Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
5 The Fortis-Corradini Index (FCI) Applied to the “Food and Wine” Sector

5 The Fortis-Corradini Index (FCI) Applied to the “Food and Wine” Sector

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



301



Table 6.4 Italian “food and wine” products which the FCI ranked first (2012)

Commodity description



Trade balance

(million $)



Uncooked pasta, not stuffed or otherwise prepared, not containing eggs

1853.1

Chocolate and other mixes containing cocoa, in containers or immediate

1007.0

packings <= 2 kg (excluding in blocks, slabs or bars and cocoa powder)

Tomatoes, whole or in pieces, prepared or preserved otherwise than in

998.2

vinegar or acetic acid

Fresh apples

909.7

Pork meat, salted, in brine, dried or smoked (excluding hams, shoulders,

631.8

bacon and cuts)

Pasta, stuffed with meat or other fillings, raw or cooked

376.5

Vinegar, fermented vinegar and substitutes for vinegar obtained from

263.4

acetic acid

Grated or powdered cheese

249.1

Vermouth and other fresh grape wines, flavored with plants or aromas,

203.8

in containers <= 2 l

Uncooked pasta, not stuffed, containing eggs

195.7

Shelled beans “Vigna spp., Phaseolus spp.”, prepared or preserved but

168.6

not in vinegar or acetic acid (excluding frozen)

Vegetable fats and oils and their fractions, refined or not, but not

99.8

chemically modified (excluding soy-bean, peanut, olive, palm,

sunflower-seed, safflower, cotton-seed, coconut, palm kernel, babassu,

rape-seed and mustard-seed, flax-seed, maize, castor, tung, sesame and

jojoba oil)

Meat of bovine animals, salted, in brine, dried or smoked

62.1

Rusks, toasted bread and similar toasted products

59.1

Fresh or chilled chicory (excluding witloof chicory)

58.3

Groats and meal of wheat

51.5

Unshelled beans “Vigna spp., Phaseolus spp.”, but not preserved in

51.4

vinegar or acetic acid (excluding frozen)

Couscous, whether or not prepared

25.7

Vermouth and other fresh grape wines, flavored with plants or aromatic

14.7

substances, in containers >2 l

Homogenized vegetables put up for retail sale as infant food or for

13.3

dietetic purposes, in containers <= 250 g

Citrus fruit jams, jellies, marmalades, purees or pastes, obtained by

5.8

cooking, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening

agents (excluding homogenized preparations of subheading 2007.10)

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from UN Comtrade (2016)



302



M. Fortis and A. Sartori



Table 6.5 Italian “Food and wine” products which the FCI ranked second (2012)

Commodity description



Trade balance

(million $)



Fresh grape wines, including fortified wines, and grape must whose

fermentation has been arrested by adding alcohol, in containers <= 2 l

(excluding sparkling wine)

Roasted coffee (excluding decaffeinated)

Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits, raw materials and mixes, with or without

cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for

pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products

(excluding crispbread, gingerbread and the like, sweet biscuits, waffles

and wafers with water content <= 10 %, rusks, toasted bread and similar

toasted products)

Fresh grapes

Sparkling wine of fresh grapes

Tomatoes, prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic

acid (excluding whole or in pieces)

Mineral waters and aerated waters, not containing added sugar, other

sweetening matter or flavored

Wine of fresh grapes, including fortified wines, and grape must whose

fermentation has been arrested by the addition of alcohol, in containers

>2 l (excluding sparkling wine)

Liqueurs and cordials

Sausages and similar products, made from meat, offal or blood; food

preparations containing these products

Fresh kiwifruit

Fresh peaches, including nectarines

Fresh or chilled vegetables (excluding potatoes, tomatoes, vegetables of

the Allium spp., cabbages of the genus Brassica, lettuces of the species

Lactuca sativa and Cichorium, carrots, turnips, salad beetroot, salsify,

celeriac, radishes and similar edible roots, cucumbers and gherkins,

legumes, artichokes, asparagus, aubergines, mushrooms, truffles, fruits

of the genus Capsicum or of the genus Pimenta, spinach, New Zealand

spinach and orache spinach)

Olive oil and fractions obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by

mechanical or other physical means under conditions that do not lead to

deterioration of the oil (excluding virgin and chemically modified)

Blue-veined cheese

Pears, prepared or preserved, whether or not containing added sugar or

other sweetening matter or spirits, n.e.s.

