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D. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Activity

D. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Activity

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7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



255



Part 2 of the ERP: The subcategory of active persons achieved an increase in

average performance of 1.33 correct answers (40.0 %). The subcategory of less

active persons reached an average increase of performance of 2.00 correct answers

(85.1 %). These values indicate a higher level of effectiveness achieved in the subcategory of less active persons—by 45.1 %.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: Depending on the implementation of entire

experimental programme, the same average increase by 2.0 correct answers occurs

in both subcategories. For the subcategory of active persons, this value represents a

relative increase in reading comprehension by 60.0 %. In the group of less active

persons, the same value means 85.1 %. Difference in the efficiency of the experiment between both groups represents the relative value of 25.1 % in favour of less

experienced persons.

Discussion

The results, obtained due to the comparison of the average results of reading

comprehension test achieved by the probands in the two observed subcategories

in the pre-test, indicate the existence of dependence between person’s activity

and performance. Also in this case, a higher level of performance was found in

persons included in the subcategory of more active. It is clear from the data

shown in the table in Fig. 7.63 that persons with higher level of manifested



EG



VA



Age



Reading exper.



Activity



higher



lower



younger



older



exper.



inexp.



yes



no



2.6



3.00



2.00



2.50



3.25



3.25



2.00



3.33



2.33



T1/2A

(%)



15.4



8.3



25.0



10.0



15.3



16.7



12.5



20.0



0



T2/3A

(%)



92.3



75.0



100



100



46.2



66.7



112.5



40.0



85.1



T1/3A

(%)



107.

7



83.3



125.0



110.0



61.5



83.4



125.0



60.0



85.1



T1A

(



)



Fig. 7.63 Results of intervening variables in the area of reading comprehension. EG—experimental group—the arithmetic average of measured values (n = 10)—the number of correctly answered

questions reflecting the basic information value of the text; VA—relative improvement in reading

comprehension in the subcat. of higher/lower degree of vis. acuity; Age—relative improvement in

reading comprehension in the subcategory of younger/older; Reading exp.—relative improvement

in reading comprehension in the subcat. with higher/lower degree of VA; Activity—relative

improvement in reading comprehension in the subcategory of active/less active; T1A—average

number of correct answers in individual subcategories during the first testing; T1/2A—increase in

performance based on the completion of the first part of the experimental programme (%); T2/3A—

increase in performance based on the completion of the second part of the experimental programme (%); T1/3A—increase in performance based on the completion of the entire experimental

programme (%)



256



7 Results of the Research



activity achieved higher performances already at the beginning of rehabilitation,

especially in relation to their own effort in self-education and modification of

external conditions.

In the part of the programme aimed at environmental adaptation and modification,

the experiment confirmed a significantly higher contribution for the subcategory

of active persons (by 20.0 %), while there was no improvement in the subcategory

of the less active. These values confirm an important relationship of the category of

reading comprehension with the cognitive and activation level—i.e. the effect of

independent participation and activity on performance due to a higher effectiveness

of unwitting learning (the influence of repetition of the same structure of experimental test as in the pre-test). This connection is also confirmed by the fact that

despite higher levels of modifications of reading conditions implemented to the

probands belonging to the subcategory of less active, no improvement occurred

here. One of the reasons could be the fact that all the less active probands were at

the same time the less experienced therefore unable to achieve an increase in performance in this category of skills without educational intervention.

The educational part presented, as expected, a major contribution to the resulting increase in performance. More than double the benefit (by 85.1 %) was

detected in the subcategory of the less active compared to the results of the active.

Also the level of improvement in the subcategory of active persons provides the

convincing evidence to the vital contribution of the educational part to the final

effect (improvement of 40.0 %). But still, these data speak about the significant

superiority of the effect of educational part of the programme for the subcategory

of less active persons. It can be postulated that a person with lower level of his/

her own activity can achieve a higher performance rather with direct educational

guidance and regular interventions than independently or through one-time outpatient consultation.

The values of effectiveness of the ERP in the category of reading comprehension

clearly demonstrate significance for both monitored subcategories. A higher level of

usefulness was found in the subcategory of persons with lower degree of personal

activity. This can be attributed, besides the previously mentioned facts, to the significantly lower degree of initial performance.



