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What Are the Nuts and Bolts for Preparing for Class?. Much of this information is provided in Table 3.2 (Example Course Lesson Plan).

What Are the Nuts and Bolts for Preparing for Class?. Much of this information is provided in Table 3.2 (Example Course Lesson Plan).

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An Educator’s Perspective



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Scenario Two: Classroom Engagement

Sherry recalled entering into the classroom for her first time following a semester of observation. She attempted to utilize many of the strategies that she had

observed, including case studies, group activities, and lectures. Because the

topic for this particular day was diabetes mellitus, she discussed the different

types of insulins for patients with type I and type II diabetes and described

potential adverse reactions and side effects. The students then engaged in a case

study that involved a patient who was scheduled for surgery and was NPO

except medications. The surgery was scheduled later in the day and the patient

was scheduled to receive several medications (including all insulins, both long

acting and short acting). The goal of the activity was that the students should

verbalize that the patient should not receive the short-acting diabetic medications and clarification should be sought regarding the dosing of the sliding scale

insulin. When it came time to discuss the case study, Sherry was met with blank

stares and what she described as “a full classroom catatonic state.” No one

would answer any questions and there was absolutely no engagement on the

part of the students.

Key Issue: It is not uncommon for an educator to feel as if she has done her best

to get the students’ attention in class and engage them in a meaningful learning

experience. It was described earlier that millennials and Generation Y students need

to be constantly engaged and, if they are not, they rapidly lose interest. The key

issue is determining methods to effectively engage students in the classroom and

thus fulfill Principle 3 of the Seven Principles in Undergraduate Education related

to encouraging active learning.

First Reflect on Our Beliefs About Teaching and Learning. Before changing

teaching methodologies, it is important to reflect and ask a few key questions regarding why students may not be engaged in the classroom:

1. Do I look engaged myself? It sounds obvious, but in order for students to engage

in the classroom environment, they must feel the excitement from the faculty. An

established mantra is: teach three concepts really well! It is not that other concepts will not be taught; however, if one has effectively taught three ideas, the

experience has been successful. I will usually start class off with… “these are the

three things that I want you to REALLY learn today: ….” Then at the end of class

the students write down a short evaluation which includes: what three things did

I learn today, what do I need clarification on, what I liked about class, and what

I did not like about class. This is called a 2-min evaluation and it is extremely

effective. If students note something that is repeatedly unclear, post clarification

on the LMS.

2. Am I just reading off of the PowerPoint slides? The use of PowerPoint presentations in lectures was groundbreaking 15 or 20 years ago and seemed like a valuable alternative to transparencies. In fact, students have learned to depend upon

them in class. What I hear from students anecdotally is that when faculty lecture



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and read off of the PowerPoint slides, students lose interest quickly. What

students truly want to hear about are faculty experiences in the real world of

nursing.

3. Do I feel like students need to know everything? Most, if not all, nursing faculty

have specific content areas for which they are particularly passionate. This positive attribute can cause the faculty to teach more than students need to know at a

particular level and perhaps more than is contained in the syllabus and content

outline. This can lead to content overload in a curriculum that is already oversaturated (Giddens & Brady, 2007). It is imperative that faculty strive to ensure

that content is current and that what is taught in class adheres to what is outlined

in the course syllabus and content outline. If faculty are concerned that there are

gaps in the content for a particular course, then a recommendation for change

should come from the course faculty to the Curriculum Committee.

So How Do We Engage Our Students? According to Wiedmer (2015), this generation of students prefers to be taught online rather than in a lecture style setting. This

presents both challenges and unique opportunities for educators. Course evaluations

confirm that educators are being challenged to detach themselves from the comfort

of reading the PowerPoint slide and branch out into other, more student-centered

approaches. Faculty are familiar with “active learning” strategies, which are meant

to remove faculty from being the “sage on the stage” and be more collaborative with

students in their learning. It is easy to use this term and requires that faculty use more

active learning strategies in the classroom. However, without providing faculty with

the resources and ongoing development regarding the faculty role in the utilization

of the chosen active learning strategy, the learning session is no more fruitful than

putting up a PowerPoint slide and asking students to take notes.

The flipped classroom is one active learning strategy that is gaining momentum as

a successful method to enhance student learning. An explanation of the flipped classroom and a fully developed lesson plan that can be utilized for practice is discussed

below. Try this example for a semester with the content and reflect on strengths and

areas of opportunities. Remember, Brookfield (2012) embraces the concept of trying

out different strategies and permitting oneself to both be successful and to realize that

changes need to be made. Let the students’ feedback be a guide for revisions.



