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D. Dependence of Reading Accuracy on Activity

D. Dependence of Reading Accuracy on Activity

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238



x

x

x



7 Results of the Research



T1E

T2E

T3E

x



T1/2E

x



T2/3E

x



T1/3E



Total sum of

errors

( x epm)

More

Less

A

A

3.51

6.99

2.98

4.47

1.50

2.70



More

A

100

84.1

43.0



Less

A

100

53.8

28.5



0.52



3.23



15.9



1.48



1.77



2.00



5.00



More A



Less A



1.50 – 1.00

1.16 – 0.66

0.66 – 0.34



3.70 – 1.70

1.67 – 1.30

1.20 – 0.50



Arithmetic

average

(n = 4)

More Less

A

A

1.17

2.33

0.99

1.49

0.50

0.90



46.2



0.34 –

|-0.16|



2.03 – 0.40



0.17



1.08



41.1



25.3



0.84 – 0.32



1.17 – 0.30



0.49



0.59



57.0



71.5



0.84 – 0.50



3.20 – 0.70



0.67



1.67



Efficiency

(%)



Range

(X max - X min)



Fig. 7.50 Comparison of measured values of the average number of errors in reading in the

subcategories of activity variable (A) (refer under Fig. 7.42)



The overall efficiency of the ERP: Depending on the implementation of the

rehabilitation programme, the average number of errors decreased by 0.67 epm, i.e.

57 % in the group of active persons. The less active group achieved the value of

1.67 epm, which is an improvement by 71.5 % of the original performance. The difference of relative values of the reduction in number of errors in reading due to the implementation of rehabilitation programme represents 14.5 %. A higher overall efficiency

was found in the group of less active persons.

Discussion

The results obtained by comparing measurements in the number of errors in both

subcategories in the pre-test indicate a clear impact of person’s activity in reading

on performance in the category of number of errors in reading. Activity showed

during the implementation of the programme builds on the activity and personal

participation of the proband manifested even prior to the implementation, and it is

related to the effort of modification of external conditions and self-education.

The probands included in the subcategory of ‘active’ (with a high level of

personal involvement) achieved already in the pre-test only half the number of

errors than the probands included in the subcategory of ‘less active’.

In the part of the programme aimed at environmental adaptation, a significantly

higher contribution of the experiment for the category of less active persons was

confirmed. Reduction in number of errors was achieved here by 46.2 %. This value

reflects and confirms the claim already mentioned in previous sections that persons

with lower level of personal activity did not have their domestic environment

adapted for near-distance visual tasks. Data analyses of case studies prove that all

the persons of this subcategory showed a complete absence of the modification of



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



239



conditions for visual tasks. For this reason, such significant results were reached

during the first part of the programme. A lower level of activity may be related to

the lifestyle of a person (specifically with the position of reading in the hierarchy of

needs). All the probands who were included in the ‘active’ group stated that reading

was one of their favourite activities. In contrast, the probands included in the ‘less

active’ group had not been avid readers even in the past (reading had been practised

in all cases of this subcategory purely for the purpose of achieving basic information:

letters, daily news, only minimally). For the subcategory of active persons, the first

part of the programme brought reduction in number of errors in reading by 15.9 %.

The result in this case testifies to a high degree of adaptation of environment already

at the beginning of the experiment. Yet even in this group, the recommended and

implemented modifications of conditions for reading brought further improvement.

Through the educational part of the programme, a higher level of efficiency was

achieved in the group of more active persons (by 41.1 %). In contrast, the less active

probands achieved reduction in number of errors by 25.3 %. The comparison of

achieved results (difference in efficiency is 15.8 %) points to the assumption of the

dependence of efficiency in education on the level of personal activity and

engagement.