7.2.3.5



Discussion to the Category of Reading Comprehension



While the category of reading comprehension clearly belongs to the basic competences of the adult person, still a due attention has not been paid in the Czech

Republic to a closer specification and research of this particular category in the relation to the target group of persons with low vision. Reading is generally considered

one of the most important sources of information. One of the observed criteria in the

area of diagnostics of level of reading skills is the degree of comprehension and

ability to interpret text during reading, which were further specified and statistically

verified by Matějček, Šturma, Vágnerová and Žlab during the process of standardization of reading tests in paediatric population. Not even here, however, the level of



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



257



comprehension and ability to reproduce has been quantified.11 We decided not to use

the term ‘text comprehension’ in this work because of different research objectives.

While standardized reading tests monitor the degree of the understanding of read

text to assess the level of literacy in reading, the applied measurement of reading

skills in the target group of adults with low vision focuses primarily on finding the

current rate of usability of read text and on obstacles to the use of the skill.

Even though the issue of the effect of visual impairment on reading comprehension has not been specifically studied in the Czech Republic, its importance is

clearly reflected in the interest of both domestic and foreign experts. The interest in

the development of reading comprehension is associated with the comprehensive

concept of vision rehabilitation and development of reading skills—for instance

Jesenský (1994), Papík (1992), Moravcová (2005), Skalická (2007). Thus, the result

of monitoring the initial level of reading comprehension and its development on the

basis of implementation of the ERP can be considered an important source of input

data for a number of more specific researches. Due to the way of research organization, these data are interpreted without any generalization claims—they are attributed the validity of a hypothetical assumption of the existence of following

dependences.

The results achieved in the subcategories of observed variables will be again

compared between themselves as well as related to the average result found in the

basic experimental group (n = 10). All of the following data relate to the category of

the level of reading comprehension and are clearly structured in the table in

Fig. 7.63.

The average performance measured in the pre-test of the ERP in the basic group

(n = 10) represents the value of 2.6 correct answers. The most significant differences

related to the individual subcategories of variables were found in the variables: level

of reading experience (experienced readers answered 3.25 questions correctly,

while the less experienced 2.00; the difference is 1.25 questions), degree of VA (persons with higher level of VA answered on average by one correct answer more than

persons with lower VA) and level of activity (the more active were able to give by 1

correct answer more than the less active). The resulting values indicate the existence

of dependence of reading comprehension on reading experience, visual acuity and

activity of persons providing that the person has not received any professionally

guided rehabilitation intervention.

Due to the comparison of values found during the application of results into

individual typologies, we can conclude that the highest performance without any

previous professional intervention was achieved by the probands belonging to the

following categories: experienced readers ( x 3.25 correct answers), active ( x

3.33 correct answers) and persons with higher visual acuity ( x 3.00 correct

answers). In contrast, a lower performance was achieved in the subcategories:

11



Diagnosis of the developmental phases of text comprehension is performed through an open narrative in children. Thus, there is a high rate of complications in looking for unifying means for the

sake of quantification. As one of the most serious complications Matějček named difference in the

quantity of read content units as the source of narration (Matějček et al., 1992).



258



7 Results of the Research



persons with lower degree of VA and less experienced readers (in both groups x

2.00 correct answers).

The overall primary level of performance in the category of reading comprehension was assessed as reduced. The results obtained in both subcategories of VA

variable did not meet even the average values of all probands, and are therefore

seriously inadequate. This level testifies to the need to restructure the rehabilitation

support of persons who need to use optical devices and other specific means for

reading. We are in agreement here with Moravcová, Skalická, Jesenský and others,

who stress in their publications the need of development of vision rehabilitation as

both educational and rehabilitation concept.

Another observed relationship is the effect of individual variables on increase in

performance based on the first part of the ERP (environmental adaptation and modification). The relative value of improvement by 15.4 % was found in the experimental

group (n = 10). The most significant positive effect of environmental adaptation was

observed in the subcategories of persons with lower VA (improvement in performance by 25.0 %) and active (improvement in performance by 20.0 %). Thus, the

highest level of the dependence of improvement of reading comprehension on environmental adaptation can be assumed in these categories. In contrast, the lowest

level of improvement occurred in less active persons (increase in performance 0 %),

in persons with higher degree of VA (improvement by 8.3 %) and with lower degree

of reading experience (improvement by 12.5 %). On the basis of these results, a

lower level of effectiveness of environmental adaptation can be assumed in these

subcategories. A dependent variable is the individual level of modification of conditions achieved on the basis of independent activities of each individual. The observed

result in the subcategory of persons with lower degree of VA confirms that environmental adaptation and modification of conditions is a key determinant for this group,

on the basis of which they achieve an increase in performance in all the three observed

categories of reading; the correlation published by Matějček et al. (1992) applies

here between reading rate, reading accuracy and reading comprehension.

