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A. Dependence of Performance in the Category of Reading Accuracy on Visual Acuity

A. Dependence of Performance in the Category of Reading Accuracy on Visual Acuity

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7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



Total sum of

errors

( x epm)

VA

VA

higher lower

x



T1E

x



T2E

x



T3E

x



T1/2E

x



T2/3E

x



T1/3E



Efficiency

(%)



Range

(X max - X min)



VA

higher



VA

lower



VA higher



VA lower



231



Arithmetic

sum

(n = 4)

VA

VA

higher lower



7.19



12.80



100



100



3.70 – 1.00



7.80 – 1.00



1.80



3.20



4.80



8.00



66.7



62.5



1.67 – 0.80



4.20 – 1.00



1.20



2.00



2.16



4.40



30.6



34.4



0.66 – 0.50



1.70 – 0.50



0.54



1.10



2.40



4.80



33.3



37.5



2.03 - |-0.16|



3.60 - 0



0.60



1.20



0.19



3.60



38.9



28.1



1.17 – 0.30



2.50 – 0.30



0.74



0.90



5.04



8.40



72.2



65.6



3.20 – 0.30



2.50 – 0.30



1.26



2.10



Fig. 7.47 Comparison of measured values of the average number of errors in reading in the

subcategories of visual acuity variable (VA) (refer under Fig. 7.42)



Part 2 of the ERP: In the subcategory of persons with higher degree of visual

acuity, the average rate of decrease in number of errors depending on the educational part of the programme was 0.74 epm (38.9 %). The average reduction in the

number of errors in the subcategory of persons with lower VA was 0.90 epm

(28.1 %). The difference in the efficiency of the educational part of the programme

between both subcategories of the level of visual acuity variable is 10.8 % in favour

of persons with higher visual acuity.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: The overall rate of reduction in the number of

errors for the subcategory of persons with higher degree of VA represented the value

of 1.26 epm (66.7 %). For the subcategory of persons with lower degree of VA, the

average measured values of reduction in number of errors were 2.10 epm (65.6 %).

Therefore, the percentage difference of the efficiency of entire programme in both

groups is 6.6 %.

Discussion

Visual acuity is an intervening variable which significantly influences visual performance. The results of the comparison show that persons with lower VA committed,

without any prior professional intervention, almost double the number of errors in

reading ( x 3.20 epm) compared to those with higher degree of VA ( x 1.80 epm).

It can be concluded from the earlier given results that the degree of visual acuity has

a significant relationship to the number of errors in reading in case that a professionally guided educational and rehabilitative intervention does not occur. A number

of professional sources from abroad indicate that the elimination of difficulties

linked with the visual discrimination of text in the field of reading errors is connected



232



7 Results of the Research



with more factors—for instance insufficiently adapted reading conditions, insufficient skills of use of optical device or of techniques of work with OD as well as

other aids (Lueck, 2004).

The comparison of the values of the pre-test and the average results of measured

number of errors in the post-test makes an interesting point. Even after the implementation of the experimental programme, more errors were committed by the

persons from the subcategory of those with lower level of VA (1.10 epm). The experiment proved the dependence of the number of errors on the degree of VA. Lueck

(2004, 211) stated that ‘a significant majority of repetitive errors can be corrected by

the modifications of conditions and targeted training’. However, if the character of

errors cannot be overcome sufficiently, it is necessary to resort to the recommendation of alternative methods of reading. Difference in improvement in both subcategories between the pre-test and post-test was only 6.6 %. Low values of the difference

indicate that the efficiency of the implemented programme did not depend on the

degree of visual acuity. In both groups, a reduction in the number of errors occurred

by more than 65 % compared to the original performance, which means significantly influenced quality of reading skills. It is therefore clear that the rehabilitation

programme represents a significant contribution in the field of reading fluency

across the entire target group. Although the effectiveness of the programme is comparable, resulting performance remains different. Consequently, the aim of vision

rehabilitation has to be based individually on the objectives of the person and on the

evaluation of his/her abilities and skills. Jesenský (1994) described graded goals in

vision rehabilitation from the minimum (to prevent the loss of participation in basic

activities of daily living) to the maximum (to bring performance to the average level

of population without disability).

Due to the efficiency ratio of both parts of the programme, the detected result

showed that while the persons with higher degree of VA had achieved a higher performance improvement based on the education, the persons with lower degree of VA had

improved their performance rather by environmental adaptations and modifications.

For persons with lower visual acuity, the modifications of external conditions and

achievement of visual comfort during near-distance visual activities are more important conditions for the elimination of errors in reading. Quillman and Goodrich (in

Lueck, 2004) state that the most effective means of elimination of qualitative difficulties in reading are environmental adaptation and optimal use of optical devices and

non-optical aids. They also consider the use of suitable size and type of font 2–5 times

larger than the critical size to be another important means of the elimination of errors.

The importance of achieving the maximum level of the ability to differentiate during

reading (i.e. comfort of reading) to increase the linearity of reading is confirmed by

the works of Lovie-Kitchin and Bowers (2002 in Lueck, 2004), who came to the

conclusion that the font two times bigger than the critical size is sufficient to enable

reading; but the exact size allowing fluent reading is different for each person.

