Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
7 Student Responses to the Girl with the Dragon Tattoo

7 Student Responses to the Girl with the Dragon Tattoo

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang


S.M. Walters and M. Kimmel

Lisbeth has good sex with men and women, including BDSM sex, and is not monogamous. The sexual relationships in the books depict trusting and loving friendships

with non-monogamous lovers (Shippers 2012). Just because the sex is not monogamous or following the traditional gendered script does not mean that the relationships suffer. This allows the reader to safely insert herself into a sexual fantasy

where the heroine is supported and loved by her lovers, allowing her the support to

resist patriarchy and societal constraints.

Lisbeth is physically strong and takes revenge on her sexual assailant. Her

strength is different than Bella and Ana’s. Although Bella and Ana are physically

strong in the books, in the end their male heroes show up and save them. For Ana

this is when her supervisor tries to sexually assault her and Bella has a number of

physical attacks that Edward shows up and saves her from. Women identify with

Ana and Bella as strong women who fight back, but Lisbeth is in a category of her

own. Lisbeth gives women the courage to confront sexual assault independently.

Women also identify with Lisbeth as an outsider and a loner. Her character makes

them feel like this is okay and sort of cool (Stewart 2011).

We argue that because the Girl with the Dragon Tattoo strays so far from the normative script, in that it blatantly challenges patriarchy, the movies did not make as

much in the box office as the Twilight films. The result of this is that this series did

not reach as broad of an audience as Twilight and Fifty Shades of Grey. In fact, we

have found in our classes that most women who enjoyed the Girl with the Dragon

Tattoo already identified as feminists and were critical of patriarchy. Yet, in Twilight

and Fifty Shades, the audience is broad and women who read these books and

watched the Twilight films do not identify as feminists. Thus, the audiences for

these series are very different. Women who read Twilight and Fifty Shades embodied gender and sexuality norms, but the books (particularly Fifty Shades) helped

them find agency in a patriarchal world.

In this way The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo differs from the other two novels.

The reader still finds pleasure in inserting herself into the story, but the fantasy is not

for sexual pleasure and marriage. It is safe for the reader to insert herself in the

Twilight and the Fifty Shades of Grey because the romantic relationships positively

impact the heroine. The men that Lisbeth chooses in The Girl with the Dragon

Tattoo are different from the other series. They are loyal and gentle, with a softer,

less masculine appearance and demeanor. They do not force themselves on her, but

when she is ready they provide her with satisfying sex and much love. The reward

is friendship, however, not marriage and this can be very liberating for women who

are always pressured to be in monogamous, heteronormative relationships and to

become mothers. Lisbeth does none of this and some women desire a life like that

for themselves.

Using The Dragon Tattoo as a contrast to Twilight and/or Fifty Shades of Grey is

a powerful teaching tool. First, we suggest using Twilight or Fifty Shades, as they

are more palatable for students, especially because they are so embedding in normative gender. Yet, slowly, throughout your course you can challenge their beliefs.

Once you finish the Twilight or Fifty Shades lessons you then can challenge more by

using The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.

14 Pulp Friction: How College Women Navigate Identity, Sexuality and Gender…




Fiction in the classroom is an excellent teaching aid for instructors who want to

examine femininity and masculinity as societal constructs and to meet students

where they are interested (with popular fiction). Students can insert themselves into

the story and begin to question gender and agency associated with gender. As

instructors we can help them understand gender as a social construction and begin

to challenge femininity and masculinity.

The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo allows for deeper discussions on gender and

sexuality. Using Lisbeth as a model, we can begin conversations about gender performance and sexuality being on a spectrum. Lisbeth presents herself in nontraditional gendered ways and has multiple sex partners of both genders. This allows for

students to begin envisioning alternative genders and sexualities. The Girl with the

Dragon Tattoo also allows for a discussion of patriarchy in a more obvious manner.

Twilight and Fifty Shades allow for a critical examination of patriarchy, but since the

heroines of these stories are embedded in normative gender and sexuality it becomes

more difficult for students to see.

