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3 Forming Values: The Mature Person Once and Now

3 Forming Values: The Mature Person Once and Now

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19.3



Forming Values: The Mature Person Once and Now



295



but past experience indicates that in a continuing relationship it will be helpful in the long

run.” Past and future are both in this moment and enter into the valuing.

The criterion of the valuing process is the degree to which the object of the experience

actualizes the individual himself. Does it make him a richer, more complete, more fully

developed person? This may sound as though it were a selfish or unsocial criterion, but it

does not prove to be so, since deep and helpful relationships with others are experienced as

actualizing. (Rogers 1964, pp. 164–165)



Interestingly, people around the globe tend to prefer the same value directions in

a climate of respect and freedom (Rogers 1964). Even though mature people would

not have a stable system of conceived values, the valuing process within them

would lead to emerging value directions being constant across cultures. The

resulting values would be re-formed on the basis of organismic experience taking a

complex vector of immediate and past, inner and external experience into account

along with an estimate of the future. People “would tend to value those objects,

experiences, and goals which make for their own survival, growth, and development, and for the survival and development of others” (Rogers 1964 p. 166).

As a consequence, people with a fluid valuing process are assumed to become

more readily adaptive to new challenges and situations. They must be accurate in

their appreciation of ever changing “reality,” able to select that which is valuable

even in complex, unfamiliar situations.

Thus, specified but unspecific value directions appear to be universal!

Intriguingly, they are not imposed by some external source or authority but emerge

from the experiencing of people, being directed toward their and their peers’ survival and development. Rogers’ idea is that

though modern man no longer trusts religion or science or philosophy nor any system of

beliefs to give him his values, he may find an organismic valuing base within himself

which, if he can learn again to be in touch with it, will prove to be an organized, adaptive

and social approach to the perplexing value issues which face all of us (Rogers 1964,

p. 166).



So what can we deduce from this for peoples’ communication at the modern

workplace? Astonishingly, not too much seems to have changed regarding the

nature of the challenges of “modern man” from 1964 to the one of now, half a

century later. What has changed is the speed and scope of communication and the

increase of complexity, information, technological opportunities and thus the scope

of choices and interdependencies among us and the technological services we

depend on. Hence, we conjecture that what Rogers experienced and theorized to be

needed for the mature person of his days is even more extensively and urgently

needed in our time. And it is needed not only for decision-makers, leaders, and

managers but increasingly for all employees who participate in a project or

department and who are co-responsible for its success.

Drawing on Rogers’ work (1964) let us characterize those directions of personal

growth that appear to be most relevant for the work context. People moving toward

maturity:



296



19



The Social and Value Ramification: Well-Functioning Teams …



• Tend to move away from facades. Pretense, defensiveness, and putting up a

front, all tend to be negatively valued. Being real is positively valued. Mature

people at work tend to move toward being themselves, expressing their real

feelings, being what they are and putting their unique strengths to practice. This

seems to be a very significant preference.

• Come to value openness to all of their inner and outer experience. To be open

and sensitive to their own inner reactions and feelings, the reactions and feelings

of others and the realities of the objective world becomes a most valued

resource.

• Value self-direction positively. An increasing confidence and satisfaction in

making one’s own choices and guiding one’s own course of action is discovered. One’s reactions are considered as being relevant and worthwhile.

• Sense being a process as something valuable rather than troubling. From

desiring some fixed goal, people come to prefer the excitement about a process

of potentialities being manifested.

• Value sensitivity to others and acceptance of others positively. Peers come to

appreciate others for who they are, just as they have come to respect themselves

for who they are.

• Long for deep, genuine, and mutually supporting relationships with others. To

achieve a close, real, fully communicative relationship with another colleague,

unit, institution, etc., seems to meet a deep need and is very highly valued.



