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D. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Activity
7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance
Part 2 of the ERP: The subcategory of active persons achieved an increase in
average performance of 1.33 correct answers (40.0 %). The subcategory of less
active persons reached an average increase of performance of 2.00 correct answers
(85.1 %). These values indicate a higher level of effectiveness achieved in the subcategory of less active persons—by 45.1 %.
The overall efficiency of the ERP: Depending on the implementation of entire
experimental programme, the same average increase by 2.0 correct answers occurs
in both subcategories. For the subcategory of active persons, this value represents a
relative increase in reading comprehension by 60.0 %. In the group of less active
persons, the same value means 85.1 %. Difference in the efﬁciency of the experiment between both groups represents the relative value of 25.1 % in favour of less
The results, obtained due to the comparison of the average results of reading
comprehension test achieved by the probands in the two observed subcategories
in the pre-test, indicate the existence of dependence between person’s activity
and performance. Also in this case, a higher level of performance was found in
persons included in the subcategory of more active. It is clear from the data
shown in the table in Fig. 7.63 that persons with higher level of manifested
Fig. 7.63 Results of intervening variables in the area of reading comprehension. EG—experimental group—the arithmetic average of measured values (n = 10)—the number of correctly answered
questions reﬂecting the basic information value of the text; VA—relative improvement in reading
comprehension in the subcat. of higher/lower degree of vis. acuity; Age—relative improvement in
reading comprehension in the subcategory of younger/older; Reading exp.—relative improvement
in reading comprehension in the subcat. with higher/lower degree of VA; Activity—relative
improvement in reading comprehension in the subcategory of active/less active; T1A—average
number of correct answers in individual subcategories during the ﬁrst testing; T1/2A—increase in
performance based on the completion of the ﬁrst part of the experimental programme (%); T2/3A—
increase in performance based on the completion of the second part of the experimental programme (%); T1/3A—increase in performance based on the completion of the entire experimental
7 Results of the Research
activity achieved higher performances already at the beginning of rehabilitation,
especially in relation to their own effort in self-education and modification of
In the part of the programme aimed at environmental adaptation and modiﬁcation,
the experiment conﬁrmed a significantly higher contribution for the subcategory
of active persons (by 20.0 %), while there was no improvement in the subcategory
of the less active. These values conﬁrm an important relationship of the category of
reading comprehension with the cognitive and activation level—i.e. the effect of
independent participation and activity on performance due to a higher effectiveness
of unwitting learning (the inﬂuence of repetition of the same structure of experimental test as in the pre-test). This connection is also conﬁrmed by the fact that
despite higher levels of modiﬁcations of reading conditions implemented to the
probands belonging to the subcategory of less active, no improvement occurred
here. One of the reasons could be the fact that all the less active probands were at
the same time the less experienced therefore unable to achieve an increase in performance in this category of skills without educational intervention.
The educational part presented, as expected, a major contribution to the resulting increase in performance. More than double the beneﬁt (by 85.1 %) was
detected in the subcategory of the less active compared to the results of the active.
Also the level of improvement in the subcategory of active persons provides the
convincing evidence to the vital contribution of the educational part to the ﬁnal
effect (improvement of 40.0 %). But still, these data speak about the significant
superiority of the effect of educational part of the programme for the subcategory
of less active persons. It can be postulated that a person with lower level of his/
her own activity can achieve a higher performance rather with direct educational
guidance and regular interventions than independently or through one-time outpatient consultation.
The values of effectiveness of the ERP in the category of reading comprehension
clearly demonstrate signiﬁcance for both monitored subcategories. A higher level of
usefulness was found in the subcategory of persons with lower degree of personal
activity. This can be attributed, besides the previously mentioned facts, to the signiﬁcantly lower degree of initial performance.
Discussion to the Category of Reading Comprehension
While the category of reading comprehension clearly belongs to the basic competences of the adult person, still a due attention has not been paid in the Czech
Republic to a closer speciﬁcation and research of this particular category in the relation to the target group of persons with low vision. Reading is generally considered
one of the most important sources of information. One of the observed criteria in the
area of diagnostics of level of reading skills is the degree of comprehension and
ability to interpret text during reading, which were further speciﬁed and statistically
veriﬁed by Matějček, Šturma, Vágnerová and Žlab during the process of standardization of reading tests in paediatric population. Not even here, however, the level of
7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance
comprehension and ability to reproduce has been quantiﬁed.11 We decided not to use
the term ‘text comprehension’ in this work because of different research objectives.
