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3 New mobility policies: from transport departments to mobility networks

3 New mobility policies: from transport departments to mobility networks

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Individual Contributions Toward a Common


Stefan Klug, Julia Kinigadner and Montserrat Miramontes


In this book, sustainable mobility is discussed at different scales and from

different perspectives. One approach is to understand it as a political concept,

highlighting the importance of governance for innovation, i.e., the identification of new problems and solutions and the implementation of new measures.

Another way to comprehensively understand the concept is through the application of the life-cycle approach as a broader framework. Alternatively, if we

look at one particular example of a mobility tool, such as the pedelec, a wide

range of sustainable dimensions, such as public health, energy consumption,

emissions, and costs, can be tackled as they relate to this tool. Important factors

in efforts to achieve sustainable mobility are technical progress, the involvement

of stakeholders and actors, and the given or planned transport infrastructure.

From an individual perspective, other aspects of sustainability gain importance,

such as affordability for transport demand sector of tourists, convenience for

employees on work-related trips, and accessibility of opportunities for knowledge

workers. Moreover, the contributions in this book demonstrate the strong need

to integrate land use and transport more effectively. Through such integration,

non-motorized modes of travel used in neighborhood mobility gain more importance. Innovations, such as new modeling approaches, are required to give

greater emphasis to sustainable modes.

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

G. Wulfhorst und S. Klug (Eds.), Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Regions,

Studien zur Mobilitäts- und Verkehrsforschung, DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-14428-9_11


Stefan Klug, Julia Kinigadner and Montserrat Miramontes


The central and common element of all contributions in this book is the concept

of sustainable mobility in metropolitan regions, which is approached from many

different perspectives. The topic can be discussed on a general level, as illustrated

by Anderson and Tschoerner who provide new concepts and innovative policy

approaches, or by looking at individual groups with particular mobility concerns,

as Le Klähn does for tourists, Roller for a specific type of employees, Sterzer for

individuals with low income, and Zhao et al. for knowledge workers.

Another group of authors has discussed new options for changing the current

practice of mobility to increase the level of sustainability. Büttner provides suggestions at different levels of spatial development to address rising mobility costs.

Okrah suggests another change, namely to improve modeling techniques to place

a greater emphasis on trips undertaken by the slower modes of travel, such as bicycling and walking. Le Bris’s study focuses on a specific new form of mobility, the

e-bike, which combines the individual advantages of the bicycle with the higher

speed of motorized mobility options.


The common objectives

Although the individual contributions are different, the common objective of

contributing to sustainable mobility in the metropolitan region of Munich is clear.

In the following two chapters of this book will be taken as an example to describe

how the individual chapters represent different approaches with the same ultimate


Tschoerner investigates the use of the term “sustainable mobility” in policy and

governance and develops new approaches to understanding mobility. She indicates

that the use of this term is often far removed from the key ideas of Brundtland (see

the introduction to this book). In contrast, it has become a dynamic political concept

that changes over time as new actor constellations shape the debate. The concept

of sustainability is inherently normative and political; therefore, governance plays

a key role in developed “structures” as well as in a specific set of “processes.” In

governance for sustainable mobility, actors identify new problems and solutions,

form new policies, implement new measures, and expand and grow their coalitions

in interaction with new actors. Based on a case study of cycling promotion in the

city of Munich, Tschoerner finds that the governance approach helps operationalize the complex idea of sustainable mobility and thus contributes to its analysis.

Individual Contributions Toward a Common Objective


She indicates that not only the state but also civic society, media, and new forms

of governmental organizations are involved in governance for sustainable mobility. She concludes that the governance approach enables clearer analysis and

consideration of the social, historical, and systemic factors steering the direction

of change. This perspective introduces discussion on how, if, and to what extent

knowledge, expertise, and rules need to be reconsidered or revised. However, the

decision whether to have this discussion is up to political actors.