Based on the implementation of the educational part of the experiment, the average value of improvement in the experimental group (n = 10) was 92.3 %. This is a

very significant improvement in performance based on the education and training of

the content extraction of text—concentration and memory. The observed outcome

confirms the internationally recognized concept of Bäckman (1998), who focused

his attention on the training of visual skills in persons with low vision (including

education and training of understanding and concentration). Differences in achieved

relative improvement on the basis of educational part of the programme showed

significant in all the observed variables. The most significant difference was found in

the variable of age (an improvement in performance was achieved in the subcategory

of the younger by 53.8 % more that in the older group). This result confirms the generally accepted fact that older adults have more difficulties with the change of stereotypes and adoption of new habits (for instance reading techniques). The difference

was significant also in the variable of level of reading experience (the experienced

reached resulting efficiency by 51 % higher compared to the inexperienced) and level



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



259



of activity (the less active achieved a higher effect by 46.6 % compared to the active).

It is therefore necessary to assume the existence of influence of all the observed variables on reading performance in the category of reading comprehension in the area

of educational intervention. The highest rate of relative improvement was achieved

in the subcategory of less experienced readers; increase in performance depending

on the educational part of the programme represented 112.5 % in contrast with the

initial state. This result reflects a very significant potential of education for this particular target group, which is, however, influenced by the very low performance

before the beginning of implementation of the programme.

The lowest rate of improvement was demonstrated in the subcategory of older

persons, where the improvement of performance was 46.2 %. The results in this

case reveal a very high level of the correlation of education and increase in performance; it is also necessary to point out the wide range of the level of improvement

on the basis of other intervening variables. The dependence of performance on education and training coincides in this observed category with the generally accepted

knowledge about process of learning and processing of read text in the brain: visual

attention, which is superior to low-level cognitive processes, provides differentiation and selection of the content of information. Visual attention can be influenced

by conscious training (Anton, 2004, 2007; Hurst, 2004; Svoboda, 2005).

The overall increase in performance in the category of reading comprehension,

based on the completion of the entire ERP, achieved the highest level of relative

effectiveness in comparison with the other two observed categories of reading performance. The experimental group (n = 10) showed the average increase in reading

comprehension of 107.7 % compared to the performance in the pre-test. The most

important benefit was brought by the rehabilitation programme in the subcategories

of persons with low VA and inexperienced readers (the overall increase in performance in both cases by 125 %). In both groups, an unfavourable status of initial

performance in the observed category was found; the potential of development was

therefore high. The results show that the implemented programme was instrumental

in the development of this potential. A significantly lower than average value was

found in the subcategories of older persons (increase in performance by 61.5 %),

experienced (83.4 %) and active persons (60.0 %). Even these results can be considered highly significant as they increased original performance by more than 60.0 %

due to only several weeks of interventions.

From the overall perspective, the category of reading comprehension is definitely the area of the greatest potential of rehabilitation development. It was found

that the initial performance in this category was the least developed concerning

self-education.12 Professional guidance brought a significant improvement. The

major means for an increase of the level of reading comprehension is education.

Bäckman (1998) states that a significant aspect (or ‘stumbling block’) of development of reading skills in the perception of content of text is the level of person’s own

12



Persons pay too much attention to the accurate identification of characters, words and phrases

and not enough deliberate attention to selecting and remembering information-essential data from

the text (Gruber, 1996).



260



7 Results of the Research



T1/3A

140



A



120

100



B



B



A



A



80



B



B



A



60

40

20

0

VA



Age



RE



Activity



Fig. 7.64 Graphical representation of the degree of effect of intervening variables on the level of

increase in reading comprehension depending on the implementation of the entire ERP. VA—visual

acuity variable: A—subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA; B—with lower degree of

VA; Age—age variable: A—subcategory of younger persons; B—subcategory of older persons;

RE—reading experience variable: A—subcategory with higher level of RE; B—with lower level

of RE; Activity—person’s activity variable: A—subcategory with higher level of activity; B—with

lower level of activity; T1/3A—line shows the value of average increase in performance in the category of reading comprehension in the experimental group (n = 10)



involvement and cognitive abilities. Depending on the realized experiment and

practical experience, we would like to point out another variable: the form and

methods used in the process of vision rehabilitation (Fig. 7.64).

The results of monitoring prove that, due to the optimal forms and methods of

work, which we describe in more detail in Chap. 6, persons with low level of personal involvement and persons with low level of reading experience can also achieve

significant results. However, the choice of unsuitable methods and forms presents

risk for their activity and further self-development.



