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4 The German Approach to Sociology and Talcott Parson’s Transformation of Max Weber’s Sociology

4 The German Approach to Sociology and Talcott Parson’s Transformation of Max Weber’s Sociology

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Index



A

Absolutism, despotic

enlightened, 5, 85, 105

opinion-driven, 7, 85, 179, 180

Absolutist state, 9, 41, 59, 84–85, 90, 92, 96,

108, 109, 113, 179, 180

Act of Toleration, 72, 74, 75

Adscription (stavnsbånd), 89, 93,

100, 102

Agrarian Commission, 101, 103

Agrarian reforms, 99–101, 103

American empire, 192

Appel, J., 131

Asad, T., 35, 37, 39, 46

Assmann, J., 7, 18, 34, 39, 43, 44, 50

Atheists/atheism, 2, 3, 33, 34, 42, 46, 48–51,

53, 62, 71, 114, 193, 197

Augsburg, 40, 44

Austria, 4, 73, 74, 121

Authority, 55, 68, 75, 83, 91, 105, 116, 130,

133, 134, 139, 180, 191



B

Balle, Bishop N.E., 104–106, 108

Bang, N., 131

Beckford, J., 2, 11, 39

Bellah, R.N., 56, 57, 59–61

Bell-Lancaster method, 109, 112

Berger, P.L., 1, 3, 23, 26, 29, 86, 97, 135,

179, 191

Bernstorff, A.P., 101

Beyer, P., 11, 35, 69, 153, 194

Bildung, 153, 169

Bjerregaard, R., 146, 148



Blue Consideration (Den blå betænkning),

138, 145

Bluetooth, H., 68, 184

Borgbjerg, F., 129–133, 135, 136,

140, 181

Boserup, A., 6

Bourdieu, P., 38, 42, 46, 47, 50, 52

Britain, 9, 72–74, 100, 111, 187

British Empire, 61, 76

Brown, C., 8, 9, 187

Bruce, S., 3, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 33, 72, 74, 75,