The efficiency of the entire rehabilitation programme can be regarded as significant for both the observed subcategories. The distribution of the ratio of results

is reversed in the two groups. The subcategory of active persons achieved throughout the rehabilitation programme the reduction in number of errors in reading by

57 %, with a more significant benefit shown in the educational part. The group of

persons with lower level of personal activity achieved the overall reduction in

number of errors by 71.5 %, with higher efficiency in the adaptation and modification

part. A higher level of efficiency was shown in the subcategory of less active persons and was achieved especially due to the significantly lower level of entrance

performance.



7.2.2.5



Discussion to the Category of Reading Accuracy



The comparison of results measured in the basic experimental group (n = 10) with

the values obtained through the typologies also in the reduction of reading accuracy

category reflects the existence of measurable variations, i.e. the existence of the

relationships of dependence between the number of errors in reading and certain

intervening variables. The table (Fig. 7.51) displays the comparison of average values of all monitored intervening variables.

The number of errors in reading and the related linearity of reading can be

regarded the fundamental criterion of reading performance. A measurable indicator

is the number of errors, of regressive eye movements and of disproportionately long

pauses in reading. ‘Under normal circumstances, the development of linearity in

reading is considered to be completed at the age of 9, when the boundaries of the

number of errors stabilize, with the socially acceptable level of errors between 7 and

8 %’ (Matějček et al., 1992, 27).



240



7 Results of the Research



EG



T1E

( )

T1/2E

(%)

T2/3E

(%)

T1/3E

(%)



Reading

experience

less

higher lower younger older experienced

exper.

VA



Age



Activity

yes



no



2.17



1.80



3.20



1.78



1.13



1.13



3.88



1.17



2.33



35.5



33.3



37.5



41.7



11.5



9.9



44.1



15.9



46.2



30.4



38.9



28.1



22.2



44.2



36.4



27.5



41.1



25.3



65.9



72.2



65.6



63.9



55.7



46.3



71.6



57.0



71.5



Fig. 7.51 Results of intervening variables in the category of reading accuracy. Values with a significantly positive variance from the average value found in the research group (n = 10) are shown in the

yellow fields; the values with a significantly lower average value of performance in linearity of

reading are shown in the frames. EG—experimental group—arithmetic average of measured values

(n = 10) in number of errors in reading; VA—visual acuity—reduction in number of errors in reading in the subcat. with higher/lower degree of VA; Age—reduction in number of errors in reading

in the subcategory of younger/older persons; Reading experience—reduction in number of errors in

reading in the subcategory with higher/lower degree of reading experience; Activity—reduction in

number of errors in reading in the subcategory of active/less active; T1E—average number of errors

in reading in separate subcategories during the first test. T1/2E—increase in performance based on

the completion of the first part of experimental programme (%); T2/3E—increase in performance

based on the completion of the second part of experimental programme (%); T1/3E—increase in

performance based on the completion of the entire experimental programme (%)



However, reduction in visual ability brings along also the risk of reduction in

performance in linearity of reading and increase in number of errors in reading. In the

target group of persons with low vision, it is necessary to take into account the

objective reasons which may cause a higher frequency of specific or non-specific

errors. The amount of errors then further affects the quality of text comprehension.

A more precise diagnosis and detection of specific errors of each individual is the

highly effective means of further course of rehabilitation interventions.7 Thus, an

important place for the elimination of number of errors and for increase in the linearity

of reading belongs to the assessment and modification of reading conditions as well as

the targeted training of critical abilities and skills.

English publications state that, to diagnose the quality of reading in rehabilitation

practice, especially designed tests are used for the assessment of adults with low

vision.8 Greer (in Lueck, 2004, 217) states: ‘A number of error patterns in adults with

acquired visual impairment has not been explained yet. Performance is affected by

7



Although the specificity of errors in individual probands (with the view of complexity of rehabilitation intervention) was diagnosed within this research (and is a part of the case studies), the wide

focus of the research did not allow a further expansion of observed indicators. For this reason, this

work has not addressed more specifically the qualitative analysis of errors.

8

‘Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test’ to evaluate the functional use of visual abilities in reading or

‘The Frostig Figure Ground Test’ to diagnose the level of visual perception. Greer (in Lueck, 2004).



