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1 The Previous Study: Conceptualizing Classroom Space: Studying the Learning Environment
Literal perceptions of classroom space show a fairly homogeneous picture of the
main dimension of conceptualizing classroom space as purely physical, expressed
as: seating arrangements, walls, windows, equipment, decorations. The results of
the study demonstrated the subjects’ concern for classroom space mostly in relation
to the study and practice of different types of work, when grouping students
becomes an issue. Thus, it is the seating arrangement in the classroom which is
most frequently discussed by the subjects. This seems seriously reductive, as
classroom space means much more than this and can be conceptualized at a much
deeper level of mutual relations between the physical space and mental space of a
teacher and learners, their interactivity and individuality (Gabryś-Barker, 2012).
At the same time, the metaphoric perceptions of classroom space were also
present in the data and expressed the relations between the physical and the mental;
the mental being determined by the physical. The mental space was deﬁned as
interaction between the teacher and learners, and between learners themselves,
individual learner autonomy (“space to breathe”), and more than anything else,
classroom climate. Thus, the study can be seen as contributing to research on
enabling institutions in paying attention to the physical aspects of school/classroom
environment and their relation to mental and affective dimensions which constitute
Method: The Present Study
The following section presents the description of my pilot study on EFL pre-service
teachers’ perceptions of classroom climate. The research focus of the present study
• Pre-service EFL teachers’ (trainees) perception of classroom climate and its
signiﬁcance for the well-being of teachers and learners.
• Trainees’ awareness of the indicators of positive classroom climate and their
understanding of teacher’s and learners’ contribution to it.
• Classroom climate in FL learning experience of trainees.
The Participants, Instruments and Procedure
The subjects participating in the study were ﬁfty-ﬁve pre-service teachers of EFL,
who at the time of data collection were involved in their school practice at school.
The discussion of classroom climate was an additional topic included in the syllabus of the B.A and M.A. seminar classes in TEFL didactics at the university.
The tools implemented in the research were:
• a questionnaire on positive classroom climate (pcc) including questions on
deﬁning classroom climate, factors conducive to positive classroom climate,
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symptoms of pcc, teacher and learner role, influence of pcc on teacher and
• a narrative text: Classroom climate in my FL learning history, which was a
personal reflective essay of 450 words, written in a non-guided free form.
The students were asked to ﬁll in the questionnaire in a classroom time and a
narrative text as a homework assignment.
6 Results and Discussion
Table 4 presents quantitative responses of the subjects in relation to their perception
of (positive) classroom climate.
The following excerpts illustrate the quantitative data of the study.
• Deﬁning classroom climate
In deﬁning classroom climate, the subjects see both its physical aspects relating to
the environment in which the teaching/learning process occurs and social aspects of
the interaction between the teacher and learners and learners’ willingness to participate in the above process:
Classroom climate is the classroom environment, physical setting as well as social and
emotional aspects of the classroom (s. 9).
Classroom climate is something we can feel, experience and sometimes even touch. It may be
a good or bad spirit of the class. The good spirit encourages you to take part in this small
community, invites you and motivates and the bad spirit frightens you and demotivates (s. 3).
It is not only a physical classroom environment but also a process of building the psychological framework for all the activities that happen in the classroom (…), the classroom
climate is a complex process which involves the active engagement of a teacher and of the
students. Their mutual interaction as well as positive attitudes and willingness to communicate
result in the development of the positive classroom climate (s. 39).
(…) classroom climate does not only refer to some external aspects of the learning process, as
for instance classroom decorations, but more importantly – it is deeply rooted in the emotional
and affective domains of teaching-learning context (s. 38).
Table 4 Positive classroom climate (questionnaire data), pcc—positive classroom climate
% of the
Atmosphere (positive, productive)
Other: interaction, attitude to the tasks, attitude to the
Students’ attitude to classes
Teachers’ attitude to students
Image of the classroom
Relations teacher- students
Other: teacher feedback, teacher enthusiasm, teacher’s
position in the classroom tolerance, teacher being prepared
and organized, maintaining discipline, learners’ respect for
the teacher, interesting ways of teaching, good conditions
of work for the teacher and learners.