The Flipped Classroom

What Does the Term Mean? According to Hawks (2014), “the flipped or inverted

classroom provides opportunities for advanced preparation and time to identify

knowledge gaps needing clarification” (p. 265). Faculty provide students with a preclass assignment and students come to class in order to seek clarification regarding

the content, and faculty can provide relevant real life examples to allow for a deeper

understanding of the content. Students can also work together in groups during class

to solve problems, which allows for a rich experience working with peers.



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Hawks (2014) presented studies that illustrate student satisfaction with the flipped

classroom experience. Two characteristics promoted student satisfaction with this

model: explanation of the rationale of the practice and pre-class assignments that

were not too overwhelming and took into account the workload of the student.

Faculty should spend time during class orientation explaining that the flipped classroom methodology will be utilized during the semester and that the literature indicates that use of this strategy enhances critical thinking and retention of the material.

Faculty should make a promise to the students that the pre-class assignment will be

posted at least 1 week in advance and will take into account all other workload

requirements. Students are encouraged to forward questions that develop while completing the pre-class assignment. Table 3.3 provides an example of the pre-class

assignment for diabetes mellitus.

The setup for the classroom can be an important aspect of active learning.

Stadium seating is not ideal for this type of learning environment, but it can be successful. The ideal setting for the active learning environment is a room with white

boards or writing surfaces around the room and with tables set up in such a fashion

that will promote group work. The class size will drive the number of students per

group; however, it is best if there are only four students per group (no more than

six). Tables should be set up such that students will face each other. Roles should be

assigned: recorder (note taker), leader (leads the discussion and engages the unengaged by asking questions such as “what are your thoughts”), reporter (reports to

the larger group), and observer (observes group dynamics and discusses involvement of the group). If this strategy is implemented throughout the curriculum,

students become accustomed and comfortable with group work. The group member

roles should be discussed at some point in the curriculum and reinforced in each

course (preferably during orientation).



Table 3.3 Example in class activity

1. Question and answer session: At the beginning of each in-class

session, faculty discusses student questions submitted prior to

class. This provides faculty and students with an opportunity to

assess individual student knowledge gaps

2. In-class quizzes: At the beginning of each new unit, administer a

short quiz to assess students’ beginning knowledge of the content

area. Frequent quizzes provide students and faculty with

immediate feedback and identify existing knowledge gaps

3. Interactive learning activities:

a

Case studies: Student groups are directed to examine specific aspects

of the same or different case studies. Results are shared among all

groups and answers are critically reviewed. Students obtain

practice in responding to corrective feedback and provide rationale

for individual decisions

Group presentations: Groups develop presentations on specific topics

that are extensions of pre-class content. Students’ writing skills

and the ability to translate evidence to practice are developed

a



Example case study is provided in Appendix D



For each activity, state

the approximate

time



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One of the most important aspects of the flipped classroom is the evaluation of

student learning. Multiple strategies should be used to assess student learning,

including quizzes, case studies, short answer, etc. (NLN Fair Test Guidelines, 2010).

Nurse educators are driven by this notion that we must at all times be preparing

students for the NCLEX-RN examination and, therefore, NCLEX-RN style examinations are the only effective means for true NCLEX-RN preparation. This discussion is beyond the scope of this book; however, we challenge schools to begin the

conversation directed toward a thorough review of the literature examining the

nature of effective evaluation of student learning. For the purposes of evaluating

student learning in the flipped classroom, multiple strategies should be implemented

to better understand where gaps in learning exist.

Whichever teaching method is used in the classroom, it is imperative that faculty

take the time to reflect on feedback. It is highly recommended that faculty use the

2-min evaluation at the end of class in order to provide the faculty with quick feedback regarding the teaching approach. During the 2 min evaluation, it is helpful to

ask questions such as: What did you like? What do you need clarification on? What

did you like least? If students are commenting consistently on a particular content

area, one may need to go back and review that content. Brookfield (2012) clearly

stated that faculty should not be afraid to fail. As faculty, we will have days in the

classroom where the approach caused a lot of light bulbs to turn on (so to speak) and

there will be days where we will be met with nothing but blank stares.