Hams, shoulders and cuts of pork, salted, in brine, dried or smoked, with

bone

Mixtures of nuts or dried fruits

Grape must, of an actual alcoholic strength >0.5 % vol (excluding grape

must whose fermentation has been arrested by adding alcohol)

Other oils and their fractions, obtained solely from olives, whether or not

refined, but not chemically modified, including blends of these oils,

fractions with oils or fractions of heading 1509



4559.6



1055.5

756.3



723.6

639.6

609.4

428.8

409.4



392.3

375.6

357.8

289.3

263.7



187.7



130.7

40.0

39.2

34.6

33.2

31.3



(continued)



6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



303



Table 6.5 (continued)

Commodity description



Trade balance

(million $)



Flours (made from cereals, excluding wheat, meslin, rye, maize and rice)

14.3

Dried apples

10.0

Tomato juice, unfermented, with or without added sugar or other

6.6

sweetening agents (excluding with spirits)

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from UN Comtrade (2016)

Table 6.6 Italian “Food and wine” products which the FCI ranked third (2012)

Commodity description



Trade balance

(million $)



Preparations for sauces and prepared sauces; mixed condiments and

282.5

seasonings (excluding soy sauce, tomato ketchup and other tomato

sauces, mustard, and mustard flour and meal)

Grape juice, including grape must, unfermented, with or without added

181.3

sugar or other sweetening agents (excluding with spirits)

Tomato ketchup and other tomato sauces

147.3

Ice cream and other edible ice, whether or not containing cocoa

126.6

Fresh or chilled lettuce (excluding cabbage lettuce)

99.7

Pork fat without lean meat, poultry fat, not rendered or otherwise

93.2

extracted, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked

Glucose in solid form and glucose syrup, not containing added flavoring

80.3

or colouring agents and not containing fructose or containing in the dry

state, <20 % by weight of fructose

Citrus fruit juice, unfermented, with or without added sugar or other

79.0

sweetening agents (excluding with spirits, mixtures, orange juice and

grapefruit juice)

Hams and cuts, prepared or preserved

69.5

Frozen orange juice, unfermented, whether or not containing added

68.2

sugar or other sweetening matter (excluding with spirits)

Fresh watermelons

59.7

Fresh or chilled cabbages, kohlrabi, kale and similar edible brassicas

59.5

(excluding cauliflowers, headed broccoli and Brussels sprouts)

Fresh or chilled beetroot salad, salsify, celeriac, radishes and similar

57.4

edible roots (excluding carrots and turnips)

Groats and meal of maize “corn”

56.1

Vegetables, fruit, nuts, fruit-peel and other edible parts of plants,

49.1

preserved by sugar “drained, glacé or crystallized”

Roasted decaffeinated coffee

23.0

Fresh or chilled spinach, New Zealand spinach and orache spinach

20.5

Flours and meal of oil seeds or oleaginous fruit (excluding soy and

20.0

mustard)

Fresh or refrigerated turkey (domesticus species) not cut in pieces

12.6

Coriander seeds

8.9

Fresh or chilled skipjack or stripe-bellied bonito

0.9

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from UN Comtrade (2016)



304



M. Fortis and A. Sartori



was just under $4 billion. These three products alone represented 50 % of the

balance of trade of products which ranked first ($7.3 billion), according to the

Fortis-Corradini Index.20 Pasta, not only ranked first, but remains a distinctly traditional Italian product which is highly appreciated abroad. In fact, when merely

considering those items which ranked first, pasta in its various forms and processes

appeared three times in the classification and generated an overall surplus of $2.4

billion.

Among the “Made in Italy” products which placed second (see Table 6.5),

bottled wine from fresh grapes provided the most substantial contribution with a

trade surplus greater than $4.5 billion. Roasted coffee came next with a surplus of

$1 billion. The two products alone made up 50 % ($5.6 billion) of the overall trade

surplus ($11.4 billion) of those products which ranked second.21 More specifically,

it is important to note the fundamental role of the excellent Italian wine-growing

sector: grape wines, processed in all its varieties, generated a surplus greater than

$5.6 billion.

Five types of products ranked third (Table 6.6) and had a trade surplus greater

than $100 million. They contributed by more than 50 % (approximately $0.8 billion) to the overall balance of trade ($1.6 billion) of those products which placed

third. In this case, the particular characteristic of these products is that they are

processed from top quality raw materials: preparations for sauces and ready-made

sauces, mixed condiments and seasonings; grape juice; tomato ketchup; ice cream;

and fresh or chilled lettuce.

