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Missing table



Missing section



Understanding Earning

Gap: Digging Deeper



Missing table



Missing SOC



Poor

No intro

paragraph

Missing all

tables



Wages for Your

Occupation



Standard Occupational

Classification

Sex and Race

Composition for Your

Occupation



The National Wage

Ratio



Introduction



Grading Rubric:



Underdeveloped,

confusing, unclear



Incomplete data



Missing one or more

levels of SOC

Incorrect percentages



Missing one or more

tables



Below average

Unclear introduction



Topic chosen is stated

clearly at beginning of

section; data was

analyzed thoroughly



Presented clearly and

completely

Table includes: %

women/men and %

White, African American

and Hispanic workers for

chosen occupation

Table includes data for

five to ten points in time,

title and citations



Average

Purpose of paper not

stated

Tables include at least

five points in time and

include titles/citations



Good

Topic of paper is

clear

Table(s) for the sex

wage ratio, race wage

ratio and sex/race

ratio are presented

and labeled clearly

Includes definition of

chosen occupation

Table has a title, all

data sources are

clearly cited and data

covers at least five

points in time

Table includes the

average wages for all

workers in your

occupation and the

calculated sex wage

ratio

Findings regarding

chosen topic are

presented clearly and

thoroughly



Includes the four levels

of chosen occupation

Trends for sex and race

composition of chosen

occupation are clearly

stated and any major

changes are addressed

Comparison of wage gap

for chosen occupation

and national wage gap is

addressed; possible

explanations for why this

might exist included

Link between chosen

topic and how that helps

to understand the big

picture of earnings

inequality is presented

clearly and thoroughly



Excellent

Establishes importance

of topic

Clear tables; Wage

Ratio’s for each category

are included in tables and

are calculated correctly



/15



/15



/15



/5



/15



PTS

/5



296

Appendix A: Classroom Activities



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



297



Activity IV: Pay Gap Fact Sheet

By Cynthia Anderson, Ohio University, andersc2@ohio.edu

The purpose of this assignment is to produce a summary of key facts relevant to the

pay gap. Fact sheets are intended to be useful sources of information for teaching,

social action, and other occasions where succinct, accessible information is needed.

To that end, it is important that facts sheets not only be informative, but also concise

(two pages), clearly written, well organized, and visually appealing.

Your fact sheet will include the following information: statement of problem,

definition and application of relevant sociological concepts, current data from

credible sources (tables and graphs are helpful), important activist and/or community

organizations (websites, etc.), sources for further information, and a brief bibliography

of sources used in the report.

In terms of evaluating fact sheets, here are some things I will look for:

1. Does the fact sheet reflect knowledge gained from the class? Is the topic relevant?

Is the frame sociological?

2. Has the author identified her/his key concepts? Have the concepts been appropriately applied to the fact sheet topic?

3. Are valid facts obtained from reliable sources? Has the author provided complete

citations for the facts?

4. Does the fact sheet represent effort? Does it lack typos, errors, etc.? Is it concise,

easily readable and attention getting?

To find a topic, think about course readings, class discussions, and activities and

ask, “what would I like to know more about?” or “what do I think is more important

for others to learn about?” Your topic should be something we have not explored in

detail. Possible topics include: race pay gap, age pay gap, promotion, retention,

LGBTQ, global labor, immigrant labor, etc. Key concepts and theories include:

human capital, social capital, occupational segregation, glass ceiling, glass

escalator, etc.

Below are links to examples of fact sheets. Neither follows the specific guidelines of this assignment, but they give a sense of what fact sheets are, how they are

used, and what they should include. These examples are intended to be informational only; you are NOT expected to follow them as models.

Example #1: These fact sheets contain less information than you will use, but are

helpful in terms of visual presentation. Your fact sheet should be more developed

than these examples: http://web.stcloudstate.edu/teore/Food/Facts5/index.html.

Example #2: These fact sheets contain more information than you will use, but give

you an idea of what can be included: http://www.socwomen.org/fact-sheets/.

Particularly good examples include:



298



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



• http://socwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/Kerstetter_SWSFactSheet_4.3.2013.pdf

• http://www.socwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/fact_00-2012immigration.pdf

• http://www.socwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/fact_1-2012-prison.pdf

• http://www.socwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/fact_03-2011lgbtfams.pdf



Fact Sheet Template

The following outline identifies all the sections you need to include. Feel free to

adjust as needed. Remember that your goal is to be concise, readable, and attention

grabbing. Carefully consider your font, spacing, and use of visuals. Your final

product should be two pages.