All three series offer moments of entry for discussions around gender, sexualities, patriarchy, and inequalities. Since the three heroines differ, along with the male

characters, different lessons can be learned from each. It is useful to combine one or

all three of these series in a classroom. Since Twilight and The Girl with a Dragon

Tattoo are already films available for the classroom, one pedagogical approach is to

show the films rather than have students read the books. Once Fifty Shades of Grey

is released to video instructors can do this with all three.


Baker, K. J. M. (2012). Fifty Shades of Grey’s success has nothing to do with repressed feminist









Barker, M. (2013). Consent is a grey area? A comparison of understandings of consent in 50 shades

of grey and on the BDSM blogosphere. Sexualities, 16(8), 896–914.

Berk, R. A. (2009). Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the

college classroom. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 1–21.

Bonomi, A. E., Altenburger, L. E., & Walton, N. L. (2013). “Double crap!” abuse and harmed

identity in Fifty Shades of Grey. Journal of Women’s Health, 22(9), 733–744.

Bosman, J. (2014, February 27). ‘Fifty shades’ series hits a sales milestone. The New York Times.

Box Office Mojo. (2014). Twilight. Retrieved from http://www.boxofficemojo.com/franchises/


BoxOffice.com. (2014). The girl with the dragon tattoo (2011). Retrieved from http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=girldragontattoo11.htm

Collins, V. E., & Carmody, D. C. (2011). Deadly love images of dating violence in the “Twilight

Saga”. Affilia, 26(4), 382–394.

Diamond, F. (2011). Beauty and the beautiful beast: Stephenie Meyer’s twilight saga and the quest

for a transgressive female desire. Australian Feminist Studies, 26(67), 41–55.

Daniels, J. (2012). Transforming student engagement through documentary and critical media literacy. Theory in Action, 5(2), 5–29.


S.M. Walters and M. Kimmel

Donahue, D. (2012, March 20). ‘Fifty shades’ trilogy lends a little erotic color to American shelves;

women turning ‘mommy porn’ into a best seller. USA Today.

Downey, E. P., Jackson, R. L., Puig, M. E., & Furman, R. (2003). Perceptions of efficacy in the use

of contemporary film in social work education: An exploratory study. Social Work Education,

22(4), 401. doi:10.1080/0261547032000101116.

Gates, S. (2013). Fourth book in ‘girl with the dragon tattoo’ series planned with new author.

Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/17/fourth-book-girl-with-dragon-tattoo-david-lagercrantz_n_4461454.html

Hamedy, S. (2015, February 22). ‘Fifty shades of grey’ sinks 73% in 2nd weekend, still tops box

office. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/envelope/cotown/la-et-ct-box-office-fifty-shades-kingsman-spongebob-mcfarland-duff-hot-tubtime-machine-20150222-story.html

James, E. L. (2012a). Fifty shades darker. New York: Vintage.

James, E. L. (2012b). Fifty shades free. New York: Vintage.

James, E. L. (2012c). Fifty shades of grey. New York: Vintage.

Kimmel, M. (2012). Men who love women: Pro-feminist masculinities in the millennium trilogy.

In D. L. King & C. L. Smith (Eds.), Men who hate women and women who kick their asses:

Stieg Larsson’s millennium trilogy in feminist perspective (pp. 77–87). Nashville: Vanderbilt

University Press.

Lorber, J. (2011, July 7). The gender ambiguity of Lisbeth Salander: Third-wave feminist hero?

Dissent: A Quarterly of Politics and Culture.

Martin, A. (2013). Fifty shades of sex shop: Sexual fantasy for sale. Sexualities, 16(8), 980–984.

Massengill, R. P. (2011). Sociological writing as higher-level thinking: Assignments that cultivate

the sociological imagination. Teaching Sociology, 39(4), 371–381.

Orzeck, K. (2012). Despite poor box office, “dragon tattoo” sequel moves ahead. Retrieved from


Pelton, J. A. (2013). “Seeing the theory is believing” writing about film to reduce theory anxiety.

Teaching Sociology, 41(1), 106–120.

Puente, M. (2009, November 23). Women mooning over teen ‘ twilight’; Vampire romance sucks

in moms, too. USA Today.