Further considerations can be made of other “Made in Italy” key products, in

quantitative and qualitative terms, to better understand in a final analysis, which

products represent the stronghold of Italian excellence. In this case, the only types

of products selected (from the first and second rankings) are those which substantially contributed to the Food and wine sector’s trade surplus. Figure 6.8

describes the categories which constituted three quarters ($15.4 billion) of the

sector’s total surplus ($20.3 billion).

It is clear that some categories of products represent the pillars of the Food and

wine sector.

Food. The food sector is characterized by certain typical “Made in Italy”

products. In particular, almost 1/3 of the surplus of the selected products were made

up of processed foods which represent and recall traditional Italian cuisine: pasta

(dried and/or stuffed), tomatoes (processed), and pork meat (cold cuts or processed)

together were worth $4.5 billion. They were followed by another category which



20



There are other products which played an important role as well. A group of products which

ranked first contributed with $100 million or more, for a total surplus of a little less than $3 billion.

21

Many other products known for their excellence had a surplus greater than $100 million, and

contributed to the overall surplus by nearly $5.6 billion.



6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



305

Processed food

(traditional cuisine)



Beverages

- Wines (including sparkling)

- Liqueurs and cordials

- Waters (mineral and aerated);

6.4 bln $

(42%)



- Pasta (uncooked and/or

stuffed)

- Tomatoes (processed)

- Pork meat (cold cuts or

processed);

4.5 bln $

(29%)



Processed food

Fresh food

- Fresh apples

- Fresh grapes;

1.6 bln $

(11%)



(medium-high level)

- Coffee (roasted)

- Chocolate and cocoa

preparations

- Bakery;

2.8 bln $

(18%)



Fig. 6.8 Top Italian products in the “Food and wine” sector: a selection of products that make up

three-quarters of the trade surplus according to the FCI (2012). Source Compiled by Fondazione

Edison using data from UN Comtrade (2016)



represented 1/5 of the surplus, i.e. processed foods (with a medium to high level of

processing complexity): coffee (roasted), chocolate and cocoa preparations, raw

materials and mixes for bakery and confectionery, which together had a were worth

of $2.8 billion. Last is a category which represented 1/10 of the overall surplus, i.e.

non-processed foods which along with fresh apples and grapes contributed with a

surplus of $1.6 billion. The macro-category food represented a little less than 60 %

of the overall surplus of the top agro-foods selected products, and processed foods

provided a surplus which represented a little less than 50 % of the total value.

Beverages. Italian excellence in the beverages sector is first and foremost the

Italian wine industry: wines from fresh grapes (including sparking) generated a

surplus of $5.6 billion, which represented one third of the surplus considered (and

28 % of the Food and wine sector’s total surplus). When liqueurs and cordials as

well as mineral and aerated waters were added, the share of beverages soared to

more than 40 % of the surplus of the selected products. The top Italian “Made in

Italy” beverages generated $6.4 billion or a little less than one third of the Food and

wine sector’s total surplus.



306



6.6

6.6.1



M. Fortis and A. Sartori



Beverages and Wines

The Italian Beverage Industry



The beverage sector, primarily wines, but also vinegars, liqueurs, cordials and

mineral waters, have thrust Italy to the status of world market leader in terms of

exports and trade surplus.22

The Italian beverage industry experienced a real boom in recent years, which

was mainly led by the wine sector. In 2015, the wine industry set a new record;

exports contributed to the trade balance by €7.3 billion generating a surplus of €5.8

billion. Furthermore, Italy has become a net exporter of all types of drinks except

for beer (for which it registered a mere −0.4 deficit).

Considering the period from 2009 (the most acute year of the economic crisis) to

2015 (most recent available data), the beverage industry’s exports increased from

€4.7 billion to €7.3 billion. In those seven years, exports increased by almost 60 %.

Beverage exports during the same period were €42.8 billion. Total wine exports

for amounted to more than €32 billion, which constituted three fourths of total

exports. Exported wines: table wines and quality wines produced in specified

regions, represented more than half of total exports, while sparkling wines and other

special wines were more than one fifth. Exports increased by more than 40 % for

sparkling wines and 90 % for special wines.

The beverage industry’s trade surplus grew from €3.5 to €5.8 billion, which was

an approximate 70 % increase. The cumulated surplus amounted to €33.5 billion,

with the wine sector contributing the most heftily with €30 billion, or by 90 %.

