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8 Emilia and Schwäbisch Hall-Waiblingen: The Two Districts Compared

8 Emilia and Schwäbisch Hall-Waiblingen: The Two Districts Compared

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4 The Automatic Packaging Machinery Sector in Italy and Germany



261



Even taking into account the smaller firms which do not belong to PV and PEC,

we think the German district may at most equal the size of the Emilia district, but

not exceed it.

Among the major groups it appears that all 4 of the biggest Italian companies

have a thousand or more employees, while only 2 German firms are of this size.

(b) Comparison in terms of revenues



1,000



1,000



900



900



800



800

Sales (million euros)



Sales (million euros)



We can only compare sales for the biggest companies in each district because they

are the only German firms for which we have data.

In the Emilia district the 4 biggest companies are Coesia-Seragnoli, IMA,

SACMI and Marchesini. In 2010 their total turnover amounted to 1.9 billion euros

out of a total of 3.1 billion euros for the entire district.

In the German district there are 7 major companies (Bosch Packaging

Technology, Optima, Bausch and Ströbel, Gerhard Schubert, Groninger,

Kocherplastik and R. Weiss). In 2009 (the most complete data we have) their total

sales amounted to almost 1.3 billion euros. This does not include sales for R.

Weiss, but even taking this into account we can safely say that it is unlikely to reach

the figure for the 4 biggest Bologna companies, especially given the fact that of the

7 firms R. Weiss is the smallest employer.

Thus the biggest Italian firms have higher revenues than the biggest German

companies.

As Fig. 4.16 shows, in 2010:



700

600

500

400

300

200

100



600

500

400

300

200

100



0



0

COESIA GROUP

(Seragnoli Family)



Bosch GmbH, Robert, Packaging

Technology



1,000



1,000



900



900



800



800



Sales (million euros)



Sales (million euros)



700



700

600

500

400

300

200



IMA GROUP



OPTIMA-Maschinenfabrik Dr.

Bühler GmbH & Co. KG



MARCHESINI GROUP



Bausch + Ströbel Maschinenfabrik

Ilshofen GmbH + Co. KG



700

600

500

400

300

200



100



100



0



0

SACMI GROUP (*)



Gerhard Schubert Gesellschaft mit

beschränkter Haftung



Fig. 4.16 The turnover of the four main Italian and German groups of packaging machinery

industry: year 2010. * denotes the data used are those related only to the divisions involved in the

packaging sector (beverage and packaging division, plastic division, food machinery and

inspection division). Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from AIDA (Bureau van

Dijk 2012a), AMADEUS (Bureau van Dijk 2012b) and Bosch (2011)



262



M. Fortis and M. Carminati



• The biggest Italian company in the packaging machinery industry, Coesia

Seragnoli, has revenues of 871 million euros against 717 million of Bosch

packaging Technology, which is the biggest German firm.

• The second Italian company, IMA, has turnover twice more than that of the

second German firm, Optima: 503 million euros against 226 million.

• The third Italian firm, SACMI, has a turnover of 383 million euros against

Gerhard Schubert’s 113 million.

• The fourth Italian company, Marchesini, has revenues of 180 million euros

compared with 105 million euros for Bausch and Ströbel.



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Chapter 5



Italy: A New European Pharmaceutical

Hub

Marco Fortis and Monica Carminati



Abstract The chapter analyzes a sector which in recent years has acquired a

prominent role in the Italian economy. The pharmaceutical sector of late has

experienced considerable growth due to numerous investments from foreign

multinationals attracted by Italian manufacturing sites, research centers, and specialized personnel at competitive rates. Consequently, Italy is strategically placed

for becoming a major European pharmaceutical hub. In fact, it is already the second

largest EU-28 pharmaceutical producer in terms of value. The chapter begins with a

description of the Italian pharmaceutical sector and then focuses on the regions in

which pharma has developed the most. It also provides a European comparison of

how five Italian regions rank within the classification of large European pharmaceutical regions. Production, investment and exports are analyzed in terms of the

Italian pharmaceutical industry’s performance nationally and internationally.