Purcell, C. (2013). Fifty shades of feminism – A response to E.L. James’ “fifty shades of grey.”




Rollwagen, J. R. (2014). Anthropological filmmaking: Anthropological perspectives on the production of film and video for general public audiences. New York: Routledge.

Schippers, M. (2012). Thirds wave rebels in a second wave world: Polyamory, gender, and power.

In D. King & C. L. Smith (Eds.), Men who hate women and women who kick their asses:

Feminist perspectives on Stieg Larsson’s millennium trilogy (pp. 65–76). Tennessee: Vanderbilt

University Press.

Stanley, A. (2012, April 3). Glass slipper as fetish. The New York Times.

Stewart, S. (2011, November 1). LADY THRILLER she’s scary, skinny and dresses like a boy, but

Lisbeth Salander is a new style icon for the modern age. The New York Post.

Sutherland, J., & Feltey, K. (2012). Cinematic sociology: Social life in film. London: Sage.

Taylor, J. (2014). Romance and the female gaze obscuring gendered violence in the twilight saga.

Feminist Media Studies, 14(3), 388–402.

The Guardian. (2010). Top-selling 100 books of all time. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.


The Guardian. (2013). Sequel announced to Stieg Larsson’s girl with the dragon tattoo trilogy. Retrieved

from http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/dec/17/stieg-larsson-girl-with-dragon-tattoo-sequel

Walters, S., & Kimmel, M. S. (2013). The pleasures of danger and the dangers of pleasure: The

inversion of gender relations in the Twilight Series. In K. Harper, Y. Katsulis, V. Lopez, & G. S.

Gillis (Eds.), Girls’ sexualities and the media (pp. 77–92). New York: Peter Lang Publishing


14 Pulp Friction: How College Women Navigate Identity, Sexuality and Gender…


Waugh, J. (2012). The girl who made us think about autonomy. In S. Crasnow, and J. Waugh

(Eds.), Philosophical feminism and popular culture (pp. 129–150). Lanham: Lexington Books.

Wilson, N. (2011). Seduced by twilight: The allure and contradictory messages of the popular

saga. Jefferson: McFarland.

Chapter 15

Doing Critical Pedagogy in an Ironically

Sexist World

Valerie Chepp and Lester Andrist

In 1992, Sir Mix-a-Lot released his hit song “Baby Got Back.” Throughout the

track, Sir Mix-a-Lot proclaims his appreciation for women with large butts, specifically black women, and he casts this “celebratory anthem” against a critique of

female beauty ideals centered on whiteness and thinness. The song spent 5 weeks at

the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart and went on to win a 1993 Grammy Award

for Best Rap Solo Performance. Since its release, the song has figured prominently

in the literature on gender, race, and hip-hop. The track and what it represents has

been criticized for its sexist lyrics and for objectifying black women’s bodies

(Collins 2005:129; Henderson 2013:160; Parasecoli 2007:116; Rose 1994:169;

Story 2007:239). Other feminist critiques have pointed to the song’s reification of

racialized sexist tropes while at the same time highlighting the subversive legitimacy of positioning black women’s bodies as sites of desire and beauty rather than

symbols of deviant sexuality (Hobson 2003; Miller-Young 2008).

Speaking more than two decades after the release of the song, Sir Mix-a-Lot

(2014) reflected on the popularity of it, specifically pointing to the track’s supposedly black feminist undertones:

The black, female body was not accepted as the norm anywhere. For years, all you saw on

television was overweight black maids or black women who would assimilate to white

culture, as far as the look is concerned… I wanted to do something that was tongue-incheek but, at the same time, making a real point.


V. Chepp (*)

Hamline University, St Paul, MN, USA

e-mail: vchepp01@hamline.edu

L. Andrist

University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

e-mail: landrist@umd.edu

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

K. Haltinner, R. Pilgeram (eds.), Teaching Gender and Sex

in Contemporary America, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30364-2_15



V. Chepp and L. Andrist

Sir Mix-a-Lot’s twenty-first century feminist framing of “Baby Got Back” presents a unique set of present-day challenges for instructors who teach students how

to think critically about gender and gender equality. If Sir Mix-a-Lot’s song is sexist, it is a sexism that is more difficult to identify than the sexism of earlier decades,

as the lyrics were intended to be “tongue-in-cheek.” Sir Mix-a-Lot’s remarks suggest he was fully conscious of the representations he deployed. He even claims there

was an emancipatory potential in his hyperbolic message; that he truly sought to

respond critically to the limited representations of black women’s bodies in popular

visual media.