TITLE :  be sure your topic is sociological 

By insert your name

insertt date

Part 1

• Clearly state the sociological issue you are addressing and the purpose of your

fact sheet

• Why is this topic important? Who is affected? Why should we care?

Part 2

• What sociological concepts are you using to frame your problem? Use what

you’ve learned in class to frame the problem.

Part 3

• List at least 10 IMPORTANT STATISTICS about your topic EVERYONE

SHOULD KNOW. For this step, you will need to find secondary data using existing sources. Government websites and research centers often provide good data.

See me if you want suggestions.

Part 4

• Include visuals to convey your descriptive information: Include graphs,

tables, etc.

Part 5

• List at least five THINGS that can be done to IMPROVE THE PROBLEM

(e.g., solutions/action steps):



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



299



– Solutions/action steps can be individual, community or government–based

Part 6

• List five ways readers CAN LEARN MORE:

– Community resources, academic resources, key activist resources, websites, etc.

Part 7

• REFERENCES:

– Brief bibliography of sources used in the report. Include enough detail so that

someone else can go to your sources and find the same thing you found.



Activity V: Critical Thinking Writing Assignments

Regarding Gender Violence

By Nikki McGary, University of Connecticut, nikki.mcgary@uconn.edu



Assignment #1: Gendered Violence and Media

Purpose The purpose of this independent writing assignment is to reflect on how

the media serves as an agent of socialization that normalizes certain gendered

expectations. It is also an opportunity for students to utilize what bell hooks calls an

“oppositional gaze” in their critical analysis of a film.

Directions For this assignment, watch the movie Twilight. Using an oppositional

gaze (a critical feminist gaze that we have been cultivating in class), write a review

of the film. Do NOT simply summarize the film. You must formulate your own

argument to support your opinion. You need to discuss how this film is linked to

gendered violence (and specific class concepts), while providing multiple examples

from the film. You MUST link your argument to the readings that we have done so

far in class. Be sure to pay attention to dialogue, imagery, and ongoing themes in the

film. I will put a copy of the film on reserve at the library and it is available streaming via HuskyCT… but really, so many people own it that you can ask around if that

is more convenient.

Using the texts Providing quotes is definitely useful (and required), but only as

evidence to support your point. There is a difference between using a quote as evidence versus just being lazy and using somebody else’s words instead of your

own… so use the texts as evidence to support your claims! Any words that are not

your own must be cited properly. Thoughts that are taken from texts must also be

cited properly (see the assessment section of your syllabus).



300



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



Assignment #2: The UDHR

Three to five pages

Purpose The purpose of this independent writing assignment is to have students

synthesize class concepts while reflecting on the Universal Declaration of Human

Rights (UDHR). This assignment must be done after a class lecture detailing the

UDHR.

Directions Pick two human rights from the UDHR. Explain what each one means

(in your own words). Then provide THREE examples of human rights violations for

EACH of the two human rights that you are focusing on. Your examples must come

from the texts we used in class. Each example must come from a different reading

(totaling 6)… or if you must overlap, you have to make a really convincing case for

it in a separate paragraph attached to your paper. And sure, feel free to reference

films (but that doesn’t count toward your six text references).

Explain how your examples are violations of your selected human right. And

describe any of the recommendations that the authors shared to end such violations.

Explain what you think about their recommendations. If there are none, come up

with your own and explain why you think these are good recommendations.



Activity VI: Teaching about Abortion in the Undergraduate

Classroom

By Elroi J. Windsor, Salem College, elroi.windsor@salem.edu, (336) 721-2703

This appendix provides detailed logistics related to the activity described in

Chapter 13. I describe how I begin the class by relaying facts about abortion before

delving into arguments that shape the debate. Then, I discuss the mechanics of

implementing the survey. These details aim to provide instructors with the tools

needed to teach about abortion in a way that challenges divisive and polarized rhetoric while incorporating personal perspectives on the issue.