19.3.1 An Adaptation

The range of people needing a differentiated and flexible valuing process to allow

them to move in the directions described, and deal with ever faster changes, is

rapidly increasing, Indeed, today’s tasks are typically so complex such that they

easily exceed the capacity, creativity, and potentialities of a single person and hinge

on good collaborative relationships with peers (iCom Team 2014; Cornelius-White

et al. 2013). This calls for one essential adaptation of the valuing process: The locus

of evaluation needs to shift to include, besides one’s own organism, more prominently the interwoven, valued, undistorted “messages” of one’s peers, regardless of

their position in an organizational hierarchy. All of the case examples in this book

unequivocally communicated that message.

So, in addition to the criterion of the valuing process being the degree to which

the object of the experience actualizes the individual himself, there would be

another criterion to complement the original one: The degree to which the object of

the experience reciprocally co-actualizes the relationship system, be it partners, a

team, a department or a community. Does it make the relationship partners both or

all move forward (in the longer run), do members experience their relationships as

mutually supportive rather than constraining them unnecessarily, is the team viable?



19.3



Forming Values: The Mature Person Once and Now



297



Let us spell out some of the additional directions for this adapted valuing process

supporting co-actualization. People in teams, (business-)partnerships, departments

moving to a better co-functioning need, in particular:



19.3.2 Contact

• They tend to connect, keep in touch, and consult each other whenever they feel

they can be more effective, happy, confident, safe, etc., together than on their

own.

• They express genuine interest rather than attempting to control the other. They

respect and dynamically balance their needs both for autonomy and relatedness.



19.3.3 Transparency and Openness

• They nurture the transparent flow of information with an expressiveness and

clarity of meaning in both formal and informal communicative interchanges

(Barrett-Lennard 1998).

• They are as open as possible to their and the others’ experience. These people

welcome such sharing as a source of expansion and promote it appropriately.

• They achieve the goals agreed on by engaging each member of the team in a

manner that invites openness, both emotional and intellectual, whenever

appropriate.

• They allow to admit personal weakness as well as to present personal power.



19.3.4 Respect and Inclusion

• They foster a sense of mutual respect and support for one another, even in times

of crisis.

• People promote the unfolding of the other as well as self and the work

relationship. This can happen by including the other(s) and aiming to provide

space and opportunities for them to be present, contributing, and facilitative or

cooperative in their own, unique ways. This will allow relationship partners to

feel accepted (by others and self) and to express acceptance.

• They reduce negative stress and transform it into creative tension. This can

happen by realizing autonomy and self-acceptance concurrently with respecting

the other(s) and the work environment.



298



19



The Social and Value Ramification: Well-Functioning Teams …



19.3.5 Encompassing Understanding

• They aim to understand the messages of the other(s) as thoroughly and completely as possible, and express themselves in a way that makes it easy for the

other(s) to understand them.

• They appreciate that conflicting goals, directions, and opinions tend to create

tension. They can live with ambiguity when being confronted with—and open

to—conflicting data.

• They acknowledge that if they manage to deal with problems cooperatively, that

may even strengthen their relationship or lead to some transformation that helps

both/all relationship partners to move forward.



19.3.6 Collaboration and Interdependence

• People feel an active, genuine interest in the other and the relationship. This is

expressed in transparent sharing of ideas, meanings, feelings, goals, work,

reactions, etc., whenever deemed appropriate. It is further expressed in the

peers’ making way for each other as an expression of mutual interest and their

experience or expectation of their “we” as having resources in addition to those

of each single person. Each peer finds meaning in his/her own experience

(self-trust), looks for it in what the other expresses, and draws on both jointly

and separately discovered meanings (Barrett-Lennard 1998, p. 182).

• They approach relationships with a cooperative attitude. They tend to collaborate or “compete” in a friendly, playful fashion rather than feed destructive

rivalry, distortion or ignorance in their relationship.