Faculty should also take their end-of-course evaluations and review the student

feedback. Most schools conduct evaluations of each faculty member and the course

overall. The faculty should review their individual evaluations and reflect on them

in order to make changes on teaching practices. The course faculty should meet to

review the overall course comments. Minutes should be taken during the end of

semester meeting and there should be documentation of the plan to address the comments. Be mindful that teaching is a process and the educator learns more over time

about themselves and how to teach students.



Scenario Three: Helping the Student Who Is Failing

a Nursing Course

Gabby was a good student who performed exceedingly well in her nursing prerequisite coursework (pre-nursing overall grade point average = 3.8). She is a firstgeneration college student (first person in her family to attend college). When she

started the nursing program, she had no idea what to expect and really did not have

anyone to go to in order to find out what she should be doing to prepare herself for

what was ahead. She had no choice but to work while in nursing school and she found

herself quickly in trouble. Midterms proved to be a problem, and Gabby was earning

a D in her anatomy and physiology course. She met with the anatomy and physiology

teacher every day and was attending tutoring, but she had gotten a D on the midterm.

She also had a C in her general statistics course as well. She was scheduled to meet

with her nursing faculty advisor, Dr. Holt, for the first time after midterms.



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Key Issue: What is described in this scenario is unfortunately a common occurrence in nursing education programs. Students begin the nursing program unaware

of the intensity and rigor of the curriculum. Many are under a false assumption that

nursing school is similar to their pre-nursing coursework and, if they made good

grades in those courses, then they will likely be successful in nursing school. This is

coupled by the growing population of students that must work while in school in

order to pay for their tuition. Two key principles should be considered for this scenario. Principle 1 encourages contact between the student and faculty. This allows

the educator to encourage communication and interaction during the education process. This process can set the tone that the educator is here to help the student succeed in the process. Principle 6 aims to communicate the high expectations that are

held of the student. The students need to understand what is expected of them while

a student in the nursing program.

Strategies for Faculty in Facilitating Student Success and Promoting Student

Retention. There are a variety of factors impacting student retention in nursing programs and it can be quite challenging for schools to identify the reasons for a decrease

in retention. Multiple models exist to provide a framework for analyzing student

retention, and the model chosen for this discussion is the Model of Nursing

Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS). This model, as proposed by Jeffreys

(2012), presents factors that contribute to student attrition and retention such as academic factors (study skills, study hours, attendance, class schedule, general academic

services), professional integration factors (nursing faculty advisement and helpfulness, professional events, memberships, encouragement by friends in class, peer

mentoring–tutoring, enrichment programs), environmental factors (financial status,

family financial support, family emotional support, family responsibilities, child care

arrangements, family crisis, employment hours, employment responsibilities,

encouragement by outside friends, living arrangements, transportation), psychological outcomes (satisfaction, stress), academic outcomes (course grade, cumulative

nursing GPA, overall GPA), student profile characteristics (age, ethnicity and race,

gender, etc.), and student affective factors (motivation, etc.) (p. 12).

The model is quite extensive and insightful regarding aspects of programmatic,

faculty, environmental, and student characteristics impacting success. For the purposes of this scenario, the strategies that faculty can undertake to enhance student

retention and success are outlined below.

1. Faculty advising. Faculty advisement of nursing students is a skill all in itself.

The goal with advising should not simply be to enroll students in their next

semester courses; rather, faculty should be assigned to students newly enrolled in

the nursing program. An excellent proactive measure to enhance student success

involves reaching out to these students prior to the start of their first semester in

the nursing program with a letter of welcome (Appendix E). This letter of welcome encourages the student to schedule a meeting with the faculty advisor in

order to discuss key elements of strategies to be successful in nursing school.

This session can serve as a means to dispel frequently heard myths about nursing

school and can provide students with key tools of success (i.e., study strategies,

test taking strategies, stress reduction strategies, etc.). Appendix F outlines key

discussion points during the meeting with the student.



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2. Discuss success strategies related to the course being taught. Prior to starting

each new course, faculty typically review the course syllabus during the course

orientation session. This is a wonderful time to discuss the key strategies for success in the course. Also, faculty should state that they care about student success

and that they want students to notify them with questions, concerns, and when

they need clarification on the subject matter. It is also beneficial if faculty state

in the syllabus that students must meet with them if they score a certain grade on

the unit examination. For example, our passing course grade is a 77 % and students must meet with faculty if they make below an 80 % on an individual course

examination. We can review the examination items and this is a good time to

review test-taking strategies. In order to accomplish this objective, we divide the

students into groups and assign the course faculty to each group. Students know

which faculty they should contact for any course-related issues. The course faculty should also discuss any issues that arise with the course coordinator.