Before the Survey

As I discussed in Chapter #, abortion is a sensitive and controversial issue. Teaching

about it requires special attention and preparation. In my experience, this activity

works best after the semester midpoint. At that time, instructors should have developed rapport with students and provided them with foundational material to consider the issue more thoughtfully. This background sets the stage for an effective

discussion of the survey.



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



301



On the day I teach about abortion, I begin by relaying brief facts based on current

data.1 I provide information about the rates of unintended pregnancies and the

percentage of these that are terminated. These facts provide a general context for

thinking about the issue. Then, I segue into the linguistic strategies used by activists

in the abortion debate, where pro-lifers often refer to their opponents as anti-life or

pro-abortion and pro-choicers refer to their opponents as anti-choice or anti-woman.

I stress to the class that, in studying abortion, we are not going to argue about

whether or not abortion should be legal or whether it is moral, but that our task

instead is to examine more sociological arguments offered by each side of the

debate. I then draw two columns on the board labeled: “arguments against legalizing

abortion” and “arguments against banning abortion,” and draw a line down the middle

to separate the two columns.

Based on Messerli’s (2012) essay on whether abortion should be banned, I prepare to relay seven arguments for each side, which I list in my lecture notes (see

Table 1.1). Five of these arguments have parallel logics, or counter-arguments.

But two arguments on each side stand on their own without a sufficiently parallel

counter-argument. After I label the columns, I provide the class with the first argument against legalizing abortion, and then write it in the column. I then ask for the

logical counter-argument. After a student relays the answer (or one close enough), I

then physically move to that section and write the argument in that column. Once

the first argument against banning abortion is written, I then relay the second argument against banning abortion and write it under the column. Again, I move to the

other side of the board and ask students for the counter-argument. I alternate back

and forth for the first five arguments, all of which have counter-arguments. For the

last two arguments on each side, I ask students to venture guesses.

Once seven arguments are listed under each side, the board is typically filled with

writing. I ask students if seeing these arguments helps them understand the abortion

debate as more complicated than simply saying one is pro-life or pro-choice. I talk

about how the issue can be framed sociologically from a variety of points on either

side of the issue. Typically, students are able to consider the complexities of each

side, regardless of their own beliefs. In my experience, I have never had a student

adamantly refuse to consider alternative viewpoints. At no point during class do I

reveal my personal opinion on the issue, nor do I ask the class to relay theirs. I keep

the number of arguments under each column equal and alternate sides in relaying

them to present a more balanced view of the issue. Although the arguments are not

exhaustive, they represent the core points presented on each side. Then, I explain to

the class that we will next consider these issues on a more personal level.



1

Facts about abortion are available through the Guttmacher Institute: https://www.guttmacher.org/

media/presskits/abortion-US/statsandfacts.html.



302



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



Table 1.1 Sociopolitical arguments around abortion (Messerli 2012)

Arguments against legalizing abortion

Comparable arguments

1. Abortion is a form of murder; society has

laws against murder

2. Societal contributions of potentially

valuable humans are wiped out



3. Women who have abortions can suffer

psychological/physical damage from the

experience; fathers too (psychological)

4. Abortion decisions often made by

minors/young adults who lack maturity and

life experiences to make good decisions

5. People have a right to prevent their tax

dollars from going to something they find

immoral/objectionable

Independent arguments

6. Other birth control is readily available;

abortion should not be form of birth control

7. There are many couples trying

to adopt a child



Arguments against banning abortion

1. Abortion is not murder because it is performed

before embryo/fetus develops into a human

person who is protected by laws

2. Better for society to have fetuses aborted than

have child brought up poor/neglected where child

and society suffer (e.g., child develops higher

attraction to crime, welfare, etc.)

3. Women who birth can suffer psychological/

physical damage from the experience; fathers too

(psychological)

4. One brief mistake can trap young people for

life; take away a person’s youth

5. People’s tax dollars already pay for things

some find immoral/objectionable (e.g., death

penalty, war, sex education, etc.)

6. Government should not have control over a

woman’s body

7. “Back alley” abortions would increase if it

were made illegal, leading to increased risk of

young women dying or becoming sterile



Implementing the Survey

Before passing out the surveys, I emphasize that students’ responses are anonymous

and tell them not to put their names on the survey. If the class is small, I pass around

pencils for students to use to preserve anonymity. In large classes, I ask students to

use pencil or black ink and I bring pencils to lend to students who have neither. I tell

the class that they are about to complete an anonymous survey where they are to

truthfully record their responses as if they are personally affected by the scenario.