Research results show that from 1991 to 2014 Italian export quotas of medicines

and pharmaceutical preparations, as a share of total exports, increased from 0.5 to

4.5 %. Italy’s ranking in the classification of exported pharma products moved up

from 53rd place in 1991 to 4th place in 2014. Internationally, Italy over the last five

years, has had the highest increase in absolute value of pharmaceutical exports

($8.1 billion). Between 2010 and 2014, its world market share increased by 2 %

from 4.5 to 6.5 %. A comparison of the major European nations, shows that

Germany increased by 1 %, while other large EU countries saw a decrease in their

export share of pharmaceutical products. Last, the chapter concludes with a brief

analysis of the biotech sector. Italy has SMEs exclusively dedicated to biotechnologies as well as large pharmaceutical companies which also specialize in

biotech.



M. Fortis (&)

Department of International Economics, Institutions and Development,

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy

e-mail: marco.fortis@edison.it

M. Carminati

Fondazione Edison, Milan, Italy

e-mail: monica.carminati@edison.it

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

M. Fortis (ed.), The Pillars of the Italian Economy,

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40186-7_5



265



266



5.1



M. Fortis and M. Carminati



Foreword



Italian specializations have profoundly changed over the past fifteen years. Once

China joined the WTO in 2001 and the Multifiber Agreement ended in 2005, Italy

was forced to face the aggressively fierce asymmetrical competition from Asian

countries, which in the first years of the new millennium, significantly impacted

Italian manufacturing. The sectors which were affected the most were essentially

Italian symbols of excellence like fashion and furniture. As mentioned in Chap. 3,

the explicit similarities of Italian and Chinese manufacturing specializations, predictably resulted in Italy becoming the first advanced nation forced to counter

unbridled competition from the Asian giant itself, as well as from multinationals

competing with “Made in Italy” products that were taking advantage of lower labor

costs abroad and extensively transferring production to China (Fortis and Carminati

2012).

Italy reacted to these adverse circumstances by shifting its production from

sectors most exposed to Asian competition to branches with higher added-value.

There was greater focus on high-end products within the traditional fashion, furniture (and ceramic tiles) sectors as well as high quality foods and wines.

Manufacturing shifted toward mechanical engineering (in particular the

non-electronic machinery, including fabricated metal products, industrial machinery, domestic appliances and electrical equipment), means of transport other than

cars (luxury yachts, cruise ships and helicopters), high tech products including

niche markets for chemicals, and especially pharmaceutical packaging gained more

relevance. In fact, significant Italian specializations are considerably different today

from what they were 20 years ago (Fortis 1984, 1996, 1998). This can be seen

clearly from a diminishing trade surplus in traditional sectors like fashion and

furniture-ceramic tiles which decreased from 74 % in 1994 to 30 % in 2013.

“Made in Italy” products of excellence are currently no longer being identified

with the traditional sectors of Fashion, Furniture-ceramic tiles, and Food and wine,

they now include numerous branches of mechanical engineering, motor vehicles,

chemicals, plastics and rubber, and especially pharmaceuticals. The latter have

become one of the true protagonists of the export boom that has characterized Italy

these past years.



5.2



The Size of the Italian Pharmaceutical Sector



Based on the latest available statistics by the EFPIA (European Federation of

Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations), in 2014, the Italian pharmaceutical

sector employed 63,000 workers. This corresponds to 9.6 % of the total workers in

the EU–28 pharmaceutical sector which employs approximately 656,000 workers.

The Italian pharmaceutical industry produced around €28.7 billion worth of

products, which corresponds to 16.4 % of the EU-28 total pharma production of



5 Italy: A New European Pharmaceutical Hub



267



€174.7 billion. These figures show that the Italian pharmaceutical industry is

steadily acquiring a leadership role within the European Union. It is the second

strongest pharmaceutical producer, after Germany, and it is fourth in terms of

pharma employed workers after Germany, France and the United Kingdom (see

Sect. 5.4 for greater detail).

In terms of employment, when considering the entire pharmaceutical supply

chain (which includes production, spillovers and distribution), there are 220,000

workers employed in the pharma industry in Italy and 65,000 are employed in

spillovers (Farmindustria 2015c). In particular, among the pharma correlated spillovers, those with the highest number of employed workers are in packaging (3500

jobs), mechanical engineering and machinery (4900 jobs) and chemical products

(6400 jobs) (Farmindustria 2015a).