Scenario Four: Incivility in the Classroom

Clara has been the primary faculty and course coordinator for the past year in the

Fundamentals of Nursing course. For the upcoming semester, nursing administration

decided to implement team teaching in all of the nursing courses. With that, faculty

are required to “teach together” at least three times during the semester. During this

“teach together” time, one faculty was to serve as the lead faculty during the scheduled class time (notice I did not mention the word “lecture”) and the other faculty

was to observe and provide peer review. Clara was paired with a faculty member

(Rhonda) who has a reputation of negativity. On the first day of the semester, both

faculty were in the classroom together. Several students walked into the classroom

anywhere from 10 to 20 min late, and Rhonda consistently commented in a rather

loud fashion that “we have got to get some rules established in here right now.”

Clara, a calmer, more nurturing faculty member, planned to discuss the expectations

of the class and found herself feeling angry that Rhonda took over and overwhelmed

the classroom with such negativity on the first day. Rhonda felt the students become

tense and she felt like this was not a good start to the semester.

Key Issue. This scenario is meant to provide the reader with clarity regarding

specific faculty and student behaviors that are considered uncivil. Incivility can be

defined as “speech or action that is disrespectful or rude and ranges from insulting

remarks and verbal abuse to explosive, violent behavior” (Clark & Springer, 2007,

p. 93). Academic incivility, on the other hand, “is any speech or action that disrupts

the harmony of the teaching-learning environment” (Clark & Springer, 2007, p. 93).

Faculty and students typically do not agree regarding specific behaviors considered

uncivil. These behaviors should be identified and a discussion should take place

regarding ways that faculty can foster civility in the classroom. Principle 7, respecting diverse talents and ways of learning, is crucial for this scenario. By making



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students aware of the respect from the educator, the student learns from role modeling and hopefully continues to respect the educator and other professionals. In addition, the educator needs to respect that all students are adult learners and that they

bring unique challenges to the classroom.

Faculty Perceptions of Incivility. According to Altmiller (2012), faculty have a

growing concern regarding student incivility because it “is disruptive to the learning

process” (p. 15) and the fact that students who engage in uncivil behavior will be

caring for patients. In a study by Clark and Springer (2007), faculty identified student in-class behaviors that are considered uncivil (in ranking order with most frequently mentioned first):











disrupting others by talking in class

making negative remarks/disrespectful comments toward faculty

leaving early or arriving late

using cell phones (p. 96)



Uncivil student behavior outside of class as noted by the faculty (in ranking order

with most frequently mentioned first):

• verbally discrediting faculty

• turning in late assignments without proper notification

• sending inappropriate emails to faculty (p. 96)

Students’ Perceptions of Incivility By Faculty:











making condescending remarks

using poor teaching style or method

using poor communication skills

acting superior and arrogant (Clark & Springer, 2007, p. 96)



Possible Causes of Incivility in Nursing Education as Identified by Students and

Faculty:



















high stress environment

lack of professional, respectful environment

lack of faculty credibility and responsiveness

faculty arrogance

sense of entitlement among students

students not really interested in nursing

not being clear about expectations

lack of immediacy to address incivility (Clark & Springer, 2007, p. 96)



Ways Faculty Can Foster Civility in the Classroom. Uncivil behavior by faculty

and students can deplete the classroom from optimal learning opportunities. There

are several strategies that can be used to promote civil behaviors in the classroom:

1. One of the causes of uncivil behavior, as described by Clark and Springer (2007),

is the lack of clear expectations. On the first day of class, the faculty should

review the course syllabus. A great exercise to follow is to ask the class to make



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a list on the board of expectations of the class that will become the Class Code of

Conduct. Examples of statements included on Class Codes of Conduct include:

• Be on time for class.

• Be present in class. No texting or using technology for reasons other than

class activities.

• Come prepared for class.

• Only get up during a break.

• Raise your hand when you have a question.

• Be kind to fellow classmates—do not roll your eyes when questions are

asked.

• Faculty to post assignments at least 1 week prior to class.

• This is not an exhaustive list (but it should not be too long). But the key is that

the students determine what faculty and student behaviors should be included

on the list.