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



241



many factors other than visual ability; to clarify the definition of visual perception

abilities and their training, which is linked with complex performance tasks, further

research is needed’.

The first compared category is performance in the pre-test (Fig. 7.51). The average value of the performance of all probands is x 2.17 epm. Compared to average

value in the pre-test, significant differences appeared in the variables of reading

experience (the difference between subcategories was x 2.8 epm) and visual acuity

(the difference of x 1.4 epm). The comparison of average values of each separate

subcategory with the average value of the experimental group (n = 10) showed a

high level of frequency of errors in the subcategory of persons with lower level of

reading experience ( x 3.9 epm), with very low degree of VA ( x 3.2 epm) and less

active persons ( x 2.3 epm). These subcategories can be identified as being at high

risk because of the increased degree of need of professional rehabilitation intervention in this area. In contrast, a significantly lower frequency of errors in relation to

average value was detected in the pre-test in the subcategories of older adults ( x

1.1 epm), experienced readers ( x 1.1 epm) and active participants in the programme ( x 1.2 epm). The comparison shows that the older probands, experienced

and active readers have higher prospects to achieve a higher level of reduction in the

number of errors in reading even without professional intervention. All the subcategories confirm the dependence of performance in reading (specifically the frequency of errors) on the degree of visual acuity, reading experience and personal

activity and engagement. Therefore, it would be appropriate to include these variables among the anamnestic and diagnostic data observed in more detail during the

planning of rehabilitation programme.

Another observed relationship is the influence of individual variables on the effectiveness of the first part of the ERP. A relative value of improvement was found in the

experimental group (n = 10) through the decrease in average number of epm by

35.5 %. The most significant level of improvement based on the modification of

external conditions was showed in the subcategories of younger, less experienced

and less active persons. These values indicate the prevailing effectiveness of the programme due to technical means. In contrast, significantly lower values of improvement in relation to the average of the entire experimental group were recorded in the

subcategory of older (improvement by 11.5 %), experienced (by 9.9 %) and active

persons (by 15.9 %). The results obtained depend on the extent of initial performance, which was determining factor for the level of further improvement.

Based on the implementation of the educational part of the experiment, the average value of relative improvement in the experimental group (n = 10) was 30.41 %.

The most significant differences in achieved improvement were observed for the

variables of age (22 % higher efficiency in the elderly) and level of activity (active

persons by 15.8 % higher degree of improvement). Significantly higher than average

efficiency, achieved on the basis of the educational part of the experimental programme, was recorded in the subcategories of older adults (reduction in number of

errors by 44.2 %) and active persons (by 41.1 %). A great contribution seems also to

be the result of the subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA, in which

the improvement was achieved of 38.9 %. In this case, this is an important result



242



7 Results of the Research



demonstrating the merits of the works of Jesenský, Bäckman, Inde, Papík, etc.

focusing exactly on the area of education and training as the main means of rehabilitation. The results achieved in this case confirm the importance of special education

for the development of visual and reading abilities and skills also in the target group

of persons with higher degree of usable visual abilities. Lower values of relative

increase in performance were achieved in the subcategories of younger (by 22.2 %)

and less active probands (by 25.3 %). Although the results are below the limit of

average value of the experimental group, not even in one case should this be called

a failure. In the group of younger persons, the achieved efficiency has to be derived

from the pre-test results, in which this group also reached a performance above

average. In case of less active persons, the result can be considered a significant

progress with the potential to permanently affect the quality of life which would

probably not happen without professional intervention. This implies that education

meant a significant benefit even in these two subcategories.

The overall increase in performance concerning reduction in number of errors

based on the completion of the entire experimental programme is highly positive in

all its variables. There were some significant differences in efficiency detected in

the observed subcategories. The experimental group (n = 10) showed the average

reduction in the number of errors by 65.9 % between the pre-test and post-test.