While standardized reading tests monitor the degree of the understanding of read
text to assess the level of literacy in reading, the applied measurement of reading
skills in the target group of adults with low vision focuses primarily on ﬁnding the
current rate of usability of read text and on obstacles to the use of the skill.
Even though the issue of the effect of visual impairment on reading comprehension has not been speciﬁcally studied in the Czech Republic, its importance is
clearly reﬂected in the interest of both domestic and foreign experts. The interest in
the development of reading comprehension is associated with the comprehensive
concept of vision rehabilitation and development of reading skills—for instance
Jesenský (1994), Papík (1992), Moravcová (2005), Skalická (2007). Thus, the result
of monitoring the initial level of reading comprehension and its development on the
basis of implementation of the ERP can be considered an important source of input
data for a number of more speciﬁc researches. Due to the way of research organization, these data are interpreted without any generalization claims—they are attributed the validity of a hypothetical assumption of the existence of following
The results achieved in the subcategories of observed variables will be again
compared between themselves as well as related to the average result found in the
basic experimental group (n = 10). All of the following data relate to the category of
the level of reading comprehension and are clearly structured in the table in
The average performance measured in the pre-test of the ERP in the basic group
(n = 10) represents the value of 2.6 correct answers. The most signiﬁcant differences
related to the individual subcategories of variables were found in the variables: level
of reading experience (experienced readers answered 3.25 questions correctly,
while the less experienced 2.00; the difference is 1.25 questions), degree of VA (persons with higher level of VA answered on average by one correct answer more than
persons with lower VA) and level of activity (the more active were able to give by 1
correct answer more than the less active). The resulting values indicate the existence
of dependence of reading comprehension on reading experience, visual acuity and
activity of persons providing that the person has not received any professionally
guided rehabilitation intervention.
Due to the comparison of values found during the application of results into
individual typologies, we can conclude that the highest performance without any
previous professional intervention was achieved by the probands belonging to the
following categories: experienced readers ( x 3.25 correct answers), active ( x
3.33 correct answers) and persons with higher visual acuity ( x 3.00 correct
answers). In contrast, a lower performance was achieved in the subcategories:
Diagnosis of the developmental phases of text comprehension is performed through an open narrative in children. Thus, there is a high rate of complications in looking for unifying means for the
sake of quantiﬁcation. As one of the most serious complications Matějček named difference in the
quantity of read content units as the source of narration (Matějček et al., 1992).
7 Results of the Research
persons with lower degree of VA and less experienced readers (in both groups x
2.00 correct answers).
The overall primary level of performance in the category of reading comprehension was assessed as reduced. The results obtained in both subcategories of VA
variable did not meet even the average values of all probands, and are therefore
seriously inadequate. This level testiﬁes to the need to restructure the rehabilitation
support of persons who need to use optical devices and other speciﬁc means for
reading. We are in agreement here with Moravcová, Skalická, Jesenský and others,
who stress in their publications the need of development of vision rehabilitation as
both educational and rehabilitation concept.
Another observed relationship is the effect of individual variables on increase in
performance based on the ﬁrst part of the ERP (environmental adaptation and modiﬁcation). The relative value of improvement by 15.4 % was found in the experimental
group (n = 10). The most signiﬁcant positive effect of environmental adaptation was
observed in the subcategories of persons with lower VA (improvement in performance by 25.0 %) and active (improvement in performance by 20.0 %). Thus, the
highest level of the dependence of improvement of reading comprehension on environmental adaptation can be assumed in these categories. In contrast, the lowest
level of improvement occurred in less active persons (increase in performance 0 %),
in persons with higher degree of VA (improvement by 8.3 %) and with lower degree
of reading experience (improvement by 12.5 %). On the basis of these results, a
lower level of effectiveness of environmental adaptation can be assumed in these
subcategories. A dependent variable is the individual level of modification of conditions achieved on the basis of independent activities of each individual. The observed
result in the subcategory of persons with lower degree of VA conﬁrms that environmental adaptation and modiﬁcation of conditions is a key determinant for this group,
on the basis of which they achieve an increase in performance in all the three observed
categories of reading; the correlation published by Matějček et al. (1992) applies
here between reading rate, reading accuracy and reading comprehension.
