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C. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Previous Reading Experience

C. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Previous Reading Experience

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252



7 Results of the Research



Sum of correct

answers



x

x



x



RE

higher

12

T1A

14

T2A

22

T3A

x



T1/2A

x



T2/3A

x



T1/3A



Efficiency

(%)



RE

lower

8

9

18



RE

higher

100

116.7

183.3



RE

lower

100

112.5

225.0



2



1



16.7



8



9



10



10



Range

(X max - X min)



Arithmetic

average

(n = 4)

RE

RE

higher lower

3.25

2.00

3.50

2.25

5.50

4.50



RE higher



RE lower



4–2

4–3

6–5



3–1

3–2

5–4



12.5



1–0



1 - |- 1|



0.50



0.25



66.7



112.5



3–1



3–1



2.00



2.25



83.4



125.0



4-2



4-2



2.50



2.50



Fig. 7.61 Comparison of measured values of the average number of correct answers in the subcategories of previous reading experience variable (RE) (refer to Fig. 7.61) under Fig. 7.53)



Sum of correct

answers



x

x

x



T1A

T2A

T3A

x



T1/2A

x



T2/3A

x



T1/3A



Efficiency

(%)



More

A

10

12

16



Less

A

7

7

13



More

A

100.0

120.0

160.0



Less

A

100.0

100.0

185.7



2



0



20.0



4



6



6



6



Range

(X max - X min)



Arithmetic

average

(n = 3)

More Less

A

A

3.33

2.33

4.00

2.33

5.33

4.33



More A



Less A



4–3

4–4

6–5



3–2

3–2

5–4



0



1–0



1 - | -1|



0.67



0



40.0



85.1



2–1



3–1



1.33



2.00



60.0



85.1



2-2



2-2



2.00



2.00



Fig. 7.62 Comparison of measured values of the average number of correct answers in the

subcategories of activity variable (A) (refer to Fig. 7.62) under Fig. 7.53)



Probands A, F, G, H. The purpose of analysis and data comparison was to document

the possible dependences of the intervening variable of previous reading experience (Fig. 7.61).

Results and Discussions Concerning Intervening Variables: Reading Experience

Initial performance: As apparent from the comparison of measured values in the

table in Fig. 7.62, the approximate value of 3.25 correct answers was measured in

the subcategory of experienced readers without previous professional intervention.



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



253



In the subcategory of the less experienced, the obtained data showed a significantly

lower value of the average number of correct answers (2.00). Difference in average

values measured in the pre-test in both subcategories was 1.25 correct answers (20.8 %).

Part 1 of the ERP: Based on the implementation of the first part of the ERP, there

were no significant differences in the measured results of observed subcategories.

An average increase in number of correct answers in the subcategory of experienced

readers was 0.50 correct answers (16.7 %). In the subcategory of the less experienced, the number of correct answers increased on average by 0.25 questions

(12.5 %). The difference of improvement in both groups was only 4.2 % in percentage value.

Part 2 of the ERP: Due to the implementation of the second part of experimental

programme, the subcategory of the more experienced in reading achieved an average increase in the number of correct answers by 2.0 (66.7 %). In the subcategory of

the less experienced, an average improvement of 2.25 correct answers was found

(112.5 %). The percentage difference of the efficiency of educational programme in

the two subcategories represents 45.8 % in favour of the less experienced.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: The average improvement represents the same

value in both subcategories: 2.5 correct answers. The relative value of increase in

performance is, however, in the two cases different. While in the subcategory of

experienced readers, the overall improvement is 83.4 %, in the subcategory of less

experienced readers, the improvement is 125.0 %. The relative difference of increase

in performance based on the implementation of entire programme represents 48.1 %.

Discussion

Based on the analysis of the data, it is possible to assess some relationships of intervening variables concerning the effectiveness of the individual parts of experimental programme in relation to reading experience, as applied on the research group.

Already on the basis of comparison of values measured in the pre-test, we can

speak about a significant difference in performance. The subgroup of persons with

higher level of previous reading experience achieved, without any professional

intervention, the average of 3.25 correct answers. This is more than 50 % success

rate. The persons with lower level of previous reading experience answered on average 2.00 questions correctly in the pre-test. The comparison clearly shows that the

experienced persons achieved by 20.8 % higher performance than the less experienced persons. This presented research shows that a higher reading experience

contributes to the achievement of a higher level of reading comprehension.