104, 181, 183, 184, 186, 193

Bush, G.W., 163, 187



C

Calvinism, 4, 41

Capitalism, 23, 24, 29, 149

Cartoon Crisis, 163–165, 172–175

Casanova, J., 3, 18, 22, 25–27, 183, 184

Catechism, 86, 94, 95, 104, 122, 184

Catholicism, 41, 72, 75

Centre Democrats (Centrum Demokraterne),

146, 147

Charles II, 71, 76

Chief director of schools, 115, 116, 181

Christensen, J.C., 125

Christian Democratic Party (Kristeligt

Folkeparti), 146, 151

Christian Imperial state system, 68

Christianity, 4, 8, 10, 40, 41, 43, 45, 49, 53,

59, 67, 68, 70, 71, 81, 87, 89, 90,

92–94, 108, 121, 126, 129–130,

135–140, 143–149, 151–154, 160–164,

166, 168–171, 173–175, 182, 184–186



© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

N. Reeh, Secularization Revisited – Teaching of Religion and the State of

Denmark, Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse

Societies 5, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-39608-8



201



202

Christianity, life-enlightenment and citizenship

(teaching subject), 173–175, 185

Christian VI, 89, 90, 93, 187

Christian VII, 100, 101

Christian IX, 121, 125

Church of Denmark/Church, Danish, 37, 44,

45, 60, 61, 82, 114, 117–119, 122, 128,

130, 136–138, 146, 147, 180, 184, 187

Church of England, 73–75

Church ordinance of 1537, 41, 88

Citizen, 2, 5, 7–9, 19, 43, 45, 54, 68, 103, 104,

106–109, 114, 123, 128, 146, 148–150,

152, 154, 160–162, 164, 165, 167, 170,

173, 175, 180, 183, 191, 196

Citizenship, 43, 70, 115, 173–175, 185

City-state, Greek, 43, 67

Civil religion, 11, 55–62, 81

Civil rights, 105, 115, 118

Clausewitz, C., 6

Clear goals, 168, 170, 175

Clinton, B., 158

Cold War, 1, 41, 69, 150–152, 158, 159, 161,

163, 174, 186, 187, 191, 192

Collective consciousness, 2, 35, 36, 38, 39

Collective intentionality, 35, 38–39

Collective subjectivity, 2, 38–39, 51

Collective subjects, 35, 36, 38, 42, 59, 60, 68,

81

Common goals, 168–170

Communism, 50, 53, 68, 126, 128, 143, 161,

163

Communist Party, Danish (Danmarks

Kommunistiske Parti), 143

Competition state, 150, 161, 174

Comte, A., 1, 17, 19–22, 25–28, 195

Confessio Augustana, 40, 41, 47, 63

Confessional teaching of religion/christianity,

136, 137, 144, 146–149, 154, 171, 182

Confirmation, 3–5, 8, 11, 48, 49, 90–94, 96,

97, 104, 105, 115, 118–120, 179, 181

Conscience collective, 36

Consciousness, 2, 35, 37–39, 111

Conscription, 4, 8, 9, 102, 103, 113, 179

Conservative People’s Party (Højre/Det

konservative folkeparti), 125, 126, 131,

133, 135, 139, 140, 144, 146, 147, 154,

165, 182

Constitution

American, 74, 119, 180

Denmark, 84

Constitutional Monarchy, 9, 108, 111–123

Country militia, 85–86, 89, 93, 95, 97, 101



Index

County School Authority, 105

County School Committees, 105

Cristi, M., 56, 59, 60

Crown, Danish, 61, 86, 99–101

Crusades, 68

Cuius regio, eius religio, 44

Cultural defence, 132, 138, 166, 181, 186, 193



D

Danish Chancery, 95, 105, 106, 112

Danish Conglomerate state, 83, 100, 112

Danish Law of 1685, 41, 88

Danish Lutheran Church (before 1849), 26

Danish National Church (after 1849), 40, 45,

49, 59, 60, 114, 115, 118, 122, 123,

148, 162, 180, 192

Danish People’s Party, 157, 164–168, 171,

172, 182

Darwinism, 20, 51

Dean, 86, 87, 94, 131, 134, 144

De-differentiation, 107, 109, 110, 129,

184–185

Democracy, 4, 5, 9, 58, 61, 68, 101, 108, 113,

120, 125–140, 143, 144, 148, 149, 151,

159–161, 165, 171–175, 180, 186

Democratization, 7, 19, 117, 120, 125–126,

131, 138, 139, 145, 180

Denmark for the people (Social Democratic

Manifesto), 134–135

Desecularization, 25

Deuntzer, J.H., 125

Differentiation, 21, 25–27, 29, 54, 67–69, 71,

75, 76, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 119,

120, 122, 129, 130, 134, 139, 181,

183–186, 193–195

Dobbelaere, K., 3, 26, 29, 33, 55, 184