Interesting results emerge when evaluating the impact of the pharma industry on

all Italian manufacturing sectors with a high tech content. Considering high tech

clusters like pharma, IT, aeronautics and electrical and optical equipment, the

pharmaceutical industry’s share is significant. It makes up 30 % of the total jobs of

all the clusters combined, 39 % of investments in production and R&D, 44 % of

production value, and 54 % of exports in terms of value (Farmindustria 2015a).

Foreign multinationals have played a fundamental role in the recent development

of the pharma industry in Italy. They have a much higher presence in this sector

than in any other manufacturing sector. According to Istat, multinationals provide

51 % of jobs, 60 % of turnover, 77 % of exports, while in other manufacturing

sectors their average share is 11, 20 and 27 % respectively. Moreover, when

compared to pharmaceutical industries in other countries, Italy can boast of a

greater number of highly qualified Italian companies. Capital investments broken

down by type are quite balanced, 60 % come from multinationals and 40 % from

large Italian companies and SMEs.

The motor for the recent growth experienced by the Italian pharmaceutical

industry is mainly due, however, to foreign multinationals. Their investments tend

to be divided as follows: one third is spent on strengthening existing operations, and

two thirds on attracting new projects (Fondazione Symbola 2015; Farmindustria

2015b).

The latest Istat figures on the structure of the Italian pharmaceutical industry

show that more than 90 % of output by multinationals is destined for exports. One

of the two main determinants for this excellent figure is the industry’s superb

export/production ratio (73 % overall, while the national manufacturing average is

36 %). The other is an increased presence of Italian companies abroad. Global

markets at present represent two thirds of their revenues.

Pharma is the industrial sector which has grown the most in Italy. Numerous

investments, fundamental to the industry’s recent growth from 2010 to 2015 by

foreign multinationals attracted by manufacturing sites, research centers, and

qualified manpower at competitive prices in Italy, have transformed provinces like

Latina and Frosinone (Lazio), Milan and Pavia (Lombardy), Florence (Tuscany),

Ascoli Piceno (Marche) and others, into absolute global protagonists.



268



M. Fortis and M. Carminati



Italy is characterized by the presence of numerous territorial clusters of excellence which find their rightful place among the large European pharmaceutical

regions. Lombardy, Lazio, or Tuscany which according to the Nomenclature of

Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)1 are classified as NUTS2 regions, continue to

stand their ground when classified among NUTS1 regions.

This can be seen clearly from Table 5.1, which shows the number of workers

employed in the Italian pharmaceutical sector. When inserting Italian NUTS2

regions in the European NUTS1 classification, of the total 110 European NUTS1

regions, Lombardy (especially due to Milan, Pavia and Monza-Brianza), with

almost 25,000 workers employed, ranked 3rd right behind giants like l’Ile de France

and Baden-Württemberg. Lazio with 12,900 workers ranked 9th and Tuscany

ranked 24th with more than 6000 workers employed in the sector. To complete the

classification, Emilia-Romagna ranked 38th (with 3500 workers), Veneto 40th

(with 3300 workers), Piedmont 52nd (with 2200 workers), Campania 63rd (with

around 1700 workers employed) and Abruzzo 71st (with around 1100 workers

employed). If the same classification is used for ranking Italian NUTS1 regions, the

Northwest would place 3rd (instead of just Lombardy which covers a considerable

share of the Northwest), Central Italy would place 5th and the Northeast would

place 21st.

As can be inferred from Table 5.1, the Italian pharmaceutical industry has a

significant presence mainly in Lombardy, Lazio, Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna, and

Veneto. Those regions alone employ around 90 % of workers and attract the same

share in investments.

On the basis of Farmindustria data (Farmindustria 2015a, b, c, d, e) Lombardy is

Italy’s top pharmaceutical region. It employs approximately half of the workers

within the pharma industry, it produces half of the sector’s output and attracts half

the R&D investments. It is home to more than 100 pharmaceutical companies and

more than 30 company research centers. A little less than 100 companies are active

in the biotechnology healthcare sector. In addition to the workers directly employed

in the sector, almost 25,000 jobs according to Eurostat, another 17,000 jobs go to

spinoffs (prevalently in chemicals, mechanical engineering, and paper products).

The Lazio region ranks 1st in pharma exports and 2nd in terms of employment.