Based on the implementation of the educational part of the experiment, the average value of improvement in the experimental group (n = 10) was 92.3 %. This is a
very signiﬁcant improvement in performance based on the education and training of
the content extraction of text—concentration and memory. The observed outcome
conﬁrms the internationally recognized concept of Bäckman (1998), who focused
his attention on the training of visual skills in persons with low vision (including
education and training of understanding and concentration). Differences in achieved
relative improvement on the basis of educational part of the programme showed
signiﬁcant in all the observed variables. The most signiﬁcant difference was found in
the variable of age (an improvement in performance was achieved in the subcategory
of the younger by 53.8 % more that in the older group). This result conﬁrms the generally accepted fact that older adults have more difﬁculties with the change of stereotypes and adoption of new habits (for instance reading techniques). The difference
was signiﬁcant also in the variable of level of reading experience (the experienced
reached resulting efﬁciency by 51 % higher compared to the inexperienced) and level
7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance
of activity (the less active achieved a higher effect by 46.6 % compared to the active).
It is therefore necessary to assume the existence of influence of all the observed variables on reading performance in the category of reading comprehension in the area
of educational intervention. The highest rate of relative improvement was achieved
in the subcategory of less experienced readers; increase in performance depending
on the educational part of the programme represented 112.5 % in contrast with the
initial state. This result reflects a very significant potential of education for this particular target group, which is, however, influenced by the very low performance
before the beginning of implementation of the programme.
The lowest rate of improvement was demonstrated in the subcategory of older
persons, where the improvement of performance was 46.2 %. The results in this
case reveal a very high level of the correlation of education and increase in performance; it is also necessary to point out the wide range of the level of improvement
on the basis of other intervening variables. The dependence of performance on education and training coincides in this observed category with the generally accepted
knowledge about process of learning and processing of read text in the brain: visual
attention, which is superior to low-level cognitive processes, provides differentiation and selection of the content of information. Visual attention can be inﬂuenced
by conscious training (Anton, 2004, 2007; Hurst, 2004; Svoboda, 2005).
The overall increase in performance in the category of reading comprehension,
based on the completion of the entire ERP, achieved the highest level of relative
effectiveness in comparison with the other two observed categories of reading performance. The experimental group (n = 10) showed the average increase in reading
comprehension of 107.7 % compared to the performance in the pre-test. The most
important benefit was brought by the rehabilitation programme in the subcategories
of persons with low VA and inexperienced readers (the overall increase in performance in both cases by 125 %). In both groups, an unfavourable status of initial
performance in the observed category was found; the potential of development was
therefore high. The results show that the implemented programme was instrumental
in the development of this potential. A signiﬁcantly lower than average value was
found in the subcategories of older persons (increase in performance by 61.5 %),
experienced (83.4 %) and active persons (60.0 %). Even these results can be considered highly signiﬁcant as they increased original performance by more than 60.0 %
due to only several weeks of interventions.
From the overall perspective, the category of reading comprehension is deﬁnitely the area of the greatest potential of rehabilitation development. It was found
that the initial performance in this category was the least developed concerning
self-education.12 Professional guidance brought a significant improvement. The
major means for an increase of the level of reading comprehension is education.
Bäckman (1998) states that a signiﬁcant aspect (or ‘stumbling block’) of development of reading skills in the perception of content of text is the level of person’s own
Persons pay too much attention to the accurate identiﬁcation of characters, words and phrases
and not enough deliberate attention to selecting and remembering information-essential data from
the text (Gruber, 1996).
7 Results of the Research
Fig. 7.64 Graphical representation of the degree of effect of intervening variables on the level of
increase in reading comprehension depending on the implementation of the entire ERP. VA—visual
acuity variable: A—subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA; B—with lower degree of
VA; Age—age variable: A—subcategory of younger persons; B—subcategory of older persons;
RE—reading experience variable: A—subcategory with higher level of RE; B—with lower level
of RE; Activity—person’s activity variable: A—subcategory with higher level of activity; B—with
lower level of activity; T1/3A—line shows the value of average increase in performance in the category of reading comprehension in the experimental group (n = 10)
involvement and cognitive abilities. Depending on the realized experiment and
practical experience, we would like to point out another variable: the form and
methods used in the process of vision rehabilitation (Fig. 7.64).