Of course, a myopic focus on black women’s butts is hardly a critical response to

the stereotypical representations of black women’s bodies and, in fact, plays into a

racist and sexist fetishization of black women dating back at least to Saartjie

Baartman in the early 1800s—the so-called South African “Hottentot Venus” whose

body was placed on public display for white spectators at various exhibitions

throughout Europe (Harris-Perry 2011). Moreover, the beauty ideal touted by Mixa-Lot remains quite limited, thin, and unattainable. Like the 36″-24″-36″ body measurements of the supposed “brick house” celebrated by The Commodores 15 years

earlier and cited in “Baby Got Back,” these body dimensions remain well below

those of the average American woman (Sekayi 2003). However, irrespective of the

content of Mix-a-Lot’s critique, from a pedagogical perspective we are interested in

the delivery of his critique, and irrespective of his intentions, how his message is

received. What is the purpose of concealing the supposed “true” intent in hyperbole? While such hyperbole may seem new and even sophisticated, is it just different wrapping on the same sexist candy? For instructors of sex and gender, what

challenges does this hyperbolic, or ironic, approach present for feminist criticism?


Ironic Sexism: What Is It?

In this chapter we examine the relatively new strain of “ironic sexism” increasingly

found in popular culture, and particularly prevalent in contemporary visual media

(Blloshmi 2013). Also sometimes referred to as retro sexism (Sarkeesian 2010) and

hipster or liberal sexism (Quart 2012; Wallace 2012), ironic sexism is distinct in that

it deploys the sexist imagery and controlling images most typically associated with

the popular culture of the mid-twentieth century, but does so with a tongue-in-cheek

method of delivery that appears to suggest to viewers a punch line is forthcoming or

that they are witnessing veiled social criticism.

Like the sexism of old, this twenty-first century ironic iteration still depicts women’s bodies as sexual objects (Kilbourne 2010). Women appear in less dignified and

less intelligent roles than men, and women are still rigidly linked to the domestic

sphere where they appear to confirm many stereotypical notions of femininity. The

defining feature of this newfangled sexist media is that it carries a subtext that suggests the creators of the media are perfectly aware of their incursions into a terrain

that has long been identified by feminist critics as sexist. The media presents itself


Doing Critical Pedagogy in an Ironically Sexist World


as “just a joke” and “all in good fun.” Media producers can defend their deployment

of these sexist tropes by suggesting the media is not really sexist, but is instead

intended to be funny, satirical, or sarcastic. However, ironically sexist media provides no punch line or real critique. It offers only an ironic grin that invites viewers

to wonder if there is more going on than scantily clad women in sexually provocative poses. But alas, there is not.

For instructors who teach about gender equality and movements for change, this

era of ironic sexism presents new challenges, with an especially insidious one being

our ability to help students recognize the severity of this seemingly more playful

and less obvious brand of sexism. In this chapter, we present tools for identifying

and responding to ironic sexism. First, we examine the emergence and development

of this new form of sexism, situating it within a larger backlash that has been leveled

against feminist critiques of sexist media. We outline its distinctive characteristics,

and we articulate why this new form of sexism remains harmful, despite its implicit

claims of being tongue-in-cheek and therefore above criticism. We conclude by

offering strategies to help students learn to identify and analyze this type of media.


Ironic Sexism: Where Did It Come from?