Participation in class
Effect on learning (progress)
Teacher and student motivation
Willingness to learn
Students’ feeling of safety
Other: guessing techniques, good communication between
the teacher and students, enjoyment for both the teacher and
Teacher as a motivator
Provider of various activities, creator
Other: teacher as a guide, energetic attitude, being
enthusiastic, a manager, a fair assessor, a partner
Willingness to learn
Co-operating with others students
Respecting the teacher
Creating good atmosphere in class
Other: responsibility, being positive and optimistic, full
Motivation to teach
Feeling of personal fulﬁllment
Enthusiasm to teach
Lack of stress
Other: teacher’s. enjoyment of his/her work, positive
assessment of lessons
Low affective ﬁlter
Other: feeling of achievement, fondness of the teacher,
being active, development of knowledge, easier and faster
Factors conducive to
positive classroom climate
Symptoms/effects of pcc
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• Teacher versus learner role in establishing positive classroom climate
Relying extensively on their experiences as learners in the past, the subjects see the
dominant role of a teacher in creating positive classroom climate and perceive the
learners as only serving a complementary role in this respect. The following
excerpts illustrate this observation:
When it comes to my experience, the crucial factor influencing classroom climate is the
teacher’s attitude towards the learners and towards their job. (…) It depends mainly on the
teachers and it has a huge influence on the learners and their progress (s. 34).
Teachers influence student growth and behaviour. The students’ behaviour affects peer
interaction, and the responsibility for influencing these behaviours is placed with the
instructor. (…) teachers should learn to guide their students, not to alienate them. The safety
of students’ wellbeing is paramount to their development of social ties with peers and their
instructor. (…) Education becomes less of a chore and more enjoyable as growing as a
group can lead to the reduction of students’ acting destructively (s. 39).
The teacher and the students are responsible for classroom climate, but in my opinion the
teacher has to control the lesson in such a way to create a pcc. Being positive in language
learning is like a virus – when you catch it, you are infected with smile, laughter and
courage! (s. 20).
What I learnt by recalling my experiences is that the most important factor in classroom
climate is the teacher and his/her attitude (s. 12).
• Factors conducive to positive classroom climate
The subjects acknowledge the complexity of the construct of classroom climate by
pointing out a multiplicity of factors influencing it. Yet, once again it is the person
of a teacher that comes to the fore. The factors include teacher’s responsibility for
establishing classroom rules, being professional in lesson planning and its execution. At the same time, the trainees emphasise the role of feelings: of security and
spontaneity, avoidance of anxiety. The subjects say:
There are many factors that can influence classroom climate. One of them is quality of the
relationships. This involves interaction between students and a teacher as well as the
interaction between students themselves in and outside of the classroom. (…) it is teacher’s
role to fulﬁl learners’ potential by considering their needs and treating them as individuals.
Another factor is the smooth running of the classroom, characterised by an orderly environment where teacher’s expectations and standards of personal behaviour are clearly
established and understood by everyone. (…) The varied context provides students with
different tasks and opportunities and is representative of multiple views. (…) (s. 39).
When I think of classroom climate the ﬁrst thing that comes to my mind is how do the
people feel in the classroom? (…) I believe that the most important factor is the dialogue
between the teacher and the students. It does not really matter whether the topic is strictly
connected with the subject. The most important thing is that people talk to one another and
they are willing to do that (s. 35).
First of all, the teacher should develop classroom rules. The rules should be created to support
safe and controlled behaviour. When the learners know their boundaries and feel safe, they are
able to focus on learning. (…) In order to learn more about a classroom climate and to adjust to
it correctly, teachers should take advantage of students’ written responses to some questions
concerning safety and kindness in the class, e.g., Do you feel safe in the class? (s. 13).