As to the separate parts of the programme, the analysis showed that the difference

in the efficiency of the first part of the programme was only 4.2 %. The probands

benefited from the modifications of reading conditions regardless of the degree of

visual acuity. The relationship in the educational part of the experimental programme



7.2 Summary Results of the Measurements of Reading Performance



233



between the reduction in the number of errors and visual acuity proved to be quite

complex in both subcategories. The measured results related to the impact of VA on

educational potential in the category of reduction in the number of reading errors

showed that a slightly higher degree of efficiency in the educational part of the programme was achieved in the subcategory of persons with higher degree of visual

acuity—by 10.8 %. The observed result was caused by an improvement of visual

ability through environmental adaptation which enabled more detailed orientation in

text, an easier target resolution of individual characters and subsequent elimination

of the number of errors.



B. Dependence of Reading Accuracy on Age

For the monitoring of the dependence of reduction in number of errors in reading

on age during the experiment, a similar typology was used as in the case of reading

rate. Probands A, F, I, J were assigned to the subcategory of younger persons;

B, C, D, E to the subcategory of older persons. The purpose of the analysis and

comparison of results were to verify the hypothetical correlations of the intervening variable of age.

Results and Discussions Concerning the Intervening Variables: Age

Initial performance: Persons in the younger age group committed a greater average

number of errors in the pre-test ( x 1.78 epm) than older persons ( x 1.13 epm). The

difference between the two subcategories in terms of the number of errors in reading

in the pre-test was 0.65 epm (Fig. 7.48).

Part 1 of the ERP: The comparison referred to in Fig. 7.49 shows that, depending

on the adaptation of conditions, younger persons achieved a higher level of average

improvement (reducing the number of errors by 0.71 epm, i.e. 41.7 %). In contrast,

the subcategory of older persons achieved a less significant result (0.13 epm, i.e.

11.5 %). The difference in the efficiency of the adaptation and modification part of

the ERP between both subcategories makes 30.2 % in favour of younger persons.

Part 2 of the ERP: There were no significant differences in the results achieved

in the groups of younger and older persons during the educational part of the programme. The younger probands achieved the improvement of 0.4 epm (22.2 %).

The group of older probands showed the average value of reduction in the number

of errors by 0.5 epm (44.2 %) compared to the performance in the pre-test. The difference in the efficiency of the educational part of the ERP is 22.0 % in favour of the

older subcategory.

The overall efficiency of the ERP: Depending on the results achieved throughout

the ERP, the effect of age was seen on the reduction of number of errors in reading.

The probands belonging to the subcategory of younger persons achieved an average

drop in errors by 1.15 epm (63.9 %). The older probands achieved the resulting

reduction in number of errors by the average of 0.63 epm (55.7 %). The difference

in measured percentage values in both subcategories of age variable is 8.2 %.



234



7 Results of the Research



Total sum of

errors

( x epm)



x



T1E

x



T2E

x



T3E

x



T1/2E

x



T2/3E

x



T1/3E



Efficiency

(%)



Lowe

r age



Highe

r age



Lower Higher

age

age



7.12



4.52



100



4.27



3.98



2.50



Range

(X max - X min)



Arithmetic

average

(n = 4)

High

Lowe

er

r age

age



Lower age



Higher age



100



3.70 – 0.70



1.50 – 1.00



1.78



1.13



58.3



88.5



1.67 – 0.50



1.16 – 0.66



1.06



1.00



2.00



36.1



44.3



1.00 – 0.50



0.66 – 0.34



0.63



0.50



2.84



0.52



41.7



11.5



2.03 – 0.20



0.34 –

|-0.16|



0.71



0.13



1.48



1.98



22.2



44.2



1.17 - 0



0.84 – 0.32



0.37



0.50



4.60



2.50



63.9



55.7



3.20 – 0.20



0.84 – 0.50



1.15



0.63



Fig. 7.48 Comparison of measured values of the average number of errors in reading in the

subcategories of age variable; (refer under Fig. 7.42)



T1E

x T2E

x T3E

x T1/2E

x T2/3E

x



x



T1/3E



Total sum of

errors

( x epm)

RE

RE

lowe

higher

r

4.50

15.5

3.62

8.67

2.00

4.4

0.28

6.84

1.62

4.27

2.50



10.90



RE

lower



RE higher



RE lower



100

55.9

28.4

44.1

27.5



1.50 – 1.00

1.16 – 0.66

0.66 – 0.34

0.34 – 0

0.84 – 0.30



7.80 – 1.70

4.20 – 1.30

1.70 – 0.50

3.60 – 0.40

1.17 – 0.30



Arithmetic

average

(n = 4)

RE

RE

highe

lower

r

1.13

3.88

0.91

2.17

0.50

1.10

0.07

1.71

0.41

1.07



71.6



0.84 – 0.50



6.10 – 0.70



0.63



Efficiency

(%)

RE

highe

r

100

90.1

53.7

9.9

36.4

46.3



Range

(X max - X min)



2.73



Fig. 7.49 Comparison of measured values of the average number of errors in reading in the

subcategories of reading experience variable (refer under Fig. 7.42)



Discussion

Based on the analysis of data reflecting the intervening variable of age, the following

results were drawn for the experimental research group: Without professional intervention, no dependence of the number of reading errors on the age of probands was

proven. Thus, the experiment refutes the assumption that, without professional

rehabilitation intervention, older persons make more errors than younger persons.



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