While Tschoerner highlights the governance approach in contrast to other

frameworks used to measure sustainability as a fixed policy goal, Anderson suggests another way of comprehensively understanding sustainable mobility, one

that subsumes this concept within a bigger framework and proposes a life-cycle

approach. He focuses on the interdependencies between urban and building

scales, considering both the building and transportation sectors. Based on his

analysis, Anderson concretely addresses some fields of political action. On the

legal level, he calls for integrated government directives, including consideration

of embodied impacts, in the transport sector and beyond. One obvious example

is electric mobility because the crucial factor for ecological balance is not tailpipe

CO2 emissions but the source of electricity production used to power the vehicles.

Focusing only on tailpipe emissions can be misleading as electric mobility may

result in net emission increases.

To continue with the example of electric mobility, Le Bris investigates the role

of pedelecs (or e-bikes), a new mobility advance beyond the standard bicycle, in

sustainable mobility. Rather than focusing on life-cycle sustainability, she addresses

a wide range of sustainable dimensions from the users’ perspective, including public health, energy consumption, emissions, costs, etc. Le Bris argues that, for the

environment, pedelecs are the most energy-efficient form of transport. However,

she also acknowledges that the pedelec becomes a zero-emission vehicle only when

its energy is derived from renewable sources. To support the adoption of pedelecs

as an alternative to cars, Le Bris suggests developing marketing strategies that

consider the meanings, associations, images, and pictures related to pedelecs that

can influence their acceptance. To develop effective marketing strategies, the most

influential social and cultural factors must first be identified.

Reduction of vehicle ownership and of the mode share of private cars is at the

core of sustainable mobility strategies. While the first priority is to reduce total

traffic, followed by shifting traffic to environmental friendly modes, a third strategy

is to encourage more efficient use of existing vehicles, e.g., through car-pooling

and car-sharing.



Stefan Klug, Julia Kinigadner and Montserrat Miramontes

The individual perspective

Another important element considered in this book is the perceptions and attitudes

of individuals. The book’s second section addresses specific target groups from the

viewpoint of sustainable mobility. However, here the meaning of sustainability shifts

somewhat from the ecological toward the economic or social dimension due to the

focus on individual needs. Le Klähn, for instance, develops strategies to promote

sustainable transportation modes among tourists. Her survey results indicate

that tourists focus on the convenience, comfort, and affordability of travel modes

rather than on their eco-friendly characteristics. She opts for integrated planning,

which requires the involvement of and cooperation among multiple stakeholders.

Moreover, she suggests soft measures, such as frequent market research to provide

updated information on tourist behaviors and expectations. Emphasis should be

placed on mobility management measures, including marketing and information

at tourist offices, points of interest, and major transportation hubs such as railway

stations and airports, to encourage and facilitate the use of public transport among

tourists. However, creating awareness is inadequate. Practical conditions affecting

the use of sustainable modes need to be addressed as well, e.g., by better integration

of the public transport and bike-sharing systems.

In an economically growing metropolitan region, Munich’s transport system

is used mainly by employees, both for commuting and for other trip purposes.

Roller’s study investigates corporate mobility, considering working conditions in

combination with employees’ place of residence. She investigates the manner in

which it determines the mobility of individuals in traveling to, from, and while at

work. From an individual’s perspective, it is crucial to consider the employee’s entire

life situation and the life circumstances faced during one’s working life to develop

sustainable mobility strategies. Various factors can either increase or relieve the

stresses and strains of corporate mobility. Corporate travel structures the lives of

many employees, particularly those whose work entails frequent business trips. These

employees’ mobility experiences alter the ways in which they work and spend time

with their families, how they function as role models at home, and the manner in

which they handle their social and work-related relationships. Corporate mobility

is structured by both work-related requirements and private needs, and it also has

a structuring function with regard to how individuals live their lives. Strategies

for a mobility management approach that limits the social costs of employees and

protect their well-being should consider individuals’ work-related circumstances

and personal conditions that influence their travel needs and preferences.

Sterzer’s and Zhao et al.’s contributions are also focused on employees, but

they examine the impact of the housing and work locations of specific groups, i.e.,

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