Doctrine, 28, 104, 138, 145, 163, 164

Duke of Gottorp, 99

Durkheim, E., 1, 17, 19–22, 24–29, 36, 55, 59,

184, 193, 195



E

Educational system, 106, 115, 126, 181, 194

Education, religious, 82, 85, 109, 119, 122,

134, 136, 145, 185

Elias, N., 2, 7, 9, 27, 28, 34, 35, 37–39, 51, 70,

194

Emirbayer, M., 19, 35

Empiricism, 1, 28

England, 9, 71–76, 85, 185



203



Index

Enlightenment, 5, 62, 71, 92, 94, 102, 109,

115, 132, 153, 173, 175, 197

Equestrian schools (rytterskoler), 4, 11, 82, 85,

86, 88, 92–94, 115

Estateowners/landowners, 89, 92–95,

100–103, 111, 117, 121, 191

Estrup, J., 117

EU, 38, 150

European Economic Community (EEC), 150,

157

Exemption, from teaching of religion, 149,

170



F

Finke, R., 1–3, 26, 35, 76, 195–197

Fission, perspective, 6, 186

Flag days, Danish, 57–60

France, 4, 9, 71, 73, 75, 100, 104, 105, 111,

157

Frederik III, 83

Frederik IV, 86, 89, 92, 93, 101

Frederik VI, 104, 108

Freedom of religion, 41, 45, 54, 81, 114, 120,

180

Freedom, religious, 26, 45, 75, 114, 115, 118,

123, 130, 135, 149

Free Schools, 118, 119, 127, 153, 180

Friederich, Duke of Augustenborg, 82, 107

Function, 8, 21, 27, 34, 37, 58, 75, 92, 105,

120, 129, 134, 186

Fundamentalism, 5, 41, 175



G

German confederation/union, 58, 112, 121,

194

Germany, 23, 68, 72, 83, 111, 126, 127, 137,

157, 160, 174, 196

Globalisation, 11, 22, 150, 152–154, 158, 162,

164, 182

Glorious Revolution, 9, 71–76

Great agrarian reforms, 103, 108

Great Northern/Nordic War, 83, 86, 99

Great school commission 1789-1814, 103,

105, 108, 109

Grundtvig, N.F.S., 120, 123, 171



H

Haarder, B., 151–153, 173

Hall, C.C., 115, 118



Heelas, P., 50

Hegel, G.W.F., 6, 70

Heinesen, K., 146, 149

Hobbes, T., 1, 19, 22, 54

Hobsbawm, E., 56

Højrup, T., 2, 6, 11, 28, 37, 126–128, 150, 161,

175, 185, 193, 194, 196

Holidays, American Federal, 56–58

Holistic Federation, 50

Holstein, 112, 113, 120

Holy Roman Empire, 18, 192

Humanism, 2, 3, 33, 34, 48, 50, 51, 53,

62, 193

Humanist association, 48, 49

Human Rights, 49, 149, 150, 157

Huntington, S., 69



I

Identity, 11, 52, 55, 57, 69, 153, 167

IMF, 158

Imitation, 8, 41–42

Immigration, 29, 150, 152, 157, 164–167, 174,

175, 182, 187

Imperialism, 195

Individualization, 192

Indoctrination, political, 144, 147–149, 154

Industrialization, 75

Integration, 27, 41, 59, 182, 183

Intellectual liberty, 38, 127, 132, 148,

149, 151, 154, 160, 161, 171, 172,

174, 182

Inter-religious dynamic, 2, 192

Inter-religious interaction, 69, 195

Islam, 5, 41, 150, 172, 183

Israel, J., 71–75



J

James II, 71, 74, 75

Jews, 39, 43, 44, 55, 70, 81, 173, 196

Jørgensen, A., 84, 89, 151

Jørgensen, J., 135, 140, 181

Justice Party (Retsforbundet), 144



K

Kaspersen, L.B., 3, 6, 28, 35, 37, 101, 112,

113, 150, 193, 196

Korsgaard, O., 105, 111, 123, 126–128, 170

Krag, J.O., 143

Krarup, S., 164



204

L

Larsen, J., 11, 82, 86, 87, 90, 93, 95, 103–105,

107, 112

League of nations, 130, 134

Legitimacy, 8, 20, 44, 88, 90, 103, 121

Lehmann, O., 112

Lex Regia, 45, 68, 82, 84, 85

Liberal Party (Venstre), 125

Louis XIV, 71, 72, 105

Lower Chamber, 7, 113, 121, 125, 129, 131

Luhmann, N., 194

Luther, M., 57, 61, 81, 88, 122, 184

Lutheran, 4, 45, 48, 75, 81, 179, 191, 192

Luther’s Small Catechism, 88, 184



M

Magic, 55, 63

Martin, D., 3, 186, 193, 195, 196

Marx, K., 70

Marxism, 68, 149, 174, 182

McLeod, H., 8, 9

Melchior, A., 147

Methodenstreit, 23, 24, 196

Middle school, 112

Military service, 85, 87, 89, 93, 97, 102,

103

Mimicking, 8, 41–42

Miracles, 69–71

Modernization, 3, 9, 24, 25, 29, 185

Monitorial schooling, 112

Monopoly, religious, 18, 26, 30, 76, 196

Monotheism, 18, 39, 43

Monrad, D.G., 115, 116

Munch, P., 126–128, 154, 160, 165, 166

Muslims, 29, 39, 40, 55, 61, 68, 69, 163, 164,