The feelings related to classroom climate are personal and subjective since every learner has
his/her own needs and preferences. (…). In my opinion, the teacher’s individual approach to
each student, fair grading and positive but constructive feedback are the most important
factors (s. 36).
Another factor that in my opinion plays a vital role for this climate is feeling free and being
spontaneous. It refers to both the teacher and students. The worst thing that can happen in the
classroom is the feeling of anxiety. It makes people stressed out and unwilling to cooperate for
fear of being humiliated or laughed at (s. 35).
• Classroom climate versus age of a learner
One of the factors determining how classroom climate should be established is the
age of the learners, which was expressed by the trainees as in the comment below:
In the primary school the teacher took care of students’ well-being and behaved like a
parent. She always smiled, joked with us and called us by our names. (…) In the lower high
school (…) classroom climate was characterised by competition, alienation, and hostility
(…). The best classroom climate was in the high school. Thanks to mutual respect students
were almost always willing to participate actively during the lessons and on tasks. (…)
Such attitudes promoted positive self-esteem, feeling of security and conﬁdence (s. 9).
• Effects of classroom climate
The following quotations from the trainees are strong statements concerning the
importance of positive classroom climate, as it is perceived to be conducive ﬁrst of
all to creating motivation, positive attitudes to learning and thus willingness to
participate in the lessons. Positive classroom climate establishes positive affectivity
in the educational context, whereas the opposite:
(…) a negative classroom climate feels hostile, chaotic, and out of control, however, a
positive one feels safe, respectful, welcoming and supportive of student learning (s. 7).
Establishing a positive classroom climate makes students feel much more comfortable,
valued, accepted and secure when trying to get involved in the language learning process.
This is why, when creating a positive classroom environment, teachers should focus on
developing and reinforcing classroom rules and norms, promoting and nurturing positive
peer relationships, nurturing positive relationships with all students and also classroom
decoration and arrangement (s. 30).
I believe that classroom atmosphere had and still has a considerable influence on my
attitude to learning the foreign language. However, my internal motivation and focus on my
aim make me not pay too much attention to it (s. 55).
• Subjects’ experiential comments
The trainees’ own experiential memories of classroom climate(s) in their own
learning histories are both positive and negative, with the latter being more
numerous. The positivity is recalled as related to the effectiveness of teacher, his/her
ability to make foreign language learning pleasant and fun as well as useful and
successful. These comments refer to the cognitive dimensions of learning as is
demonstrated in the quotations below:
The lesson passed very quickly. I left the classroom and felt something warm in my heart.
I realized that an English lesson can be nice, useful and not hard to understand. This day
Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class …
changed my plans for the future because I passed my ﬁnal school leaving examination in
English, enrolled in the English college and hoped I would be the teacher who would be
able to share experience and knowledge with pupils (s. 17).
I think my ﬁrst foreign language lesson was really enjoyable. This lesson showed me that
learning can be pleasant. It is obvious that learning is not only playing and having fun but it
can be tough and difﬁcult. A good ﬁrst FL lesson encourages students to learn and it creates
a positive attitude towards learning especially when it affects children. The ﬁrst impression
is essential (s. 5).
(…) The enjoyment connected with peer-teaching was a beautiful experience because I
could be useful for someone and somehow I learnt twice so my knowledge underwent
consolidation (s. 3).
The negativity is remembered as feelings of oppression and repression, lack of
enthusiasm and generally creating a hostile learning environment. These experiences relate to the affectivity of a classroom setting, which is pointed out in the
My teachers did not create a proper environment, where all the learners could express their
opinion. After some time, I noticed that the lessons were not always attractive, the teacher
had knowledge but did not encourage me to speak, I do not remember any engaging
activities, usually students did not feel secure and relaxed during classes and the teacher did
not show enthusiasm (s. 22).