The most significant difference in both subcategories of one variable was traced

at the level of reading experience (the less experienced persons achieved by 25.3 %

higher relative improvement than the experienced readers). Compared to the average of

the experimental group, a significantly higher efficiency, achieved in dependence on

the whole programme, was reached in the subcategories of persons with higher

degree of VA (the overall improvement of 72.2 %), inexperienced readers (the overall improvement of 71.6 %) and less active persons (the overall improvement of

71.5 %). In case of the last of subcategories, it is an unforeseen and highly positive

result. It can be concluded from the complex assessment of the cases that in case of

less active persons, the form of the programme played an important role—professional guidance aimed at purposeful regular training and support of activity in

home environment, including providing feedback directed at the progress of the

proband and assigning specific tasks, helped achieve a significant increase in performance. The result is consistent with the requirement of global solution of access

to rehabilitation services for the target group of persons with low vision, as published in Moravcová (2004).9 It is also possible to relate the resulting findings to the

importance of educational approach to solving problems at the level of practice

rather than medical or charitable field (Moravcová, 2005). Specifically the category

of reading accuracy as a part of the assessment of reading performance in the target

9



We disagree with the opinion of Moravcová (2004) on the form of implementation of vision rehabilitation. We consider the implementation of the programme in its outpatient form an important

condition—‘closer to the real place of life’, where therapist not only supports environmental adaptation to enable the effective use of visual potential, but also observes the person directly during

activities of daily living and thus can directly influence specific situations. The movement of support and rehabilitation services to the ‘centre of activity’ is one of the globally recognized needs of

further development and the way to a more comprehensive effect of rehabilitation.



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



243



Fig. 7.52 Graphical representation of the degree of effect of intervening variables on the overall

reduction in number of errors in reading, depending on the implementation of entire experimental

rehabilitation programme. VA—‘degree of visual acuity’ variable: A—subcategory of persons with

higher degree of VA; B—with lower degree of VA; Age—‘age’ variable: A—subcategory of younger

persons; B—subcategory of older persons; RE—‘reading experience’ variable: A—subcategory of

persons with higher level of RE; B—with lower level of RE; Activity—‘level of activity’ variable:

A—subcategory of more active persons; B—less active persons; T1/3E—the line shows the average

value of reduction in number of errors in reading in the experimental group (n = 10)



group of persons with low vision has not been professionally dealt with in the Czech

Republic, even though this is one of the important means of text comprehension,

increase in performance and reading efficiency (Fig. 7.52).



7.2.3



Results in the Category of Reading Comprehension



The nominal values of number of correctly answered questions are related to the

level of understanding of the read text.

7.2.3.1



Numerical Expression of the Results of Reading Comprehension



Fig. 7.53

7.2.3.2



Statistical Results



Summary Results of Measurements in the Category of Reading Comprehension

(Descriptive Statistics)

Figs. 7.54, 7.55, 7.56, 7.57 and 7.58



7 Results of the Research



244



Proband A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J



T1A

3

3

3

4

3

2

2

1

2

3



T2A

2

4

4

4

3

3

2

2

3

3



T3A

5

5

5

6

5

4

4

5

6

6



T1/2A

-1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0



T2/3A

3

1

1

2

2

1

2

3

3

3



T1/3A

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

3



Fig. 7.53 Measurements of reading comprehension (number of correct answers on the content of

text—from six questions). T1A average reading efficiency achieved in the input reading test; T2A average reading efficiency achieved in the continuous reading test; T3A average reading efficiency achieved

in the output reading test; T1/2A average difference in reading efficiency achieved after the first part of

the programme; T2/3A average difference in reading efficiency achieved after the second part of the

programme; T1/3A overall difference in reading efficiency between input and output tests



Sum of

correct answers



Range

(X max - X min)



26

30

54

4

24

28



4–1

4–2

6–4

1 – | -1 |

3–1

4–2



T1A

x T2A

x T3A

x T1/2A

x T2/3A

x T1/3A

x



Arithmetic

average

(n = 10)

2.6

3.0

5.4

0.4

2.4

2.8



Efficiency

(%)