7.3



Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental

Programme



The chapter presents the summary results obtained on the basis of a combination of

the qualitative and quantitative analysis of data which were in the preceding tests

interpreted for each category of reading performance separately. For better clarity,

we present the quantitative data in the table in Fig. 7.65 to enable, in addition to the

comparisons between the two subcategories of each observed variable, also the

comparison of achieved results with the average value measured in the experimental

group (n = 10).

Based on the calculation of average values of improvement in performance in

separate categories, it is possible to come to the overall value of increase in reading

performance. We used this particular quantity especially to simplify orientation in

all the obtained data. However, we still consider our partial findings more important



7.3 Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental Programme



Category



Reading rate

T1S



T3S



EG

(n = 10)



47.6 63.77



Higher

Lower



54.0

27.7



57.9

48.8



Younger

Older



59.2

46.9



72.6

62.6



Higher

Lower



58.6

30.8



72.5

49.1



Higher

Lower



49.0

31.3



64.2

46.6



Reading Accuracy



Efficiency

T1/3S



T1E



T3E



Efficiency

T1/3E



34.3



2.17



0.74



65.9



Visual acuity variable:

27.6

1.80 0.54

72.2

76.2

3.20 1.10

65.6

Age variable:

24.3

1.78 0.63

63.9

33.5

1.13 0.50

55.7

Reading experience variable:

25.5

1.13 0.50

46.3

59.4

3.88 1.10

71.6

Activity variable:

30.9

1.17 0.5

57.0

41.4

2.33 0.90

71.5



261



Reading

comprehension

Efficiency

T1A T3A

T1/3A

2.6



5.4



107.7



3.0

2.0



5.5

4.5



83.3

125.0



2.5

3.25



3.75

5.25



110.0

61.5



3.25

2.0



5.5

4.5



83.4

125.0



3.33

2.33



5.33

4.33



60.0

85.0



Fig. 7.65 Summary of results of the relationships of intervening variables to the quality of reading

performance. T1S—average reading rate achieved in the pre-test ( x wpm); T3S—average reading

rate achieved in the post-test ( x wpm); T1/3S—increase in reading rate found between the pre-test

and post-test (%); T1E—the average number of errors in reading measured in the pre-test ( x number of errors per min); T3E—the average number of errors in reading measured in the post-test ( x

epm); T1/3E—reduction in the number of errors in reading found between the pre-test and post-test

(%); T1A—the average number of correct answers achieved in the pre-test ( x number of correct

answers); T3A—the average number of correct answers achieved in the post-test ( x number of

correct answers); T1/3A—increase in reading comprehension found between the pre-test and posttest (%); EG—experimental group—average values found in the group (n = 10) regardless of intervening variables



for both theory and practice. The characteristic features, demonstrated by various

groups of persons, may become a guide for the specification of the comprehensive

diagnosis of visual performance and for the planning of a specific form of rehabilitation programme.



7.3.1



Summary Results and Discussion on Visual Acuity



The total difference between the efficiency of the rehabilitation programme in the

subcategories of VA variable was 27.9 %; a higher success rate was noted in the

group of probands with lower degree of VA. The highest efficiency was achieved in

the category of reading comprehension (125 %); a high level of improvement was

also recorded in reading rate (76.2 %) and in reduction of number of errors in reading (65.6 %). Persons with higher degree of VA achieved the highest level of

improvement also in the category of reading comprehension (83.3 %): the linearity

of reading increased by 72.2 % and reading rate by 27.6 %.



262



7 Results of the Research



In the analysis of differences in efficiency based on the degree of VA, it is possible to observe that the adaptation period of transition to other techniques and

methods of the use of partial sight places an increased burden with a risk of the

reduction of participation in activities of daily living and work and leisure activities;

in some cases brings also a negative impact in the area of psychological experience,

especially in the elderly. As to this phenomenon, a number of studies were made

which confirmed the importance of educational and rehabilitation programmes as

means of support for maintaining the current quality of life. An increase in visual

performance in individual activities and critical situations is considered a good

means to achieve the above-mentioned general objectives (Wahl, 2004).



7.3.2



Summary Results and Discussion on Age



The total difference between the efficiency of the ERP in the subcategories of age

variable represents 10.9 % in favour of the subcategory of younger persons (they

achieved the highest level of increase in performance in reading comprehension by

110 %, number of errors decreased by 63.9 % and reading rate increased by 24.3 %).