166, 167, 173–175, 183, 187, 193, 194

Mutual recognition, 6, 59

Mutual teaching, 109, 112

Myth, 52–53, 56–60, 67

Mythology, 7, 11, 56, 59, 83



N

Napoleon, 111

Napoleonic Wars, 111

National Liberal Party/National Liberals, 121

Nationalism, 5, 11, 38, 55, 56, 81, 139, 180,

193

NATO, 143, 150, 158, 159, 164

Natural Law, 1, 19–20, 22, 195, 196

Nazism, 5, 20, 50, 53, 68, 126, 137–138, 140,

161, 181, 191

Neutrality, 126, 143



Index

New Public Management, 161, 163–164, 167,

172, 175

New Testament, 39, 44, 70, 71, 138

Nielsen, T., 139, 146

Nomos, 52

Non-confessional (teaching of religion), 130,

135, 140, 146–149, 175, 184

Nørmark, D., 49

Norway, 41, 49, 50, 85, 88, 91, 93, 95, 111,

120, 164

Nuclear umbrella, 143–144, 151



O

Oath, 4, 5, 74, 89, 91, 115, 147

Occupation, German/Nazi, 5, 57–59, 128,

137–140, 191

OEEC/OECD, 150, 157–159, 168, 172

Old Testament, 39, 44, 70, 138, 145

Orthodox (Lutheranism), 4

Otto I, 68, 192



P

Page, E.J., 34

Parish clerk, 86, 94, 107, 109, 110,

129, 185

Parish council, 117

Parliament, 72–75, 113–123, 131, 135,

144–146, 148, 161–165, 167, 168, 171,

173, 182

Parliamentarianism, 7, 121, 125, 139

Parsons, T., 21–26, 29, 195, 196

Patriotism, 5, 38, 105, 180

People’s Socialist Party (Socialistisk

folkeparti), 165

Pietism, 86, 90, 93, 179

PISA-survey, 159

Pluralism, religious, 43

Poland, 127

Positivism, 28, 195

Power, 6, 9, 20, 46, 47, 52, 62, 70, 72, 73, 75,

82–84, 87, 96, 99–102, 104, 105, 111,

113, 116, 117, 119–122, 125, 127, 132,

137, 139, 146, 150, 164, 165, 167, 180,

181, 184, 192, 196, 197

Prefect, 94, 105, 134

Privatization, 25, 75, 154, 193

Progress Party (Fremskridts Partiet), 166

Protestant Ethic/protestantische ethik, 17,

22–24, 28, 29, 196

Protestantism, 4, 23, 75

Prussia, 4, 9, 82, 100, 112, 113, 121, 180,

185, 194



Index

R

Rasmussen, A.F., 58, 167, 169

Rasmussen, P.N., 157, 166–168

Rational Choice, 35

Rationalization, 24, 25, 29, 104, 161, 193

Recognition, 6, 21, 40, 47, 52, 68, 70, 114,

132, 138

Reformation, 18, 43–45, 55, 61, 73, 81, 82, 88,

100, 101, 104, 184, 191

Relation, inter-religious, 69, 195

Religion, analytical notion of, 51

Religion, definition of, 8, 19, 33, 35–36, 46,

47, 50, 54

Religious change, historical, 2, 3, 9, 27, 34,

114, 181, 186, 187, 192, 197

Reventlow, C.D., 5, 101, 103, 106, 108

Reventlow, J.L., 105–107

Revolution

American, 197

French, 106, 108

Riesebrodt, M., 23, 24, 35, 61

Ritual, 3, 8, 48–50, 52–53, 55, 67, 90–92

Roman Catholic Church, 4, 40, 191

Roman Empire, 4, 18, 42, 43, 45, 67, 70, 81



S

Sacred Canopy, 3–5, 86, 96–97, 103, 108–110,

122–123, 135, 138–140, 154–155,

174–175, 179, 180, 184, 186, 191

Schlüter, P., 151, 152, 157, 167

School act of 1855, 115, 118–119, 180

School Act of 1899, 121, 123

School act of 1904, 129

School act of 1933, 130–131

School act of 1937, 134, 181, 192

School Act of 1949, 144–145

School Act of 1958, 144, 147

School Act of 1975, 38, 138, 144–147, 151,

154, 160, 171, 174, 182

School Act of 1989, 182

School Act of 1990, 154

School act of 1993, 160, 162, 174

School Act of 2003, 175

School Act of 2006, 161, 172, 175

School Authority, regional (skoledirektionen),

131, 134, 144

Schoolbook Commission of 1930, 130, 134

School committee, local (skolekommissionen),

105, 130, 133, 134, 181

School Law of 1739, 90, 92–94, 109, 191

School Law of 1740, 92, 95–96, 109

School law/act of 1814, 96, 99, 104, 105, 123,

180, 185



205

School reforms of 1806, 99, 109

Schoolmaster, 87, 93–95, 97, 104, 106–107,

109, 110, 129, 184, 185

Science, 3, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 53–54, 71, 196

Scientology, 46

Searle, J., 2, 35, 38, 39, 51

Secularization, 1–3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 17–30, 33–35,