As with all gender ideologies and sexist practices, ironic sexism emerged from a

particular social and historical context. At its core, ironic sexism constitutes a

response to more than three decades of feminist criticism leveled against sexist


Following the feminist victories and consciousness-raising of the 1960s and

1970s, by the 1980s and 1990s, the feminist movement had thoroughly articulated

the idea of patriarchy and successfully incorporated it into a broader public discourse on gender equality. In addition to drawing attention to the ways patriarchy

permeates the labor market, spaces of political participation, and even intimate relationships, feminists had also leveled an incisive and sustained critique of how patriarchy is maintained through media representations, namely the films and

advertisements that pervade both public and private spaces. To name just a few,

Betty Friedan (2001) famously critiqued the media for its role in sustaining a “feminine mystique,” or the illusion that among other proclivities, women were naturally

suited for the domestic sphere. Jean Kilbourne (2010) drew attention to the infantilization of women in advertising, while bell hooks (1992) vividly identified the

way gender, race, and sexuality intersect in the media as coherent representations,

propagated through capitalism in the service of sustaining a white-supremacist capitalist patriarchy.

Signs of a backlash against such feminist critiques began to take shape in the

1980s (Faludi 1991). Distinct from a grassroots social movement, the backlash did

not consist of activists marching in the streets, but was instead characterized by the

articulation and promotion of an emergent ideology that sought to redefine feminism and justify established, gender-based patterns of inequality. The feminist


V. Chepp and L. Andrist

movement became reinterpreted as a smattering of misdirected, if not selfish,

women who merely sought to skirt family responsibilities. Many of the achievements of feminism were recast, not as strides for gender equality, but as efforts to

strip men of a dignity founded largely on men’s identities as financial providers.

Media manifestations of this backlash took particular, yet distinct forms in the

1980s and late 1990s. While popular media of the 1980s tended to depict women as

sexual objects and men as hypermasculine fantasies, by the turn of the century,

media producers were redeploying these familiar tropes, with a twist. Increasingly,

stereotypical media images of femininity and masculinity began to appear as if they

were done tongue-in-cheek. The new format coincided with a more general postfeminist turn in popular culture; another “backlash” moment that presumed feminism unnecessary and sexism a thing of the past. Under the pretense that sexism was

over, an ironic form of mockery became fair game (Blloshmi 2013).

The growth of this ironic framing appears to have been anticipated by sociologists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno (1944), who worried about the “phoniness” of mass culture, a concern that might be easily extended to the phony

subversiveness claimed by ironically sexist media. More pointedly, the growth of

this ironic sexism parallels philosopher Slavoj Žižek’s (1989) more recent insights

on ideology, where he observes that although it is now common for people to adopt

a cynical distance from ideology while appearing to formulate a critique against it,

this cynical disposition is actually constitutive of ideology. In other words, the most

effective ideologies are those that claim to be above the folly of ideological thinking; by extension, one might say that ironic sexism is an ideological claim that

pretends to be unencumbered by the harmful ideologies that promote sexism.

Unlike the sexism of old, creators of ironically sexist media can claim their critics lack a sense of humor and that the true offenders are the unapologetic sexists

who openly claim women to be subordinate to men and men to be innately more

powerful, smart, and strong. But in the final analysis, ironically sexist media exists

in a zone of indistinction, where it is difficult to disentangle mockery from the celebration of sexism. Yet, upon careful examination, the so-called irony tends to be

superficial, for in the current media environment, the sexist tropes no longer defy

expectations. Such ironically sexist media merely offers a wink and a nod, positioning itself as a close, knowing friend, but never explains what it presumably knows.

Take, for example, a popular Tide detergent commercial from 2011 (Tide 2011).

The ad features a comically anxious mother sitting on her living room couch as her

daughter plays contently on the floor in front of her. Speaking directly to the camera, the mother attempts to stifle her discomfort as she describes her daughter’s

aversion to pink and preference for wearing hoodies, cargo shorts, and building car

garages for her dinosaurs. The comic tone of the ad is accentuated through the

visual juxtaposition of the mother’s and daughter’s respective gender presentations.

While the daughter appears to reject traditional markers of femininity, the mother’s

adherence to femininity is communicated through her home and presentation of

self: her living room is decorated with pink accents and floral designs, and she is

wearing a pink cardigan, her legs modestly crossed at the ankles (Andrist 2011).

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

7 Student Responses to the Girl with the Dragon Tattoo

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)