• They are mindfully aware of their own need to actualize themselves as well as

the tendency of the relationship to form as a larger, more complex, dynamically

ordered whole. This awareness extends to the bond a relationship may create,

the influence it exerts on the partners, and the effects it receives and passes on

through interacting within the team or organization and with the environment.

• They create a pervasive sense of togetherness that strengthens the team or group

because of the caring that each has for the others.

• They are aware that genuine communication is an engine for change.



19.4



Conclusion and Final Call to Action



Yes, transformative communication is contagious by nature—you cannot hold on to

it on your own but need to share it with others. To us, it is transformative in two

ways. One the one hand, it transforms rigid, ingrained communication patterns to



19.4



Conclusion and Final Call to Action



299



flexible, task- and people-oriented practices. On the other hand, it transforms the

cutting-edge values and competencies from Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach to a

timely as well as deeply natural approach to healthy, honest, and effective communication in the workplace. If you have had the experience that this transformative

wave has reached some aspect in your own awareness, then we consider the purpose of our book as fulfilled.



References

Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1998). Carl Rogers’ helping system: Journey and substance. London, UK:

SAGE Publications.

Cornelius-White, J. H. D., Motschnig-Pitrik, R., & Lux, M. (2013). Interdisciplinary applications

of the person-centered approach. New York, USA: Springer.

iCom Team. (2014). Constructive communication in international teams an experience based

guide. Münster, DE: Waxmann.

Rogers, C. R. (1964). Toward a modern approach to values: The valuing process in the mature

person. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(2), 160–167.



Index



Note: Page numbers followed by b, f, and t indicate boxes, figures, and tables,

respectively.

