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A. Data Tables, Graphs and Algorithms

A. Data Tables, Graphs and Algorithms

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Figure 5.3.: Generic workflow design of the V-TM framework for QDA

integrating Text Mining: Single steps might be realized by

different technologies and under different methodological

assumptions to follow either inductive or deductive research

strategies, or a combination of both.


5. V-TM – A Methodological Framework for Social Science

(step 5). Here also certain external data could be taken into account,

e.g. for correlating patterns extracted from a document collection

with text external observations.5

Analogue to the example study, Figure 5.4 presents the schematic

visualization of a specific V-TM workflow chain. It can be perceived as

an instantiation of the generic workflow design (Fig. 5.3) integrating

all analysis steps, both inductive and deductive. Additionally, it shows

results as resources produced by one step and utilized as input for

subsequent processes to achieve following analysis goals. In accordance

with the V-Model’s emphasis on testing, each sub-goal needs to be

evaluated separately to ensure the overall quality of results within

the entire workflow chain. The principle ‘garbage in, garbage out’

governs any of the applied sub-processes. Serious flaws produced at the

beginning of the process cannot be compensated by later processes. To

assure quality of the entire analysis process, measures and procedures

for quality assessment have to be distinctively defined for each goal.

Defining these evaluation procedures and sufficient quality criteria is

a decisive part of any workflow design. It guarantees that validity of

a procedure depends on its implementation or parameters only, and

not on variances in quality of its input. Consequently, the example

workflow design presented in Fig. 5.4 mentions types of evaluation

procedures and makes suggestions for concrete approaches.

As we are on the second level of the V-TM framework dealing with

high-level research design, the following workflow descriptions operate

on classes of algorithms rather than mentioning specific algorithms.

Input data and outcome of results are given along with substantiated

imperative descriptions of analysis tasks as steps to achieve the analysis

goal. The decision for specific algorithms and their key parameters

would be part of the subsequent level of TM process specifications.

Nonetheless, in some cases, I refer to specific algorithmic approaches


Petring (2015), for example, cross-correlates patterns in news coverage related

to topics of social justice and inequality with the development of the Ginicoefficient in Germany. In a time series analysis, he can show a significant

relationship between economic inequality expressed by the Gini-coefficient and

increases of media reports on the topic, peaking after five months.

5.2. Workflow Design















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