100

115.4

207.7

15.4

92.3

107.7



Fig. 7.54 Comparison of data of the average number of correctly answered questions in the entire

experimental group

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

A



B



C



D



E



F



G



H



I



J



T1 - average number of correct answers in the pre-test

T2 - average number of correct answers in the test

T3 - average number of correct answers in the post-test



Fig. 7.55 Values of the improvement of individual probands in reading comprehension in

individual experimental tests



245



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance

6

5



5.1



4

3



3.0



2



2.6



1

0



average number of correctly answered questions in T1

average number of correctly answered questions in T2

average number of correctly answered questions in T3

Fig. 7.56 Average values achieved in reading comprehension in separate experimental tests (data

are expressed in the nominal values of number of correctly answered questions relating to the

content of the text)

14.3%



85.70%



increase in performance in the first experimental part of the programme (T1/2)

increase in performance in the second experimental part of the programme (T2/3)

Fig. 7.57 Ratio of the efficiency of the programme in the area of reading comprehension in both

experimental parts (data given in %)



Summary

The calculation of arithmetic average provides the resulting values of increase in

performance in the area of reading comprehension in basic experimental group.

Depending on the first part of the programme, there was an average increase in the

number of correctly answered questions by 0.40 answers (15.4 %). Based on the

second part of the programme, the average number of correct answers increased by

2.4 questions (92.3 %). The group achieved the average improvement in reading

comprehension of 2.8 questions (107.7 % of the original performance) during the

entire programme.



246



7.2.3.3



7 Results of the Research



Factual Verification of Results in Reading Comprehension



The maximum performance improvement in reading comprehension is represented by

the value of improvement by four correctly answered questions. This result was

achieved by two probands. The lowest rate of improvement (two correct answers) was

achieved by seven probands. One achieved the improvement of three answers. These

results indicate that the overall efficiency of the implemented programme in the area of

increase in reading comprehension reached fundamental values—more than 100 %

improvement. Due to the fact that three of the ten probands achieved maximum value

(answered all questions correctly in the pre-test), it can be assumed that, in case of

more detailed examination, the resulting values of improvement could be even more

significant. For this reason, we believe that the evaluation of results achieved during the

process of improvement—i.e. difference in the performance of individual probands—

is of more benefit. Even so, we can assume a certain degree of inaccuracy.

The measured values show that the most frequent value of improvement in reading

comprehension is the difference of two correctly answered questions. With a closer

analysis of the obtained data, we can evaluate the first part of the programme as significantly less effective. Five probands improved during this part by one correct

answer, the performance of four probands remained at the same level as in the pre-test,

one proband was even worse by one answer. The overall average of research group

was therefore only improved by 0.4 questions (15.4 %). In the second part of the ERP,

which included exercises aimed at the development of concentration on the basic

information value of the text, significantly clearer results were achieved. Four probands improved by three correctly answered questions, four probands by two and two

probands by one correct answer. No less than a half of the group (five persons) experienced an improved performance in this category solely in connection with the second part of the experimental programme. In the second part, all probands achieved an

improvement, which was on average by 2.4 questions correctly answered.10

The results found in the studied group confirmed a significant superiority in the

effectiveness of educational part of the programme. The observed result confirms

the generally accepted fact that the level of perception of the content of text depends

largely on metacognitive factors, the training of which was a part of the second

section of the programme. Graph in Fig. 7.58 shows the ratio of efficiency of the

two parts of the experimental programme, Fig. 7.59 gives the relative values of

improvement with respect to the primary performance of the probands and to the

capacity of improvement up to the result of 100 %.

It is possible to conclude from these data that significant results in the area of

reading comprehension can be achieved in case that adaptation and modification of

external conditions are used to restore visual comfort in reading—especially in the

group of experienced readers (for instance Proband B).

An individual level of increase in reading comprehension can be assumed also

on the basis of education and training (there was quite a high level of capacity to

10



An interesting finding is that all the probands, who reached the maximum possible value in the

post-test—six correct answers—achieved it almost exclusively in the educational part, i.e. in relation

with education and training, not with the modification of external conditions.