41, 48, 53, 55, 62, 74, 75, 97, 107, 109,

114, 116, 117, 120, 122, 123, 130, 139,

144, 145, 149, 154, 169, 181, 183, 184,

186, 187, 191–193, 195–197

concept of, 18, 19, 25, 29, 33

Self-consciousness, 51, 52

Self-organization, 8, 70

Separation of church and state, 41

September 11, 2001, 1, 71, 163–164, 175, 196

Seven Years War, 111

Slesvig, 82, 99, 112, 113, 120

Smith, J.Z., 47, 56, 63

Social Democratic Party/Social Democrats,

125–140, 143, 144, 146, 148, 154, 157,

160, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 172, 181,

182, 192

Social Liberal Party (Det radikale venstre),

125–129, 132, 139, 140, 144, 154, 162,

163, 165–168, 171, 181

Socialism, 128

Socialist People’s Party, 168

Social we, 53

Societalization, 24

Society, 1, 2, 7, 19–23, 25–29, 33, 34, 36, 37,

49, 53, 54, 68, 75, 85, 99–101, 103,

104, 122, 125–128, 131, 136, 139, 143,

148, 152, 157, 160, 161, 164–167,

171–173, 175, 180, 181, 184–186,

192–197

Solidarity, 6, 27, 128, 137, 193

Sovereignty, 8, 29, 58, 67, 68, 84, 158, 179,

185

Soviet Empire, 158

Spain, 73, 74

Specialization, 3, 25, 106, 110, 116, 117, 119,

181, 185

Spencer, H., 20–22, 26, 28, 195

Spirituality, 42, 50, 51, 153

Stark, R., 1–3, 26, 30, 35, 76, 195, 197

State

agency/agency of the state, 2, 3, 9, 17, 29,

71–76, 153, 193, 195–197

form, 112–114

mythology, 83

religion, 43, 45, 59, 67, 71, 96

State-form, 7, 8, 81, 108, 118–120, 139, 148,

154, 155, 180, 181, 183, 196, 197



206

Statute regarding confirmation 1736, 90–91

Stauning, T., 11, 130, 135, 192

Sthyr, H.V., 121–122

Supervisory system, 105, 106, 123, 125, 127,

130–134, 138, 144, 154, 181, 184

Survival unit

Christian, 68

religious survival unit, 2, 11, 37, 45–48,

50, 51, 62, 67, 69, 70, 122

state, 2, 6, 9, 38, 45, 55, 59, 186

Sweden, 37, 41, 42, 83–85, 96, 99, 111, 179,

185, 194

System, 4, 6, 18, 20, 27, 36, 46, 69, 87, 92,

100, 102, 116–119, 122, 123, 126, 127,

137, 138, 147, 164–167, 193, 194



T

Teaching of Religion, 3–5, 8, 10, 11, 38, 41,

82, 85, 86, 88, 89, 96, 97, 99, 103, 104,

108, 109, 113, 116, 118, 120, 123,

125–127, 130, 132–140, 144, 147–152,

154, 155, 170, 171, 174, 175, 179–183,

186, 187, 192, 194, 196

Third Reich, 20, 194

Thirty Years’ War, 18, 74

Toleration Act, 72, 73, 75

Tưnnies, F., 22, 26, 28, 195

Tørnỉs, U., 168, 169

Tschannen, O., 1, 3, 17, 22, 184, 192

Turner, V., 52, 58



U

UN, 158, 164

Unification church, 127



Index

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR),

60, 158, 160, 161, 163, 175, 182, 194

Upper Chamber, 7, 113, 114, 121, 131, 144,

154

Urbanization, 75

US/USA, 3, 5, 26, 30, 35, 56–60, 75, 76, 143,

158, 159, 163, 164, 193, 195, 196



V

Van Gennep, A., 52

Vestager, M., 168, 171, 172

Vicar, 40, 41, 84, 87, 89, 91, 93, 94, 105–107,

117, 120, 122, 123, 129–134, 136, 138,

139, 145, 154

Vienna Congress, 111

W

War on Terror, 163–164, 186, 187

Warsaw pact, 158

Weber, M., 6, 17, 18, 22–26, 28, 29, 40, 196

Welfare state, 127, 128, 143–155, 160, 161,

165, 167, 169–172, 174, 181, 182

Westphalian Peace Treaty, 44

William of Orange/William III, 71–76

Woodhead, L., 50

World Bank, 150, 158, 159

World-view, 18, 33, 53, 97, 107, 108,

153, 195

World War I, 126

World War II, 5, 21, 58, 126, 137–138, 140,

143, 154, 157, 158, 181, 182, 186, 187,

195

Worm, Bishop C., 87



WTO, 158



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