A

Acceptance, 36, 41

Accusation, 80, 82

Active listening, 5, 11, 31b, 111

Actualizing

capacity, 9

principle, 209

tendency, 164, 210

Administration, 60, 65

ADPCA, 81

Agenda item, 30–33

2agendas@work, 23, 24t, 28

Agile

management, 185, 192–193

manifesto, 201, 202

methods, 6t

people, 200–201

principles, 201–205

values, 201–205

Agility, 259–260

Ainley, V., 128

Allee, V., 200

Ambiguity, 25, 6t

Amygdala, 229, 231, 238, 241

Amygdala hijack, 229, 230

Anatomy, 251

default-mode network (DMN), 252

task-positive network (TPN), 251

Anatomy of brain, 229–231

Anderson, D. J., 185

Andrews-Hanna, J. R., 251, 252

Anger, 231–233, 236, 240, 241

Antagonistic, 250, 252, 255–257, 259

Appreciative approach, 95–97

Appreciative inquiry, 171

Articulating, 149

Assessment, 32, 36, 37



Atmosphere, 9, 61

Authenticity, 117, 129

Autobiographical memory, 252

Autonomy support, 35

Avery, D. R., 275, 283, 283f

Awareness, 51–53, 55

B

Bales R. F., 251

Baron, B., 14

Bar-On, R., 257

Barrett-Lennard, G. T., 25, 36, 143, 158, 164,

181, 196, 197, 198

Barriers in communication, 162

Basic emotions, 228, 231, 242, 245

Bass, B. M., 128

Beck, K., 201, 202

Beissner, F., 252

Bennis, W., 11, 26

Bernier, A., 35

Bethlehem, R. A., 251

Big picture, 24t

Biven, L., 236, 239, 244, 245

Blake and Mouton grid, 26

Blake, R., 26, 253

Body, 93, 96

Body language, 93, 96

Body posture, 93

Böhm, C., 223, 275

Bohm, D., 8, 139–142, 144, 145, 152

Boisot, M. H., 102

Bowen, M., 99

Boyatzis, R. E., 252, 256, 260

Brain, 12, 13

Brain networks, 28

Bryant, A., 13

Buckner, R. L., 250



© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

R. Motschnig and D. Ryback, Transforming Communication in Leadership

and Teamwork, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45486-3



301



302

Bushe, G. R., 171

Business, 92, 93, 95

C

Cain, D. J., 119, 120, 139, 158

Capacity, 7, 9, 19

Care, 228, 231, 236–240, 242

Case-example, 17

Case provider, 165–169

Case-story, 82

Case-study, 14, 63–66

CEO, 91–93, 95, 96

Cerebellum, 229

Cerebral cortex, 229, 230

Chair, 69–73, 76–78

Challenges, 5, 6t, 6

decision-making, speed of, 13

empathy and beyond, 16–18

fluid communication process, 13–14

integrating uniquely personal qualities, 15

rapid change, 16

teams and groups, collaboration in, 18–19

virtual space, effective use of, 15

workplace, feelings in, 12–13

Change, 5, 10, 14, 16

Change process, 94

Chicago, 59, 62–65

Cingulate cortex, 252

Clarity, 48

Climate change, 6

Cloud, J., 12

Coaching, 85, 86

Co-actualization, 196, 296, 297

Co-actualizing, 31, 75

community, 9

principle, 209

Cognition, 45

Cognitive, 45, 253

neuroscience, 273

Coherence, 135–136, 145

Cohesion, 237, 239

Collaborating, 5

Collaboration, 18–19

Collaborative attitude, 31, 37

Collaborative problem-solving, 210–211

Collective creativity, 103–104

Collective intelligence, 141, 152

Columbia University, 40

Commitment, 181, 187

Communication, 3, 6t, 9, 11–15

paths, 6t

skills, 270

Communication workshop, 171

person-centered, 160–163



Index

summary and outlook, 163–164

Community transformation

cultural transformation, 104

IFF’s shared assumptions, 100–101

inquiry process, 101–102

international futures forum, 99–100

invocation, 103

listening, 102

participants, 102–103

unleashing collective creativity, 103–104

Competition, 4, 6t, 60, 66, 86, 113, 211t, 240,

244, 251, 256, 291

Competitive, 25, 28, 40

Complex feelings, 231, 238, 241

Complexity, 6t, 7

Compromise, 186, 189, 191

Confidence, 236, 237, 244

Conflict, 25, 26, 28, 33, 34, 40, 41