Persons with lower degree of VA achieved the highest efficiency in the category of

reading comprehension (125 %), a high level of improvement was recorded also in

reading rate (by 76.2 %) and in decrease in number of errors in reading (by 65.6 %).

Similar results were found by Werner (2004). He points out the psychosocial dimension of the risk of deterioration of visual potential. He calls attention to a high risk of

resignation and loss of personal as well as social competences especially in older

generation. Werner describes ‘vicious circles’ which can be triggered by a decrease

in the quality of vision. He recommends a professionally implemented psychosocial

and rehabilitation programme as an important means of prevention.



7.3.3



Summary Results and Discussion on Reading

Experience



The difference in the overall efficiency of the ERP in the subcategories of level of

reading experience is 33.6 %. A higher benefit of the programme was found in persons with lower level of RE—the highest effectiveness was achieved in the category

of reading comprehension (125 %), a high level of improvement was also observed

in reading rate (76.2 %) and reduction in number of errors (by 65.6 %). Persons with

higher level of experience achieved the highest level of improvement in reading

comprehension (110 %), the number of errors dropped by 63.9 % and reading rate

increased by 24.3 %.

Even though the shift in performance is less distinct in the experienced readers

than in the less experienced readers, it is still possible to talk about a high significance of the contribution of the programme. Professional literature indicates that



7.3 Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental Programme



263



general population still possesses only a low degree of awareness of the possibilities

and means of effective reading and work with text. Learning these techniques of

vision rehabilitation is exactly the right means of compensation. Greer (in Lueck,

2004) states that research is still missing on the level and specific factors influencing

the comprehension of read text in persons with low vision. The Morgan Low Vision

Reading Comprehension Assessment is used in the USA for the examination of

reading performance of persons with low vision. There has been no similar testing

materials for adults available in the Czech Republic yet (except for Jesenský’s nonstandardized test (1994) used in this research).



7.3.4



Summary Results and Discussion on Activity



The level of activity variable influenced the difference in relative improvement of

the performance of the probands by 16.7 %. A higher effectiveness of the ERP was

demonstrated in the subcategory of persons with lower level of activity (the order of

importance of individual categories was following: the most significant resulting

improvement was achieved in the category of reading comprehension (85.0 %) and

in the category of reduction in the number of errors in reading (71.5 %); the least

value of increase in performance was found in reading rate (41.4 %).

The most significant relative contribution in more active persons was recorded

again in the category of reading comprehension (60.0 %); a similar overall improvement was achieved in the category of number of errors in reading (by 57.0 %) and

the lowest level of improvement was found in reading rate (by 30.9 %). In terms of

qualitative analysis of cases and values, it is possible to point out a number of

dependences between separate observed variables. The most frequently exercised

relationships in the experimental group (n = 10) between the observed intervening

variables were:

– Three of four probands with lower reading experience were also less active.

– In two probands the combination occurred of low level of VA, lower level of

reading experience and lower level of activity.

– The combination of higher age and lower level of activity occurred in two

probands.

Reading inexperience carries the risk of lower level of personal activity of the

individual also in self-education (for instance training with optical devices) as well

as in actual implementation of the programme. On the contrary, experienced readers

can be expected to achieve a higher performance based on self-development. The

combination given in the second point proved to be most risky for independent

adaptation without a targeted professional intervention. Due to the implementation

of such intervention, however, surprisingly positive results occurred.

The aim of this research was to contribute to the development of vision rehabilitation of adults with low vision. The theoretical part analysed the current situation

of rehabilitation support and described the means and possibilities of enhancing



264



7 Results of the Research



functional visual performance. In the context of interdisciplinary approach, the

most important needs were specified for further development of comprehensive

rehabilitation of persons with low vision.

The rehabilitation programme Increasing visual performance in reading was

designed to enable experimental verification of its effectiveness. The research

focused on finding the contribution rate of the experimental programme in the

assessable components of reading performance: speed, linearity and reading comprehension. In addition to it, the research observed the rate of the distribution of

programme’s effectiveness in two intentionally separate sections following the most

common structure of vision rehabilitation: technical-functional and educationaltraining approaches (Bäckman, 1998). The last, but not least important area of

interest was to get answers for questions related to the level of effect of selected

intervening variables on reading performance and on effectiveness of the implemented programme. To verify the goals of the empirical part, five basic and four

additional research questions were constructed.

Based on the achieved data, the author proposes conclusions of empirical

research and recommendations for rehabilitation theory and practice in the following chapter.



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