There was an uncomfortable silence, we could not talk, make any gestures and move in the
classroom. I had a sense of being there as punishment. Fear made me unable to work. Fortyﬁve minutes of agony (s. 16).
(…) learning foreign languages in Polish schools is a very difﬁcult task, because most of
them lack the good climate and many young people gradually lose their motivation
throughout the process of learning. In order to succeed, the learner needs to be intrinsically
motivated and really patient, because the environment is usually harsh (s. 4).
The subjects’ understanding of classroom climate refers to the cognitive as well as
affective dimensions of teacher’s and subjects’ functioning in a classroom environment, with the latter (affective) constituting the major category. On the cognitive
level, the effects of positive classroom climate are seen in learners’ visible progress
and their active participation in classes. On the affective level, it is learners’
motivation to learn and participate actively in classes as well as teacher’s motivation always to be not only well-prepared for but also satisﬁed in the job. This
strongly expressed affectivity consists in the emphasis put on the role of attitudes of
both teacher’s and learners’, the willingness to learn on the part of learners and
openness and friendliness on the part of the teacher, and, above all, on creating
appropriate interactions between the teacher and learners and between the learners
themselves. Also, the physicality of the environment (classroom) is believed to be a
deﬁning aspect of a positive classroom climate.
In their narrative comments, the subjects emphasize that positive classroom
climate turns a class into a group which forms a small community: “growing as a
group can lead to the reduction of students’ acting destructively” (s. 39). What is
interesting is that although both the teacher and learners are seen as agents in
developing a positive and productive climate, it is predominantly the teacher who is
declared to have the greater responsibility of a controller, a manager and also a
guide and a facilitator. These are the different dimensions of teacher activity in class
that contribute to the promotion of a positive classroom climate.
It is assumed by the trainees that it is the teacher who decides about the quality of a
dialogue or an interaction that occurs in the classroom. The subjects believe that only
well-organised lessons, fair grading and an individual approach to learners that the
teacher alone can institute which guarantee a positive climate for learning. It also
appears that classroom rules established by the teacher and not the learners are
essential for this to occur. These comments seem to express a rather traditional view, in
which learners appear to be passive recipients of what is more or less imposed upon
them. Additionally, the subjects express a strong belief that it is the teacher’s duty to
investigate the issues connected with classroom climate in his/her class, by occasionally questioning the members of the group about how they feel in class. Only then
they can be comfortable, feel valued and secure in their learning environment.
Comparing the questionnaire data and narrative data, it can be observed that the
focus on learners’ responsibility for classroom climate is expressed strongly only in
the former, emerging from the more structured way of expressing one’s views that
most questionnaires demand. When asked to reflect in an open reflective narrative,
the subjects seem to focus almost entirely on the teachers as the creators and
facilitators of classroom climate. This is also visible in the comments on their past
positive and negative experiences of classroom climate at different levels of education, in which teachers are either blamed or praised for how they coped with or
ignored the issues concerning classroom climate. What comes as a surprise is that the
trainees, future FL teachers, do not appear to be aware of the role a foreign language
itself can play in establishing a positive classroom climate. As a vehicle for communication, for instance, off-task interaction between the teacher and learners can be
a factor contributing to the development of more individually-oriented contacts, and
thus an individualized approach to learners.
Also comparing the comments with the categories presented by Fraser et al.
(1986) or more recently by Dwyer et al. (2004), the trainees do not acknowledge the
role of student cohesiveness, satisfaction (enjoyment), innovation or individualization (learner decisions, autonomy). Additionally, no reflection is offered as to the
degree of connectedness between the students themselves (bonds, common ground,
caring and sharing).
Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class …
7 Conclusions and Implications
Relatively negative experiences concerning classroom climate, as expressed by the
trainees in this study, mean that perhaps it should become an obligatory theme in
training courses and introduced into the feedback the trainees receive from their
mentors and supervisors. It may be especially important for these future teachers’
affective functioning in their classrooms.