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



247



10.0%



43.3%



40.0%



6.7%



performance achieved in the pre-test (T1)

increase of performance in the information efficiency of reading in the first experimental part of the

programme (T1/2)

increase of performance in the information efficiency of reading in the second experimental part of the

programme (T2/3)

capacity of the group for further increase in performance up to hundred percent efficiency



Fig. 7.58 Ratio of the efficiency of the programme in the area of reading comprehension, depending on primary performance measured in the pre-test and the capacity of further improvement

(data given in %)



x

x

x



T1A

T2A

T3A

x



T1/2A

x



T2/3A

x



T1/3A



Sum of

correct

answers

VA

VA

highe

lower

r

12

8

13

10

22

18



Efficiency

(%)



Range

(X max - X min)



Arithmetic

average

(n = 4)



VA

higher



VA

lower



VA

higher



VA

lower



VA

VA

higher lower



100

108.3

183.3



100

125.0

225.0



4–2

4–2

6–5



3–1

3–2

5–4



3.00

3.25

5.50



2.00

2.25

4.50



1



2



8.3



25.0



1 - |-1|



1–0



0.25



0.50



9



8



75.0



100



3–1



3–1



2.25



2.00



10



10



83.3



125.0



4–2



4-2



2.50



2.50



Fig. 7.59 Comparison of measured values of the average number of correct answers in the subcategories of visual acuity variable (VA) (refer under Fig. 7.53)



improve in the experimental group in this category); however, its range would be

dependent on other variables, such as level of reading experience, activity, motivation

for self-development (for instance Probands D, I, J). This is therefore the area with

a high need for further development through special interventions.



248



7.2.3.4



7 Results of the Research



Analysis of Relationship Between Reading Comprehension

and Other Intervening Variables



To clarify the potential relationships of intervening variables to the performance of

probands in the category of reading comprehension, the technique of comparison of

typologies was used. For a numerical representation of relationships, the arithmetic

average was used of the performance of probands divided into categories by typologies.

Unless indicated otherwise, n = 4 in the selected groups when calculating the arithmetic

average of performance.



A. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Visual Acuity

Reading comprehension (usability of read information) is expressed by the number

of questions correctly answered by each proband immediately after the reading of

test text. Two subcategories were chosen on the basis of analysis of input diagnostic

data for the typology of dependence of measured results on visual acuity (VA).

Persons with relatively high VA were as follows: Probands A, C, D, I; the probands

with very low VA were as follows: E, F, G, H. The analysis of results pursues the

objective to verify the hypothetical relationships of intervening variables—between

the level of reading comprehension and visual acuity of probands.

Results and Discussions Concerning Intervening Variables: Visual Acuity

Initial performance: The subcategory of persons with higher visual acuity achieved

during the pre-test the average value of 3.00 correct answers related to the read test.

In the subcategory of persons with lower degree of VA, the measured value was on

average by 1.00 correct answer lower. These persons answered correctly the average

of two out of six questions.

Part 1 of the ERP: The comparison of the data listed in the table in Fig. 7.60

indicates that an average increase of the number of correct answers by 0.25 question

(8.3 %) was achieved in the subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA due to

the modification of conditions, while the average improvement in the subcategory

with lower VA was by 0.50 questions (25.0 %). There was a significantly higher

improvement in the group of persons with lower VA due to adaptation of external

environment—16.7 %.

Part 2 of the ERP: In the subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA, an

average increase in reading comprehension was by 2.25 correct answers (75.0 %);

in the subcategory of persons with lower VA, the increase was by 2.00 correct

answers (100 %). The difference in the efficiency of the educational part of the

programme represents a higher relative improvement in persons with higher VA

by 25.0 %.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: In case of persons with higher degree of VA,

the measured average value, compared to the performance in the pre-test, represents

the improvement by 83.3 %, while in the group of persons with lower VA, it is even



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