According to Eurostat, the industry directly employs approximately 13,000 workers

and another 6000 jobs go to the related spinoffs (mainly chemical and packaging



1



The NUTS classification (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) is a hierarchical system

for dividing the economic territory of the European Union in different ways:

– NUTS0: 28 EU Member States;

– NUTS1: major socio-economic regions; for example, the German Lander, or in Italy’s case

regional areas like the Northwest, Northeast, Central, South and its Islands;

– NUTS2: basic regions for the application of regional policies; they are called regions in Italy,

autonomous communities in Spain, regions and overseas departments in France, provinces in

Belgium and Holland, Lander in Austria, Regierungsbezirke in Germany, etc.;

– NUTS3: small regions for specific diagnoses; Italian Provinces, German Kreise, French

Departments, Spanish Provinces, Greek Nomoi, Finnish Maakunnat, Swedish Län, etc.



5 Italy: A New European Pharmaceutical Hub



269



Table 5.1 NUTS2 Italian regions listed within the NUTS1 European regions ranked by number

of employees in the pharmaceutical industry in 2013

European region NUTS1



Persons employed



1

Ỵle de France (FR)

37,165

2

Baden-Württemberg (DE)

30,899

3

Lombardy [NUTS2] (IT)

24,537

4

Hessen (DE)

22,808

5

Centre-Est (FR)

20,280

6

Este (ES)

18,827

7

Nordrhein-Westfalen (DE)

13,941

8

Région wallonne (BE)

12,879

9

Lazio [NUTS2] (IT)

12,864

10

Rheinland-Pfalz (DE)

12,745

11

Berlin (DE)

10,767

12

Közép-Magyarország (HU)

10,431

13

Bassin Parisien (FR)

9902

14

Comunidad de Madrid (ES)

9528

15

Vlaams Gewest (BE)

9147

16

Attiki (EL)

9015

17

Region Centralny (PL)

8866

18

Östra Sverige (SE)

8825

19

Bayern (DE)

8656

20

Schleswig-Holstein (DE)

6939

21

Continente (PT)

6412

22

North West (UK)

6124

23

Yugozapadna i yuzhna tsentralna Bulgaria (BG)

6059

24

Tuscany [NUTS2] (IT)

6035

25

Ostösterreich (AT)

6010

38

Emilia-Romagna [NUTS2] (IT)

3491

40

Veneto [NUTS2] (IT)

3313

52

Piedmont [NUTS2] (IT)

2179

63

Campania [NUTS2] (IT)

1653

71

Abruzzo [NUTS2] (IT)

1079

Since NUTS2 Italian regions are included in the ranking, the Northwest, Northeast and Central

Italy macro- regions have not been included

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from Eurostat (2016)



sectors). There are also many important pharma companies financed by national

and/or foreign investments, which are active in production, R&D (with more than

1000 workers) and biotechnology.

Tuscany, with its 6000 workers employed directly by companies and 4000

employed in spinoffs (glass and chemical sectors), is the 3rd largest Italian pharmaceutical region.



270



M. Fortis and M. Carminati



Emilia-Romagna has 3500 workers directly employed in the sector and 6600

more jobs in spinoffs (mechanical engineering, chemical and glassy sectors).

Important Italian companies, increasingly international in scope, and large companies financed by foreign investments have their headquarters in this region. It is

also an important world hub for the production of automatic packaging and

wrapping machinery and increasingly for pharmaceutical packaging.

The Veneto region has 3300 workers directly employed in pharma and another

7000 in spinoffs (mechanical engineering, chemical, packaging sectors) and it has a

significant presence of R&D labs.

Marche, Sicily and Apulia are not included among the large pharmaceutical

regions. However, as can be seen in the following section, specific provinces within

these regions, for example Ascoli Piceno (Marche), Catania (Sicily) and Bari

(Apulia), are exemplary for their extraordinary leadership in terms of production

and exports.



5.3



Italian Pharmaceutical Trends



The Italian pharmaceutical industry has seen outstanding growth over the past five

years. Between 2009 and 2014, while GDP decreased by −2.6 %, pharmaceutical

production increased by +15 % (Eurostat 2016; Farmindustria 2015d). Furthermore,

thanks to investments and exceptional exports, the pharmaceutical sector is classified

by Istat as the most competitive Italian manufacturing sector (Istat 2015). When

considering the manufacturing industry overall, pharmaceuticals rank third in R&D

expenditure, after transport equipment and mechanical engineering, with an estimated €1.3 billion, and first (+173 % more than the Italian average) in

R&D-to-employee ratio (Farmindustria 2015e). From 2010 to 2014, Italian pharmaceutical exports grew by +54.3 % compared to domestic manufacturing exports

which increased by +12.8 %. EU-28 pharmaceutical exports rose by +5.1 % and

EU-28 total manufacturing exports went up by +23.6 %.