When breaking down the wine sector’s total of €30 billion, table wines and quality

wines produced in specified regions generated a surplus of €22.5 billion (or 75 % of

the total). Their balance of trade improved by more than 40 %. Sparkling wines and

other varieties represented the remaining €7.5 billion (or 25 % of the total). Over

the 2009–2014 period, their trade surplus doubled.

Figure 6.9 provides a breakdown of the beverage sector.23 Analyzing the multiple variables (calculated considering the period from 2009 to 2014), it becomes

clear that Italy is a country at the top of world echelons in the beverage and wine

sector in at least three specific categories: export growth (percentage variations:

x-axis), specialization (normalized balance: y-axis) and contribution to the trade

surplus (cumulated surplus: size of bubbles).



22



Italy ranked outstandingly in wines, vinegars, wine must, etc. According to the Fortis-Corradini

Index (2014 data), Italy ranked second after France for bottled still and sparkling wines from

grapes; second after Spain for bulk wine and containers >2 l; and first in vinegars, liqueurs,

cordials and also in vermouth and digestives. The overall surplus of these products was $7.3

million.

23

With the exception of beer (where Italy is a net importer) and cider and other fruit based wines,

which have very moderate trade flows.



6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



307



110

Table wines and

quality wines produced

in specified regions

22.5 bln



100

Other fermented beverages

(non-distilled)

1.1 bln



90



Normalized trade balance



80



Sparkling wine and other

special wines

7.5 bln



70

60

50



Distilled alcoholic beverages

(inc. rectified and blended)

2.0 bln



40



Soft drinks, mineral waters

and other bottled waters

2.8 bln



30

20

10

0

0



10



20



30



40



50



60



70



80



90



100



110



Exports (% change)



Fig. 6.9 “Made in Italy” beverages and wines: exports, specializations and cumulated trade

surplus (2009–2015) Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from Istat (2016)



Export growth. The industries which have grown the most in terms of exports

are soft drinks, mineral waters and other bottled waters (+101 %), sparkling and

other special wines (+93 %), and also table and quality wines produced in specified

regions (+41 %).

Specializations. The most specialized (or super-specialized) industries are of:

fermented and non-distilled drinks24 (with a normalized trade balance of 97), table

wines and quality wines produced in specified regions (94) and sparkling and other

special wines (74).

Contribution to balance of trade. The industries which generate the highest trade

surplus are: table wines and quality wines produce in specified regions (with a

cumulated trade balance of around €22.5 billion), sparkling wines and other special

wines (€7.5 billion), and soft drinks, mineral waters and other bottled waters (€2.8

billion).

The leading and fundamental role played by the wine industry has been confirmed under all of the aspects considered. Italian wine is the result of an industry

which is incredibly strong internationally: exports are particularly vigorous and

dynamic, it is highly specialized and generates an outstanding trade surplus.



Italy ranks first world-wide for exports of fermented non-distilled drinks: i.e. 40 % of total world

exports.



24



308



6.6.2



M. Fortis and A. Sartori



Made in Italy Wines: Production Excellence



Wines have always been an intrinsic part of Italian culture and tradition. Over the

past decades, a sort of revolution has taken in the wine industry focusing on

environmental sustainability and innovation, transforming wine into a “Made in

Italy” pillar.

Italian wines rank among the best in the world under many aspects. The wine

industry is: third worldwide for vineyard surface (642,000 hectares); second in the

export of quality wines (around 22 million hl); in turnover (around €10 billion) and

in export value (around €5 billion). It ranks first for quality wines produced over the

past five years (around 45 million hl); for the number of wineries (384,000); and for

the biodiversity of cultivated grapes (442) (UIV 2016a).25

The degree of excellence in the Italian wine sector is the fruit of constant

evolution. Over the past three decades, as has been shown by Symbola and

Coldiretti (2016), Italian wine companies have unremittingly focused on quality.

Within the framework of the already mentioned efficient Italian agricultural system,

there has been increasing focus on land and the winemaking culture; staking not

only on Italy’s broad biodiversity of vine varieties, but also on the use of

increasingly efficient machinery with the aim of optimizing products use (pesticides

and fertilizers) and water. Moreover, over the years, increasingly specialized professionals have emerged, and production has been going progressively organic.

Today there are 72,000 hectares under vines.

Change, first of all, regards production: the wine industry no longer focuses on

quantity at low costs, but rather on quality.

Over the past 30 years, production has practically been cut in half. In 1986, Italy

produced around 77 million hl of wine, while in 2015 it produced only 47 million.