I discuss with the class the importance of holding each other accountable

when behaviors are noted that do not show adherence to the Class Code of

Conduct.

2. I have heard on many occasions how upset students get when they feel that faculty do not address uncivil behavior in the classroom. Hopefully, fellow classmates are addressing the behavior if it violates the Class Code of Conduct. If it

is not addressed by classmates, it is crucial that faculty address the behavior. It

should be addressed discretely by asking the student (perhaps during a break) to

come to your office after class. Faculty can then discuss the behavior and how it

does not comply with the Class Code of Conduct. Students often have difficulty

recognizing their own behavior as uncivil. As addressed, the faculty should have

a “conversation” about the uncivil behaviors and make sure the student is aware

of the expectations and the learning environment.



Scenario Five: Choosing Appropriate Test Items for Course

Examinations

Sue has been teaching a medical surgical course with another faculty member for

about 6 months. When Sue started teaching the course, the examinations were

already prepared and she was only required to submit editorial changes. Now she is

being asked to enter exam items on her own. She states that when she went into the

computer test bank for the first time, she did not know where to start and how to

properly choose questions.

Key Issue: The key issue in this scenario is the proper selection of items for a

course examination. The focus of this discussion is not about creating examination

items (questions) as that is more of an advanced skill and is outside the scope of this



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book. Rather, the purpose is to assist new faculty with the process of appropriately

selecting examination items from the test bank (most test banks are electronic).

Where Do I Start? Prior to determining which examination questions to use on the

unit or final examination, the faculty should review the test blueprint to determine the

number of questions that should be developed for each class section (hour of teaching).

According to McDonald (2007), there are no “hard and fast rules” (p. 70) when it

comes to determining the number of questions allocated per hour of content; however,

it is recommended that a systematic process should be followed. For example, if the

faculty teaching Diabetes Mellitus takes 75 % of examination, I lecture time versus

musculoskeletal (which takes the remaining 25 %), then about three out of four questions should be focused on assessing the learner’s knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus.

Selecting the Appropriate Assessment Format. Prior to discussing the appropriate

assessment format, it is important to provide preliminary information regarding preparing NCLEX-RN examinations in the nursing program. Student preparation for

the NCLEX-RN examination begins early in the nursing curriculum. Selecting

appropriate questions to test on the unit and final examinations is challenging, especially if done correctly. Inherent in the process is to understand where the student is.

This means that students early in the nursing curriculum should have questions that

focus on their knowledge attainment. Using Bloom’s taxonomy, questions should

focus on more knowledge and comprehension. The examination questions should

ask question such as what is the normal blood pressure for an adult client. As the

student progresses in the nursing curriculum, the questions should focus on application and analysis of the nursing content. The examination questions should focus on

applying the blood pressure range when a client has a specific problem.

The best practice is to develop examinations well in advance of the examination

date in order to allow all course faculty an opportunity to properly review the examination in totality, thus, assessing the examination to ensure that the examination

items are testing at the appropriate level according to Bloom’s taxonomy. Ideally, test

questions should be generated immediately following the classroom instruction.

Schools should create an experienced group of faculty (faculty who have attended

item writing workshops and who have a high level of experience with proper item

writing) that reviews examinations to ensure that there is proper alignment and progression of examination items according to Bloom’s taxonomy within each course

and throughout the curriculum. This can be accomplished by having a work group

established out of the Curriculum Committee that is charged with meeting with all

faculty to create and review examinations during the “slower” times in the academic

year (at the end of semesters). In most cases, this process does not occur. Faculty are

typically so busy during the semester with their various workloads (grading clinical

papers, preparing for lecture, preparing for the clinical lab, etc.) that there is not

adequate time to properly develop and vet the unit and final examinations. Considering

the high-stakes nature of the examinations, it is in the best interest of the student for

faculty to allocate time during the semester for examination development.