I tell them that each item on the survey reflects different pregnancy scenarios and

that they should imagine that they, their partner, or a loved one is affected by the

pregnancy. I advise them to answer as if they were in the situation themselves or if

someone they loved was affected and asked them for advice. I ask them to clear their

desks and then distribute the surveys and pencils, asking students to avoid writing

on them until they receive further instruction. The survey items and instructions are

in Table 1.2.

As the surveys are being distributed, I tell the students that for each scenario they

have three to four options. I tell them they must decide whether they would abort the

pregnancy, alter the fetus/baby during pregnancy with technology (real or imagined), adopt out the child after birth, or accept the pregnancy and the child after

birth. I tell them that some of the scenarios are indeed possible, while others are

imagined and not currently possible. I let them know that if the “alter” option box is



303



Appendix A: Classroom Activities

Table 1.2 Survey handout

Choosing to Abort, Alter, Adopt, or Accept



INSTRUCTIONS: Do not write your name on this survey. Imagine that you, your partner, or a femalebodied loved one is faced with a pregnancy. Imagine that the scenario applies to you and affects you

personally. Check the column that describes what decision you would make or suggest if faced with the

following scenarios. Some of these scenarios are indeed possible, while others are fantasy and not

currently possible. Decide whether you would abort the pregnancy, alterthe fetus/baby during

pregnancy with technology (real or imagined), adopt out the child after birth, or accept the pregnancy

and the child after birth. If the box is blacked out, then that option does not apply to that scenario.

Consider each scenario carefully. If you are unsure, just leave the options unchecked.

SCENARIO



ABORT



ALTER



ADOPT



ACCEPT



Unplanned pregnancy, person is 25 years old.

Unplanned pregnancy, person is 13 years old.

Unplanned pregnancy, person is 63 years old.

Fetus/baby with cerebral palsy on DNA.

Fetus/baby with Down syndrome on DNA.

Two fetuses/babies, conjoined, attached at the hip,

sharing no vital organs. If carried to term: life for

both with or without surgery probable.

Two fetuses/babies, conjoined, attached at the brain.

If carried to term: life for both as conjoined

probable, or separation surgery where only one

may or may not survive.



Fetus/baby with depression on DNA.

Fetus/baby with aggression on DNA.

Fetus/baby with extremely low IQ on DNA.

Fetus/baby with schizophrenia on DNA.

Male fetus/baby, wil grow to 5’2’’ tall.

Female fetus/baby, wil grow to 6’2’’ tall.

Fetus/baby has facial disfigurement, cosmetic,

operable with great risk.

Fetus/baby with obesity predisposition.

Fetus/baby lacks arms and legs.

Family has 4 girls, really wants a boy, fetus/baby

with female DNA.

Fetus/baby with gay/lesbian orientation on DNA.

Pregnant, child will experience extreme racism

throughout life.



(continued)



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



304

Table 1.2 (continued)

Pregnant, child will experience extreme poverty

throughout life.

Pregnant, child will exhibit gender nonconforming behavior and will medically

transition to a different gender in adulthood.

Pregnant as a result of rape.

Pregnant as a result of incest (sibling or parent).

Pregnant poses serious threat to mother’s

health.

Pregnant as a result of failed contraception.

Pregnant, cannot afford children.

Pregnant, do not want children.



When you are finished, fold the paper in half with the writing on the inside.



blacked out, then that pregnancy cannot be altered in utero. I advise them to leave

the options blank if they are unsure. I also explain that the survey uses the term

“fetus/baby” as a way to represent both sides of the issue, where pro-life advocates

typically prefer to use the language of “baby” and pro-choice advocates commonly

use “fetus.” After reviewing the instructions, I ask students if they have any questions to ensure everyone understands the task.

On the survey, the students encounter nearly 30 scenarios that represent pregnancies that are considered less than the ideal (see Table 1.2 for details). After completing each item, students encounter instructions on the bottom of the survey to fold

the paper in half. As I see students finishing, I tell them that when I see their folded

papers on the desk, I will know that they are finished. The survey takes 10–15 min

to complete. When I observe that everyone has finished, I collect, shuffle, and redistribute the surveys to the class.



