Jinan Skilled Criminal Defence Lawyer Net [jinan

zhuanye xingshi bianhu lvshi wang]. Available at: http://www.188mb.com/User/loulaiguang/


The ZHANG Jinzhu Case: Public Opinions Killing People Being A False Proposition [zhang

jinzhu an minyi sharen shige jia mingti], Red Net-Xiaoxiang Morning News [hongwang

xiaoxiang chenbao] (17 December 2008). Available at: http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2008-1217/183216867420.shtml

This year’s first death penalty prisoner executed this morning [jinnian shouge sixing fan shangwu

fufa], Legal Evening News [fazhi wanbao] (27 June 2007). Available at: http://news.163.


Those Responsible for the Central Justice Reform Office Answers Journalists’ Questions on

Reforming the Justice System [zhongyang sigai ban fuze ren jiu sifa tizhi gaige shidian

gongzuo da jizhe wen], Xinhua Net [xinhua wang] (15 June 2014). Available at: http://news.­




TIM, The Murder Case of Huang Yaquan and Huang Shengyu of Wanning Couty, Hainan

Province [Hannan Sheng Wanning Xian Huang Yaquan Huang Shengyu Guyi Sharen

An], TIM Shequ [TIM Community] (14 April 2007). Available at: http://tm9mt.blog.sohu.


Top China court calls for end to confession through torture. Asia One (21 November 2013).

Available at: http://news.asiaone.com/news/asia/top-china-court-calls-end-confession-throughtorture#sthash.nVFCPqcr.dpuf

Topic: The Real Murderer of the Huugjilt Case, ZHAO Zhihong, Being Sentenced to Death

[zhuanti huge jile tu an zhenxiong zhao zhihong beipan sixing], IFENG (20 November

2014). Available at: http://news.ifeng.com/mainland/special/hgjlta/

Topic: Zhao Zhihong murderer sentenced to death [zhuanti huge jile tu an zhenxiong zhao zhihong beipan sixing] IFENG (20 November 2014). Available at: http://news.ifeng.com/


Torture and Betrayal in Bo’s Chongqing. China Digital Times (12 December 2012). Available at:


Tortured, Wrongly Imprisoned Man Compensated, China Daily (28 October 2005). Available at:


Tracking Misjudged Case ZHAO Zuohai: The Defence Counsel that the Court Designated for

Zhao Zuohai Being A Trainee Then [zhao zuohai yuan’an zhuizong dangnian fayuan zhiding

bianhu lvshi shi shixi sheng], GUANGZHOU DAILY [Guangzhou ribao] (15 May 2010).

Available at: http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2010-05-15/040320276147.shtml

Trailing the Wrongful Conviction of YU Yingsheng for Killing His Wife in ANHUI: The FirstInstance Sentence Being Given in Ten Days after the Occurrence of this Case [anhui yuyingsheng shaqi yuan’an zhuizong: anfa shitian zuochu yishen panjue], Anhui Life Net [anhui shenghuo

wang] (19 August 2013). Available at: http://news.ahlife.com/htm/201308/229269.html

Walking on Thin Ice: Control, Intimidation and Harassment of Lawyers in China. New

York: Human Rights Watch (28 April 2008). Available at: http://www.hrw.org/en/


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4 To Fill in the Justice Gap: The Need for Institutional Solutions

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