Turnover on the other hand more than doubled. In 1986 it was €4.2 billion and in

2015 it was a €9.4 billion. Exports have increased more than six-fold (in nominal

terms): from €0.8 billion to €5.4 billion.

When considering the Quality Index, which is the average value of an Italian

product divided by the average world value, the radical qualitative changes of

Italian wines is undeniable. In 1989, the average world market price of Italian wines

was much less than the world average (−36 %), while in 2014 it was extraordinarily

above the average (+48 %). This shift was accompanied and corroborated by an

increase in the number of certifications indicating a product’s quality and origin.

Thirty years ago, only one out of 10 wines had DOCG/DOC certifications, while

today 35 % of wines are certified. When including IGT certifications, 66 % of

wines are certified.26 Italy built its solid first place in the EU based on the number of

wines with certified origin (73 DOCG, 332 DOC and 118 IGT).



Furthermore, Italian wine firms tend to have outstanding company performance, in terms of

assets, financial flows and consequently profitability (MBRES 2016).

26

See footnote 15 for greater detail about the Italian system of quality schemes.

25



6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



309



Even though production has decreased and new competitors have emerged

(Australia, California, and South Africa), when it comes to production, Italy has

surpassed France and in 2015 it became once again first world-wide and produced

48.9 million hl of wine (a +13 % increase from 2014) (MIPAAF 2016).



6.6.3



Wine: Performance in Foreign Trade



The exceptional improvement in the quality of Italian wine, which obviously

increased its value, places Italy, with around one fifth of the global market, at

second place, preceded only by France, which controls one fourth of the global

market.

According to UIV (2016b) data, France, Italy and Spain export the most

worldwide and contend the top spots in terms of wine quality and value. When

considering quantity, in 2015, France exported around 30 % less than Italy, while

Spain exported approximately 20 % more. French wine exports were around €8.2

billion, which was much more than Italy’s €5.4 billion, while Spain’s exports were



Table 6.7 Exports of Italian wines by category (2015)

Typology



Category



Bottled



PDO

PGI

Slightly sparkling

(frizzanti)

Common wines

Riexport

Sweet and fortified

Varietals

Total bottled

PDO (Prosecco and others)

Asti

Common sparkling

Champagne (riexport)

Varietals

PGI

Total sparkling

Total bulk and >2 l



Sparkling



Million hl

2015 %

change



Million €

2015

%

change



%

share



4.2

4.8

1.6



−1.3

3.8

−1.4



1916.1

1413.4

347.0



3.8

8.1

0.8



35.8

26.4

6.5



0.9

0.5

0.1

0.2

12.2

1.8

0.4

0.4

0.0

0.1

0.1

2.8

4.9



−10.2

−11.2

1.6

23.8

−0.2

30.1

−17.3

−5.3

27.1

7.6

68.9

15.3

−12.5



146.2

101.7

48.5

36.3

4009.2

668.6

123.3

114.5

28.9

25.2

24.6

985.0

358.5



−6.9

−9.9

5.0

22.6

4.3

32.0

−21.6

−2.6

20.1

17.7

61.7

17.0

−9.7



2.7

1.9

0.9

0.7

74.9

12.5

2.3

2.1

0.5

0.5

0.5

18.4

6.7



5.4



100.0



Bulk and

>2 l

Total

Total wine

19.9

−1.0

5352.7

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from UIV (2016b)



310



M. Fortis and A. Sartori



50 % less than Italy’s. The motor of France’s exports remains Champagne (along

with its high price), and this item makes the clear difference in terms of value. In

2015, France exported around 1.1 million hl of Champagne, equivalent to almost

€2.7 billion (a third of total French wine exports).

Italy’s excellent performance in wine exports was linked to having achieved an

exceptional balance of quantity and quality, with a price per exported liter which

overall is half of France’s, but three times greater than Spain’s.

When considering exports in terms of the value of macro-types of wine, Italy

ranks first or second for bottled, sparkling and bulk wine. Italy, in fact, ranks first in

exported quality wine and second in terms of value, not far behind France. It ranks

second also in terms of value of exported sparkling wine; but first worldwide in

terms of quantity. Italy ranks second for value of exported bulk wine, Spain ranks

first, while France remains third.

The telling statistics in Table 6.7 show that the export value of bulk wine (a bit

less than €360 million and steadily decreasing), represents less than 7 % of the €5.4

billion of Italian wine exports. Italy’s strength lies in its bottled still and sparkling

wines which together make up more than 93 % of exports, around €5 billion (€4

billion and €1 billion respectively).