The results of monitoring prove that, due to the optimal forms and methods of
work, which we describe in more detail in Chap. 6, persons with low level of personal involvement and persons with low level of reading experience can also achieve
signiﬁcant results. However, the choice of unsuitable methods and forms presents
risk for their activity and further self-development.
Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental
The chapter presents the summary results obtained on the basis of a combination of
the qualitative and quantitative analysis of data which were in the preceding tests
interpreted for each category of reading performance separately. For better clarity,
we present the quantitative data in the table in Fig. 7.65 to enable, in addition to the
comparisons between the two subcategories of each observed variable, also the
comparison of achieved results with the average value measured in the experimental
group (n = 10).
Based on the calculation of average values of improvement in performance in
separate categories, it is possible to come to the overall value of increase in reading
performance. We used this particular quantity especially to simplify orientation in
all the obtained data. However, we still consider our partial ﬁndings more important
7.3 Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental Programme
(n = 10)
Visual acuity variable:
Reading experience variable:
Fig. 7.65 Summary of results of the relationships of intervening variables to the quality of reading
performance. T1S—average reading rate achieved in the pre-test ( x wpm); T3S—average reading
rate achieved in the post-test ( x wpm); T1/3S—increase in reading rate found between the pre-test
and post-test (%); T1E—the average number of errors in reading measured in the pre-test ( x number of errors per min); T3E—the average number of errors in reading measured in the post-test ( x
epm); T1/3E—reduction in the number of errors in reading found between the pre-test and post-test
(%); T1A—the average number of correct answers achieved in the pre-test ( x number of correct
answers); T3A—the average number of correct answers achieved in the post-test ( x number of
correct answers); T1/3A—increase in reading comprehension found between the pre-test and posttest (%); EG—experimental group—average values found in the group (n = 10) regardless of intervening variables
for both theory and practice. The characteristic features, demonstrated by various
groups of persons, may become a guide for the speciﬁcation of the comprehensive
diagnosis of visual performance and for the planning of a speciﬁc form of rehabilitation programme.
Summary Results and Discussion on Visual Acuity
The total difference between the efﬁciency of the rehabilitation programme in the
subcategories of VA variable was 27.9 %; a higher success rate was noted in the
group of probands with lower degree of VA. The highest efﬁciency was achieved in
the category of reading comprehension (125 %); a high level of improvement was
also recorded in reading rate (76.2 %) and in reduction of number of errors in reading (65.6 %). Persons with higher degree of VA achieved the highest level of
improvement also in the category of reading comprehension (83.3 %): the linearity
of reading increased by 72.2 % and reading rate by 27.6 %.
7 Results of the Research
In the analysis of differences in efﬁciency based on the degree of VA, it is possible to observe that the adaptation period of transition to other techniques and
methods of the use of partial sight places an increased burden with a risk of the
reduction of participation in activities of daily living and work and leisure activities;
in some cases brings also a negative impact in the area of psychological experience,
especially in the elderly. As to this phenomenon, a number of studies were made
which conﬁrmed the importance of educational and rehabilitation programmes as
means of support for maintaining the current quality of life. An increase in visual
performance in individual activities and critical situations is considered a good
means to achieve the above-mentioned general objectives (Wahl, 2004).
Summary Results and Discussion on Age
The total difference between the efﬁciency of the ERP in the subcategories of age
variable represents 10.9 % in favour of the subcategory of younger persons (they
achieved the highest level of increase in performance in reading comprehension by
110 %, number of errors decreased by 63.9 % and reading rate increased by 24.3 %).
Persons with lower degree of VA achieved the highest efﬁciency in the category of
reading comprehension (125 %), a high level of improvement was recorded also in
reading rate (by 76.2 %) and in decrease in number of errors in reading (by 65.6 %).