Congruence, 71, 73, 75, 77

ConnectAbility, 14

Consciousness, 46

Constructive atmosphere, 109

Contact, 24t, 30-32, 36, 39, 41, 275, 277, 292,

297

Contemporary leadership, 5, 16. See also

Leadership

Contemporary workplace, 6t

Cooperation, 10

Cooperrider, D. L., 171

Co-reflecting, 31, 33

Cornelius-White, J. H. D., 25, 164, 272, 273

Co-sensing, 31

Counseling center, 59, 61, 63, 65, 66

Creative tension, 25-26

Creativity, 103–105

Crises, 61, 62

Csikszentmihalyi, M., 83

Cultural constructs, 277, 285

Cultural transformation, 104

Culture, 10, 16

D

Damasio, A. R., 129, 200, 232, 273

Damoiseaux, J. S., 250

Darwin, C., 245

David, C. -P., 186

Dayton Agreement, 186

De Dreu, C. K., 244

Dean, 61, 62

Deci, E. L., 124

Decision-making, 5, 12, 13, 15, 16

Deep listening, 101, 105

Default-mode network (DMN), 250–256, 258,

260



Index

Defense, 114, 127

Democracy, 4

Democratic participation, 101

Depression, 101, 104

Development, 200–202

Dialogue, 8, 12, 139–142

dialogue practices, limitations of, 151–152

listening, 143–145

respecting, 145–147

suspending, 147–148

voicing, 148–151

vs. discussion, 152–153

Dialogue practice, 151–152

Difference, 70, 72, 75

Diplomacy, 40, 41

Direct communication, 265. See also

Communication

Discipline, 6t

Discussion, 152–153

Disgust, 231

Diversity, 5, 6t, 272, 275, 276, 278, 283, 283f,

284

Doyle, M., 24

Druskat, V. U., 17

Duhigg, C., 18

E

Economy, 6, 19

Education, 9, 10

Effective communication, 9. See also

Communication

Effective manager, 86

Ekman, P., 231

Elephant in the room, 63

Elke Lambers, 71, 72, 72f

Ellinor, L., 152, 152t

Email, 70, 71, 76, 77

Emotion, 6t, 17

Emotional intelligence, 12

Empathic understanding, 9, 117–121, 134, 228,

272

context of, 121–123

question, 282

Empathy, 6t, 12, 16–19, 117–121

Empowerment, 6t, 35, 149

Encompassing understanding, 209, 298

Encounter, 99

group, 163

Encouragement, 72

Enfoldment, 149

Entrepreneur, 5

Ernie Meadows, 81

Ethic, 85

Evolution, 4



303

Experience, 6–10, 15, 17, 19

Experiencing, 278–280

Experiential learning, 24, 40

F

Face-to-face contact, 202, 204

Facilitation, 70, 71

Facilitator, 79, 80, 83–85, 88

Faith, 46, 47, 50

Falkirk, 100–106

Farson, R. E., 111, 119

Fascism, 4

Fear, 113, 123, 228, 231–233, 236–241, 244

Feedback, 256, 257

Feelings, 12–13, 16

Fight-or-flight, 229

Fisher, R., 188

Flexibility, 6t, 15, 19

Flexible structure, 110

Flow, 45, 51, 55

Fox, M. D., 250

Freedom, 8

French S. E., 255

Freud, 236

Fully-functioning person, 86, 236

G

Gandhi, 14

Gardner, H., 25

Gendlin, E., 217

General law of interpersonal relationships, 195

Genuineness, 9, 117, 128, 131, 136

Gerard, G., 152, 152t

Gladwell, M., 230

Globalization, 5, 6t

Goldstein, K., 28

Goleman, D., 12, 25, 229, 232

Goodall, J., 4

Gordon, T., 12, 28

Gorillas, 4

Government, 101, 105

Grafanaki, S., 71

Graham, S., 256

Grief, 228, 232, 233, 236, 243

Group, 3, 4, 8, 15–19

Group process, 80

Guastella, A. J., 244

Güver, S., 117, 280

H

Haasis, K., 94

Habits, 271, 277, 279, 283

Hagmann, P., 252

Happiness, 231



304

Head, 7

Heart, 7, 17

Helgoe, L. A., 131

Helix Park, 104

Henry Ford, 5

Hierarchical, 61, 63, 65

High-performing teams, 208

Highsmith, J., 200, 201

Hiring, 60

Historical overview, 3

Horn, A., 250

Hostile environment, 79–81, 87

Human resources representatives, 263

Humanistic, 64, 65, 66

Huy, Q. N., 17

Hypno-systemic coaching, 93

I

iCom, 15

Ideology, 72

Implicate order, 149

Impulse control, 35

Inclusion, 6t, 15

Independence, 149