Note that bottled still wines represent three quarters of exports. Exports are

mostly of quality: PDO and PGI wines reached €1.9 billion and €1.4 billion

respectively (which represents around 36 % and 26 % of all exported wine).

Sparkling wines also provide a substantial contribution. Their performance has

improved in terms of quantity exported by more than 15 % and in terms of value by

more than 17 % with respect to 2014, barely reaching the €1 billion threshold. Italy

exported €670 million in PDO sparkling wines (Prosecco, Franciacorta and others),

which is an impressive increase with respect to the previous year (+32 %). Other

prestigious sparkling wines are also quite appreciated abroad like Asti (€123 million) and common wines (€114 million).

Italy in 2015 exported around 20 million hl, as has already been stated, worth

€5.4 billion. Italian wines are mainly exported to the United States, Germany, and

the United Kingdom. These three countries import more than 12 million hl of wine

from Italy for a total of €3 billion. Moreover, the same three countries are the main

recipients of the various types of wine (with the exception of bulk wine to the

USA).27

Emerging markets are gaining increased attention. They are set to become large

importers in the near future. China is already the third largest global importer of



Italy exported €1 billion of bottled wine to the USA (2.6 million hl), which was a 12.5 %

increase from the previous year; more than €750 million to Germany (2.8 million hl); and more

than €420 million to the UK (2 million hl). Sparkling wine exports also increased notably in both

quantity and value: 0.9 million hl (+45.7 %) to the United Kingdom worth €275 million (+51 %);

+0.5 million hl to the United States almost reaching the €200 million threshold (more than 28 %);

and Germany with a moderate increase for a total of €86 million. Exported bulk wine remained

marginal (and in constant decline). Germany was the number one importer (€118 million), followed by the United Kingdom (€47 million).

27



6 Food & Wine: Quality, Tradition and Innovation



311



Table 6.8 Italian wines: exports by region and a selection of the most prestigious wines

Regions



Exports

2015

(million €)



Names of most prestigious wines (DOCG)



Veneto



1834.5



Amarone della Valpolicella, Bagnoli

Friularo, Bardolino Superiore, Colli

Asolani – Prosecco, Colli di Conegliano,

Colli Euganei Fior d’Arancio, Conegliano

Valdobbiadene – Prosecco, Lison, Montello

rosso, Piave Malanotte, Recioto della

Valpolicella, Recioto di Gambellara,

Recioto di Soave, Soave Superiore

Alta Langa, Asti, Barbaresco, Barbera

d’Asti, Barbera del Monferrato Superiore,

Barolo, Brachetto d’Acqui, Dogliani,

Dolcetto di Diano d’Alba, Dolcetto di

Ovada Superiore, Erbaluce di Caluso,

Gattinara, Gavi, Ghemme, Roero, Ruchè di

Castagnole Monferrato, Nizza

Brunello di Montalcino, Carmignano,

Chianti, Chianti Classico, Elba Aleatico

Passito, Montecucco Sangiovese, Morellino

di Scansano, Suvereto, Val di Cornia

Rosso, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Vino

Nobile di Montepulciano

Alto Adige, Casteller, Lago di Caldaro,

Teroldego Rotaliano, Trentino, Trento,

Valdadige, Valdadige Terra dei forti (All

DOC wines)

Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto,

Romagna Albana

Franciacorta, Oltrepò Pavese metodo

classico, Scanzo, Sforzato di Valtellina,

Valtellina Superiore

Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline

Castel del Monte Bombino Nero, Castel del

Monte Nero di Troia Riserva, Castel del

Monte Rosso Riserva, Primitivo di

Manduria Dolce Naturale

Cerasuolo di Vittoria

Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit, Lison,

Ramandolo, Rosazzo

Cannellino di Frascati, Cesanese del Piglio,

Frascati Superiore

Castelli di Jesi Verdicchio Riserva, Cònero,

Offida, Verdicchio di Matelica Riserva,

Vernaccia di Serrapetrona

(continued)



Piemonte



964.8



Toscana



902.4



Trentino-Alto Adige



500.4



Emilia Romagna



275.0



Lombardia



255.3



Abruzzo

Puglia



140.3

101.5



Sicilia

Friuli-Venezia Giulia



101.3

100.7



Lazio



49.1



Marche



47.5



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

5 The Fortis-Corradini Index (FCI) Applied to the “Food and Wine” Sector

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×