Table 5.2 clearly shows how Italian exports of “medicines and pharmaceutical

preparations” increased the most in terms of value over the past years. Leaving

aside 2009 (an anomalous year characterized by the crash of exports in all manufacturing sectors caused by the world economic crisis which exploded in 2008)

exports of medicines and pharmaceutical preparations increased by €6.6 billion

between 2010 and 2014. In fact, it took just a few years to bring pharmaceutical

exports (€18.8 billion) to the same level as the historic pillars of “Made in Italy”

products like “other special-purpose machinery” (€19 billion) and “other

general-purpose machinery” (€21.5 billion). It surpassed exports of the more traditional sectors like wearing apparel (€15.6 billion) and the entire leather goods and

footwear sector (€18.6 billion overall).

These data express the extraordinary contribution of the pharmaceutical sector to

the trade balance over these past years. The Italian trade balance went from a deficit

of −€30 billion in 2010 to a surplus of +€42 billion in 2014. This was due to a



5 Italy: A New European Pharmaceutical Hub



271



Table 5.2 Exports growth of main Italian products in 2010 and 2014 (billion euros)

Products

Manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations

Manufacture of other general-purpose machinery

Manufacture of general-purpose machinery

Manufacture of motor vehicles

Tanning and dressing of leather; luggage, handbags,

saddlery and harness; dressing and dyeing of fur

Manufacture of other special-purpose machinery

Manufacture of wearing apparel, except fur apparel

Manufacture of footwear

Manufacture of beverages

Manufacture of other food products

Source Compiled by Fondazione Edison using data from



Exports

in 2010



Exports

in 2014



Absolute

change



12.2

16.6

19.1

11.7

6.4



18.8

21.5

23.7

15.3

9.9



6.6

4.9

4.6

3.5

3.5



19.0

15.6

8.7

6.8

5.4



2.5

3.4

1.8

1.6

1.5



16.4

12.2

6.9

5.2

3.8

Istat (2016)



€62 billion increase in exports, to which the pharmaceutical industry contributed by

more than 10 %.

Results are even more interesting when an analysis in terms of pharma exports

and their quota of overall Italian manufacturing exports is made from 1991 till

today.

As can be seen from Fig. 5.1 the export quota of medicines and pharmaceutical

preparations as a share of total Italian exports increased from 0.5 in 1991 to 4.5 % in

2014.2 Its increasing share of the Italian manufacturing system is even more evident

when considering its rank in the classification of exported Italian products. Table 5.3

shows that during the 90s, the “medicines and pharmaceutical preparations” sector

increased by 38 positions, from 53rd in 1991 to 15th in 1999. In terms of export

value, it went up from €1.2 to €4.3 billion. Exports of “medicines and pharmaceutical preparations” in 2010 were among the top 10 products exported from Italy.

In fact, they ranked 7th with €12.2 billion worth of exports. By 2014 they ranked 4th

(€18.8 billion), right behind “general-purpose machinery” (€23.7 billion), “other

general-purpose machinery” (€21.5 billion) and “special-purpose machinery”

(€19 billion). However, they placed before “wearing apparel” (€15.6 billion),

“motor vehicles” (€15.3 billion), “basic chemicals” (€13.2 billion), “accessories for

motor vehicles” (€11.7 billion) and “plastics” (€10.5 billion).

The pharmaceutical industry’s excellent export performance has allowed it to

place among the top spots in terms of exports in 12 Italian provinces. In 2014,

considering overall manufacturing exports, pharmaceuticals ranked first in Latina

(74.1 %), Frosinone (61.9 %), Ascoli Piceno (71.5 %), Bari (33.7 %), Pavia

(19.6 %), Rome (10.9 %), Siena (25.1 %), Rieti (60.2 %) and L’Aquila (25.3 %).

It is interesting to note that currently, the exports of “medicines and pharmaceutical preparations”

have amply surpassed furniture exports, a historic “Made in Italy” sector, which is half the value of

pharmaceuticals.



2



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8 Emilia and Schwäbisch Hall-Waiblingen: The Two Districts Compared

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