Information-source, 6t

Inhibitory links, 252

Inquiry, 146, 149

Integrity, 79–81, 83, 86–89

Intelligence, 7, 12

Intensity, 77

Intensive group, 155, 156, 161, 165, 169–171

features and tendencies, 157

person-centered, 158–160

summary and outlook, 163–164

Interaction, 78

Intercultural, 117, 127, 163, 272, 273, 285

Interdependence, 6t

Interface condition, 63, 65

International Futures Forum (IFF), 99–106

Internet time, 5, 6i

Internet, 6t, 12, 14, 15

Interoceptive awareness, 129

Interpersonal climate, 10

Interpersonal relationships, 6t, 8, 11, 19, 86

Isaacs, W., 139, 142–144, 146–150, 153

J

Jack A. I., 251–255, 259

Job interviews, 211–213, 214, 215

preparation for, 213



Index

Johnson, D. W., 189, 208, 216, 220, 221, 223

Johnson, F. P., 189, 208, 216, 220, 221, 223

Jour fixe, 179–180

K

Kabat-Zinn, J., 171

Kahneman, D., 230

Keane, R., 186

Kelpies, 104

Kousez, J. M., 128

Kriz, J., 28

L

Lago, C., 145, 164, 284, 285

Larson, J., 217

Leader, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19

Leadership, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16

dimension, 27f

history, 3

styles, 26–29

theories of, 3

Learning, 8, 10, 13

Lee Iaccocca, 5

Leicester, G., 19, 100–104, 228, 253

Lencioni, P., 17

Lewin, Kurt, 25

Lieberman, M. D., 253

Life-long learning, 40, 41

Limbic system, 229–232, 236

Limbic tango, 232, 233, 235

Linear thinking, 200

Listening, 11, 16

Locus of evaluation, 296

Logic, 24t

Lopes, P. N., 66

Lust, 228, 232, 236, 241–242

Lux, M., 273

Lynch, M., 124, 273

M

Management, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13

Manager, 8, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19

Manager-team interaction, 48–51

Marlow, I., 16

Mars, R. B., 252, 253

Marshall Plan, 4

Maslow, A., 228

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),

8, 156

Mature person, 294–298



Index

McMillan, M., 164

Meetings, 3, 5–9, 12, 13, 15, 61, 65

Meta-communication, 52. See also

Communication

Meta-culture, 271, 283–285

Meyer-Lindenberg, A., 244

Mindfulness, 171

Mission statement, 24t

Mobbs, D., 245

Modality, 259

Moormon, J., 189

Motivation, 6t, 10

Motschnig, R., 25, 129, 130, 276–278, 285

Motschnig-Pirtik, R., 10, 11, 12, 19, 25, 28,

155–157, 159, 161, 163t, 163, 164, 171,

181, 196, 200, 202, 208, 222, 223, 260,

273, 275, 283, 284, 286

Mount, G., 13

Mouton, J., 26, 253

Multi-cultural projects, 275–280

Multi-cultural teams, 279–282

Multi-dimensional intelligences, 25

Multiple realities, 6t

N

Nasr, S., 253

Negotiation, 175, 185–189, 191

Neocortex, 229, 231, 238

Nervous system, 229

Neural network, 251, 252

Neuro-leadership, 228, 237, 246. See also

Leadership

Neurological, 256

Neuroscience, 17, 227, 230, 237, 246

transformational empathy, 231–235

New brain, 228, 231, 236

Non-judgmental, 40, 89

Northwestern University, 34

Nucleus accumbens, 238

Nykl, L., 25, 129, 130, 156, 159, 161, 163,

164, 171, 222, 223, 273, 276–278, 285

O

O’Hara, M., 9, 19, 46, 100–104, 208, 228, 253

Old brain, 228, 231

Open case, 155

discussion and variations, 169–170

participants, 168–169

preconditions, 165–166

process, 166–168



305

summary and outlook, 170–171

Openness, 34, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42

Openness to experience, 228

Opportunities at work

decision-making, speed of, 13

empathy and beyond, 16–18

feelings, workplace, 12–13

fluid communication process, 13–14

integrating uniquely personal qualities, 15

rapid change, 16

teams and groups, collaboration in, 18–19

virtual space, effective use of, 15

O’Reilly, C., 16