The assessment format is based on the various types of questions that are tested on

the NCLEX-RN. These include the standard multiple-choice items and alternate items

(an alternate item format is an exam item, or question, that uses a format other than



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standard, four-option, multiple-choice items to assess candidate ability) (NCSBN

website https://www.ncsbn.org/9010.htm). Alternate item formats may include:

• Multiple-response items that require a candidate to select two or more responses

• Fill-in-the-blank items that require a candidate to type in number(s) in a calculation item

• Hot spot items that ask a candidate to identify one or more area(s) on a picture or

graphic

• Chart/exhibit format where candidates will be presented with a problem and will

need to read the information in the chart/exhibit to answer the problem

• Ordered response items that require a candidate to rank order or move options to

provide the correct answer

• Audio item format where the candidate is presented an audio clip and uses headphones to listen and select the option that applies

• Graphic options that present the candidate with graphics instead of text for the

answer options and they will be required to select the appropriate graphic answer

(https://www.ncsbn.org/9010.htm)

Faculty must “match each outcome with an appropriate assessment strategy”

(McDonald, 2007, p. 67). In other words, selecting whether to assess learning via a

standard multiple choice or by developing a question utilizing an ordered response

item depends on the objective for the course and unit. For example, knowledge

related to a unit objective that speaks to the students’ understanding the steps for

donning infection control equipment may best be assessed using the ordered

response item rather than a standard multiple-choice item.

Faculty should also be prepared to review the examinations after administration.

Most schools use some type of test analysis software that generates a Kudor

Richardson (KR) score and item analysis. The KR score aids in the reliability of

examination and most faculty-generated examinations should have a KR greater than

.70 (Tarrant & Ware, 2012). Be familiar with what the school has to offer and collaborate with another faculty member to review the test questions. After an examination, removing certain questions or even certain options of the questions may be

necessary. This is a common occurrence especially if creating unique test questions.

Faculty should also complete a test review with the students. This can be done

in a variety of ways. During the examination, the answers can be available for

the students to review independently while the other students are still testing.

The student should turn in the scantron key or exam booklet and then review the

answers. In this type of review, I usually have a rationale at the bottom of each

question with reference to the lecture or the book. The problem with this is that

the students cannot ask questions about any of the questions because I am still

proctoring. I ask the student to mark questions with pencil and then I review

them again when I have the item analysis. Another way to review is to put the

exam on the projector immediately following an exam. I usually do this for

classes that have more than 40 students. Prior to this review, I explain that no cell

phones or computers can be available as I do not want my examination nor my

test questions compromised. I encourage students to write down any questions



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using pen and paper. I will go through each question and provide a rationale

about the correct answer and why the other answers are incorrect. I also show

them clues in the stem in answering the question correctly. In this type of review,

I often have students who want to challenge content or questions based on what

they recall. The group likes to challenge and it is imperative that you remain

calm and reflective. When confronted and uneasy, I state that I will review all test

items using the item analysis, but I really try to listen to where the students are

coming from. I try to understand their perspective and listen. The students usually then ask if a question will be dropped or additional credit be given. I usually

tell them that I will review the item analysis and then move on to something else.

Students need to trust the educator and know that the faculty is preparing them

for success on NCLEX-RN. The faculty needs to instill this trust by testing on

information that is relevant and necessary. After all, the student will not have the

opportunity to ask questions after they take their NCLEX-RN.

How Do I Determine What to Test? According to McDonald (2007), the “what of

assessment is defined by the instructional objectives and the course content” (p. 67)

and the “how is directed by the test plan or blueprint” (p. 67). Anecdotally, I hear

from students that they felt that they studied everything that was reviewed in lecture

by the faculty and read every page of text in the required reading assignment; however, they still fell short and did not pass the examination. Examination questions

should be derived from the course objectives and “…important course content.

Testing trivia or minor points is a waste of time” (McDonald, 2007, p. 67). My

mantra is that if it is the content that is important enough on which to test the student, then it should be reviewed in class. Prior to administering the examination,

faculty should review each question, ensuring that it properly meets the course

learning objectives and that it was properly discussed during class.



Scenario Six: Academic Integrity: Cheating on Examinations

Pam was proctoring an Adult Health Nursing unit examination with approximately

45 students. The second faculty member who was supposed to proctor with her was

ill and there was no one else available. After the examination started, several students raised their hands to ask questions. She began to notice that as she turned her

back to a certain area of the classroom, she would hear the sound of paper shuffling

and, though she could not confirm it, she thought she heard mumbling voices. When

the examination was over and she inspected the test booklet, several students had

written large letters next to the examination item (almost in a way to make what they

thought was the correct answer more visible to the other students).

Key Issue. The key issue in this scenario is that academic integrity is compromised when students in the classroom are engaging in cheating behavior. Arhin

(2009) reports that about 70 % of the students at a university of 50,000 students have

engaged in cheating behavior; this is up from 26 % in 1963 who were caught cheating. Besides the obvious impact cheating has on the accurate evaluation of student



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