Similar results were found by Werner (2004). He points out the psychosocial dimension of the risk of deterioration of visual potential. He calls attention to a high risk of
resignation and loss of personal as well as social competences especially in older
generation. Werner describes ‘vicious circles’ which can be triggered by a decrease
in the quality of vision. He recommends a professionally implemented psychosocial
and rehabilitation programme as an important means of prevention.
Summary Results and Discussion on Reading
The difference in the overall efﬁciency of the ERP in the subcategories of level of
reading experience is 33.6 %. A higher beneﬁt of the programme was found in persons with lower level of RE—the highest effectiveness was achieved in the category
of reading comprehension (125 %), a high level of improvement was also observed
in reading rate (76.2 %) and reduction in number of errors (by 65.6 %). Persons with
higher level of experience achieved the highest level of improvement in reading
comprehension (110 %), the number of errors dropped by 63.9 % and reading rate
increased by 24.3 %.
Even though the shift in performance is less distinct in the experienced readers
than in the less experienced readers, it is still possible to talk about a high signiﬁcance of the contribution of the programme. Professional literature indicates that
7.3 Summary Results Achieved During the Experimental Programme
general population still possesses only a low degree of awareness of the possibilities
and means of effective reading and work with text. Learning these techniques of
vision rehabilitation is exactly the right means of compensation. Greer (in Lueck,
2004) states that research is still missing on the level and speciﬁc factors inﬂuencing
the comprehension of read text in persons with low vision. The Morgan Low Vision
Reading Comprehension Assessment is used in the USA for the examination of
reading performance of persons with low vision. There has been no similar testing
materials for adults available in the Czech Republic yet (except for Jesenský’s nonstandardized test (1994) used in this research).
Summary Results and Discussion on Activity
The level of activity variable inﬂuenced the difference in relative improvement of
the performance of the probands by 16.7 %. A higher effectiveness of the ERP was
demonstrated in the subcategory of persons with lower level of activity (the order of
importance of individual categories was following: the most signiﬁcant resulting
improvement was achieved in the category of reading comprehension (85.0 %) and
in the category of reduction in the number of errors in reading (71.5 %); the least
value of increase in performance was found in reading rate (41.4 %).
The most signiﬁcant relative contribution in more active persons was recorded
again in the category of reading comprehension (60.0 %); a similar overall improvement was achieved in the category of number of errors in reading (by 57.0 %) and
the lowest level of improvement was found in reading rate (by 30.9 %). In terms of
qualitative analysis of cases and values, it is possible to point out a number of
dependences between separate observed variables. The most frequently exercised
relationships in the experimental group (n = 10) between the observed intervening
– Three of four probands with lower reading experience were also less active.
– In two probands the combination occurred of low level of VA, lower level of
reading experience and lower level of activity.
– The combination of higher age and lower level of activity occurred in two
Reading inexperience carries the risk of lower level of personal activity of the
individual also in self-education (for instance training with optical devices) as well
as in actual implementation of the programme. On the contrary, experienced readers
can be expected to achieve a higher performance based on self-development. The
combination given in the second point proved to be most risky for independent
adaptation without a targeted professional intervention. Due to the implementation
of such intervention, however, surprisingly positive results occurred.
The aim of this research was to contribute to the development of vision rehabilitation of adults with low vision. The theoretical part analysed the current situation
of rehabilitation support and described the means and possibilities of enhancing
7 Results of the Research
functional visual performance. In the context of interdisciplinary approach, the
most important needs were speciﬁed for further development of comprehensive
rehabilitation of persons with low vision.
The rehabilitation programme Increasing visual performance in reading was
designed to enable experimental veriﬁcation of its effectiveness. The research
focused on ﬁnding the contribution rate of the experimental programme in the
assessable components of reading performance: speed, linearity and reading comprehension. In addition to it, the research observed the rate of the distribution of
programme’s effectiveness in two intentionally separate sections following the most
common structure of vision rehabilitation: technical-functional and educationaltraining approaches (Bäckman, 1998). The last, but not least important area of
interest was to get answers for questions related to the level of effect of selected
intervening variables on reading performance and on effectiveness of the implemented programme. To verify the goals of the empirical part, ﬁve basic and four
additional research questions were constructed.
Based on the achieved data, the author proposes conclusions of empirical
research and recommendations for rehabilitation theory and practice in the following chapter.
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