The ﬁndings demonstrate possible ways of enhancing classroom climate through
creating mutually-agreed-upon forms of classroom codes of conduct between the
teacher and the learners. In essence, the so-called code of conduct puts responsibility for what happens in the classroom equally on the teacher and learners as it is
both of them that have well-deﬁned rights and duties. These rules can be grounded
in positive psychology assumptions about personal well-being, and not just on
Analysing the understanding and approaches to classroom climate in the overviewed studies and in this study data, it can be observed that a school (and a class as
its microstructure) should appear to be a positive and enabling institution. To
function as such, it needs to demonstrate the strengths comparable to those that
Seligman considers to be character strengths, which in this case would also contribute to both learner and teacher well-being:
Wisdom and Knowledge developing creativity, curiosity, a desire to learn
encouraging persistence, authenticity, enthusiasm
expressing feelings of kindness, generosity and compassion, emotional intelligence
creating conditions for fairness, autonomy
promoting learners’ self-regulation, modesty
introducing humour, appreciation of aesthetics, optimistic attitudes, spiritual values.
If we ﬁrst of all consider the teacher to be an agent of change, we have to focus on
his/her role as a facilitator expressed in the different dimensions of facilitation
Table 5 The six dimensions of facilitation (based on Heron, 2002, p. 6)
How shall the group acquire its objectives and its programme?
How shall meaning be given to and found in the experiences and actions
of group members?
How shall the group’s consciousness be raised about these matters?
How shall the life of feeling and emotion within the group be handled?
How can the group’s learning be structured?
How can such a climate of personal value, integrity and respect be
Table 6 How to manage classroom climate and how to check it periodically (based on Cornell
Centre for Teaching Excellence)
Checking in on
• Incorporate diversity into your course and use inclusive teaching
• Use icebreakers and collaborative learning to give students the
opportunity to get to know one another
• Include diversity and disabilities statements in your syllabus
• Address incivilities right away
• Establish ground rules
• Check in on classroom climate periodically.
• Make efforts to connect with students.
• Inquire about the classroom climate (index cards for students to
respond how comfortable they feel, provide feedback to
• Inquire about students’ reactions to the teacher or the method of
instruction (chain notes, electronic feedback)
• Inquire about students’ experience with the course materials,
readings and assignments
• Reading Rating Sheets
• Group Work Evaluations
• Assignment Assessments
Also the Cornell Centre for Teaching Excellence, an online source focusing on
the teacher as the major agent of positive classroom climate, offers advice on how to
manage classroom climate. It additionally emphasizes the need to review it periodically, as was pointed out in one of the trainees’ comment:
In addition to being reflective about the events that take place in your class on a regular
basis, there are techniques you can use to gauge your classroom’s climate. Ask for feedback
directly from your students on their experiences in your course. This also serves to heighten
students’ awareness of their own study practices. A number of classroom assessment
techniques (CATs) (Angelo & Cross, 1993) are designed to do just that (Cornell Centre for
Teaching Excellence, online) (Table 6).
Considering training programmes for future teachers, it is often emphasized that
reflectivity is the key phrase at every stage of their professional development and if
introduced early, at the pre-service stage, it develops student teachers’ different
perception of what teaching stands for and what their role as teachers is (GabryśBarker, 2012). As one of the trainees in this study said:
As teachers we should draw conclusions from our own experience and remember that the
relationship that we establish with the learners, and being well-organised are crucial factors
for successful work (s. 25).
Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class …
Positive Classroom Climate (A Questionnaire)
Deﬁne classroom climate in your own words (3–4 sentences):
Enumerate factors conducive to positive classroom climate:
What are the symptoms of positive classroom climate?
What is teacher’s role in developing positive classroom climate?
What is learners’ role in developing positive classroom climate?
What are the effects of positive classroom climate on
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