Organismic, 10

Organization, 6t, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16

Organizational change, 143, 159

Organizational development, 6t, 79, 93, 201

Orientation, 27, 28, 41

Overpopulation, 6

Oxytocin, 244

P

Paleolithic emotions, 238, 240

Panksepp, J., 228, 231, 236, 237, 239–241,

243–245, 251

Paradigm, 8, 10–11

Paradox, 34

Paraphrasing, 162

Parietal junction, 252

Participative management, 60–63

Patterns, 277, 279

Peat, D., 141

People-oriented, 19

People-oriented agenda, 23, 24t, 24–26

agenda items, 30–33

core principle, 29

features of, 33–34

origin, 30

preconditions, 34–41

Person-centered approach (PCA), 3, 5, 8, 9

emergent paradigm, 10–11

historical perspective, 11–12

Person-centered atmosphere, 9

Person-centered attitudes, 135, 136f, 136

Person-centered conditions, 88

Person-centered leadership, 69. See also

Leadership

Personal contact, 265, 269

Personal development, 6t, 200

Play, 228, 231, 236–240, 243



306

Politics, 4, 17

Positive leadership, 94. See also Leadership

Positive regard, 117, 123, 124, 192, 194, 244,

245

Posner, B. Z., 128

Power, 32, 41

Pre-cognitive, 6, 8

Preconditions, 24, 34–41

Prefrontal cortex, 229, 230, 236, 239

Presence, 8

Primary emotions, 235

confidence and PLAY, 237

decision-making, 241–243

FEAR, and relief, 236–237

manage feelings, 238–240

reciprocity and CARE, 237

stress, 236–237

trust and interplay of emotions, 238

Problem solving, 74, 77

Process of listening, 5

Psychotherapy, 236

Q

Quality, 69, 70, 78

Questionnaire, 34, 37

R

Rage, 228, 232, 233, 236, 238, 240, 241

Raichle, M. E., 250

Rapid change, 6t, 16

Rapport, 23, 24

Rational decision making, 153

Reaction sheets, 163, 169

Recency, 265

Reflection, 40

Relatedness, 209, 210

Relationship-oriented leadership, 27f. See also

Leadership

Relationship paradigm, 36

Repertoire, 45, 47, 52, 55

Respect, 5, 9, 14, 15, 18

Respecting, 142, 145–147

Revolution, 4

Riggio, R. E., 128

Risk, 15, 17, 18

Riters, L. V., 244, 251

Rivalry, 31

Rode, J. C., 66

Roethlisberger, F.J., 113



Index

Rogers, C. R., 5, 6, 12, 17, 25, 28, 77, 99,

109–111, 113, 117, 119, 123–125,

128–131, 133–136, 139, 153, 155–159,

163t, 164, 171, 191, 192, 195, 199, 205,

207, 210, 227–229, 231, 236, 237, 245,

249, 254, 255, 258, 263, 272, 291, 295

Russel, D. E., 164, 171

Ryan, R. M., 124

Ryback, D., 12, 14, 16, 18, 25, 28, 66, 130,

141, 153, 186, 245, 253, 254, 260, 273

S

Sadness, 231–233, 236, 243

Sanchez-Burke, J., 17

Sanders, J. J., 254

Schilbach, L., 253

Schmid, P. F., 164, 223

Science, 6–9

Seeking, 228, 231, 236, 238, 241, 243

Self determination theory (SDT), 35, 124

Self-confidence, 9

Self-directing, 9

Self-enhancing, 10

Self-esteem, 239

Self-expressive, 9

Self-management, 93

Self-organization, 6t, 8

Self-regulation, 252

Seligman, M. E. P., 83, 228

Senge, P. M., 159, 164, 181, 183, 185, 253

Sensitivity, 6t, 16, 18

Servant leadership, 70. See also Leadership

Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., 244

Shared power, 62

Shared responsibility, 6t

Shared vision, 175, 180–185, 198

Sharing, 30–31, 33, 37, 41

Shifting, 258, 259

Significant learning, 165

Silani, G., 273

Silence, 278

Social media, 213, 221

Society, 6

Socio-environmental conditions, 24t, 24

Speaker, 111–113, 124

Speed of decision-making, 5, 13

Spencer, L. M., 66

Split-second decision, 12

Staff meetings, 61, 65



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3 Forming Values: The Mature Person Once and Now

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