Depending on the implementation of the first part of the experiment, reading

comprehension increased slightly in both subcategories (in the group of experienced readers by 15.4 %, in the group of the less experienced by 12.5 %). The relationship between the effectiveness of the first part of the ERP and the level of

previous reading experience cannot be considered directly dependent. The obtained

data linked with the second (educational) part of the ERP illustrate an existing

dependence between the level of the effectiveness of education and the level of previous reading experience. A significant improvement in performance occurred in



254



7 Results of the Research



both subcategories. The group of experienced readers achieved an average increase

in reading comprehension by surprising 61.5 %. This value reflects the high level of

the potential of education for further increase in performance of reading through

professional educational interventions also for experienced persons. A significantly

higher effectiveness of educational part was, however, achieved in the group of less

experienced readers (112.5 %). The resulting difference in the efficiency of the educational part of the ERP is 51 % in favour of the less experienced; therefore, the less

experienced persons achieved, without targeted education, significantly lower

results in reading comprehension than the experienced readers. This implies that

they possess a high level of capacity for increase in performance through targeted

educational interventions.

The overall contribution of the experimental programme is significant for both

the observed subcategories of probands. The increase in reading comprehension by

76.9 % in the group of experienced readers and 125 % in the less experienced testifies to the high effectiveness of implemented programme for this category of reading abilities. The higher overall contribution was observed in the subcategory of less

experienced readers—by 41.8 %. We can conclude from these results that reading

comprehension is dependent on the previous reading experience of the probands of

the research; thus educational interventions represent a useful current means for

increase in competences.



D. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Activity

To monitor the dependence of increase in reading comprehension on the level of

activity of probands during the implementation of the programme, a typology was

used in which Probands B, C, D were included in the group of more active persons

and Probands A, F, G in the group of less active persons. The calculations of average

values and their comparison document the anticipated influence of this intervening

variable on increase in reading comprehension. The calculations of arithmetic average work with n = 3.

Results and Discussions Concerning Intervening Variables: Activity

Initial performance: The average value of number of correct answers monitored in

the pre-test was 3.33 correct answers in the subcategory of more active persons,

while only 2.33 correct answers in the subcategory of less active persons. The values show that the difference in performance achieved in the two monitored subcategories is 1.00 correct answer, which represents the relative value of 16.7 %.

Part 1 of the ERP: The comparison of the results listed in the table in Fig. 7.63

implies that, based on the first part of the programme, the increase in correct answers

was achieved in the subcategory of active persons by 0.67 (20.0 %); in contrast, in

the subcategory of less experienced persons, there was no improvement in performance through environmental adaptation. The difference between the results measured in both subcategories is 20.0 %.



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



255



Part 2 of the ERP: The subcategory of active persons achieved an increase in

average performance of 1.33 correct answers (40.0 %). The subcategory of less

active persons reached an average increase of performance of 2.00 correct answers

(85.1 %). These values indicate a higher level of effectiveness achieved in the subcategory of less active persons—by 45.1 %.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: Depending on the implementation of entire

experimental programme, the same average increase by 2.0 correct answers occurs

in both subcategories. For the subcategory of active persons, this value represents a

relative increase in reading comprehension by 60.0 %. In the group of less active

persons, the same value means 85.1 %. Difference in the efficiency of the experiment between both groups represents the relative value of 25.1 % in favour of less

experienced persons.

Discussion

The results, obtained due to the comparison of the average results of reading

comprehension test achieved by the probands in the two observed subcategories

in the pre-test, indicate the existence of dependence between person’s activity

and performance. Also in this case, a higher level of performance was found in

persons included in the subcategory of more active. It is clear from the data

shown in the table in Fig. 7.63 that persons with higher level of manifested



EG



VA



Age



Reading exper.



Activity



higher



lower



younger



older



exper.



inexp.



yes



no



2.6



3.00



2.00



2.50



3.25



3.25



2.00



3.33



2.33



T1/2A

(%)



15.4



8.3



25.0



10.0



15.3



16.7



12.5



20.0



0



T2/3A

(%)



92.3



75.0



100



100



46.2



66.7



112.5



40.0



85.1



T1/3A

(%)



107.

7



83.3



125.0



110.0



61.5



83.4



125.0



60.0



85.1



T1A

(



)



Fig. 7.63 Results of intervening variables in the area of reading comprehension. EG—experimental group—the arithmetic average of measured values (n = 10)—the number of correctly answered

questions reflecting the basic information value of the text; VA—relative improvement in reading

comprehension in the subcat. of higher/lower degree of vis. acuity; Age—relative improvement in

reading comprehension in the subcategory of younger/older; Reading exp.—relative improvement

in reading comprehension in the subcat. with higher/lower degree of VA; Activity—relative

improvement in reading comprehension in the subcategory of active/less active; T1A—average

number of correct answers in individual subcategories during the first testing; T1/2A—increase in

performance based on the completion of the first part of the experimental programme (%); T2/3A—

increase in performance based on the completion of the second part of the experimental programme (%); T1/3A—increase in performance based on the completion of the entire experimental

programme (%)



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