Discussing Survey Results

As I am handing surveys back to students, I begin the discussion by asking students

about their abilities to complete the survey. Next, I tell students they will represent

the survey data returned to them by raising their hands to indicate the answer given

on the survey. We then go through each item to get a visual representation of the

class data. I record the findings on my copy of the survey in order to review them

during discussion. I then examine the results for each thematic sections.



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



305



In discussing survey results, it is crucial that instructors prepare for handling a

variety of delicate situations, as discussed in Chapter #. Think about who is in your

classroom and the potential for harm in using the survey. Plan ahead for tense or

upsetting points of discussion and ground your responses sociologically. In Chapter

#, I relay more specific information related to handling these events. I share with

readers several personal experiences with hopes that instructors will take appropriate precautions.

In conclusion, this activity provides many opportunities to discuss abortion

through a sociological lens. Based on students’ feedback and the results from a

study analyzing the activity’s effectiveness in meeting the learning objective, the

activity is effective. I welcome the opportunity to discuss the activity further with

other instructors who are interested in using it in their classrooms.



References

Messerli, J. (2012). Should abortion be banned (except in special circumstances

like saving the mother’s life)? http://www.balancedpolitics.org/abortion.htm.

Accessed 5 Jan 2015.



Activity VII: Coding the Crisis: A classroom Activity

for Teaching about the Crisis of Masculinity

By Kyle Green, University of Minnesota, green894@umn.edu, and Madison Van

Oort, University of Minnesota, vanoo009@umn.edu



Description

The crisis of masculinity is important to discuss in sociology classes since according

to the Thomas dictum, ideas that may not be real can still be real in their consequences.

Thus, although masculinity, men, and patriarchy may not actually be losing their

foothold in contemporary society, it is important for students to grapple with the

sociological significance of this idea that has been so widely discussed in the media.

For this activity, students code commercials from the 2010 Super Bowl as a way to

begin actively thinking about the symbols used to depict the crisis. In doing so,

students are both introduced to a valuable methodological approach and are able to

follow the shifting representation of masculinity in the media. The activity is useful

for introductory sociology, sociology of gender, or research methods.



306



Appendix A: Classroom Activities



About the 2010 Super Bowl

This activity could be performed with Super Bowl commercials from almost any

year, since narratives about gender are so prevalent in advertising. However, as we

found in our previous research (Green and Van Oort 2013), the 2010 advertisements

marked an important turning point in how masculinity was portrayed. In earlier

years, as Messner and Montez de Oca (2005) found, men were depicted as

“loveable losers”: they would fail to get the girl, but would have their friends and

their beers to fall back on. The narrative arc of the commercial led the audience

empathize with their failures and laugh along with them. In 2010, the story was

different: instead of loveable losers, men were portrayed as “delusional dopes”

who were found pantless, wandering astray, injuring themselves, and hopelessly

submitting to their wives. In this case, the audience was no longer led to empathize

with those figures, but instead to reject them. Three commercials that we find particularly illustrative and useful for this activity are Dodge Charger’s “Man’s Last

Stand,” Career Builders’ “Casual Fridays,” and Dockers’ “I Wear No Pants.” In this

trio of commercials, men are urged to make their final stand against trivial domestic

tasks, reject the allure of the casual and silly, and remember what it’s like to ‘wear

the pants.’



Activity Instructions

The length and subject of the readings, the amount of pre-discussion, and the content emphasized can be shifted depending on the course this activity is being used

for (e.g., a supplemental reading on gender and the media or sport and masculinity).

At the very least, students first need to know how to perform a basic semiotic analysis through informal coding. This can occur through brief introduction in class and

may be supplemented by assigning readings on the role of symbols in advertisements (see, for instance, the classic study by Judith Williamson [1978]) or an introduction to the multiple approaches to coding and content analysis (we recommend

Rose 2001). We also recommend walking the students through the process of coding a commercial. We use “Yoga Voyeurs,” one of the paradigmatic examples of the

“Loveable Loser” referenced by Messner and Montez de Oca (2005) to do so.

Students will then get a chance to view the sample 2010 commercials, like the three

listed above, all of which can be found on YouTube. We provide students with the

semiotic checklist below to guide their viewing.

For exploring what signs of humans might symbolize2:

Representations of bodies:



2



Our semiotic checklist is based on Gillian Dyer’s Advertising as communication (2008).



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