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3 Tuber indicum: A Complex of Cryptic Species?
J. Chen et al.
these different specimens, often observed in one or at most a few individuals, could
be considered as usual variations within a single species. This was in fact confirmed
by molecular analysis, and it is now agreed that these different taxa are synonymous
and form a single species, T. indicum, with different populations, groups, ecotypes
or cryptic species (Zhang et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006; Chen et al. 2011; Kinoshita
et al. 2011). However, Chen et al. (2011) considered that T. pseudoexcavatum and
T. pseudohimalayense are synonymous. This discrepancy is due to taxon sampling
or attribution. Samples described as T. pseudohimalayense belonged either to T.
pseudoexcavatum or to T. indicum. Based on host plants, geographic distribution
and minor morphological differences, Chen et al. (2011) considered that
T. formosanum is a separate species from T. indicum. However, some Tuber
specimens collected from Japan displayed a close phylogenetic relationship with
Chinese T. indicum and Taiwanese T. formosanum with more than 98 % ITS
similarities with both species (Kinoshita et al. 2011), and all of them belong to
the Melanosporum group.
In China, T. indicum is found mainly in the provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan
between 25 and 30 of latitude north. Based on ITS-RFLP or ITS sequences, Roux
et al. (1999), Paolocci et al. (1997) and Zhang et al. (2005) distinguished two groups
inside the T. indicum complex. There were, however, some discrepancies among
the three studies. Wang et al. (2006) obtained results congruent with those of Zhang
et al. (2005): group I consisted of samples harvested in Huili and Huidong,
including those harvested in the South near Chuxiong and Kunming; group II
comprised all the samples harvested in Gongshan, Panzhihua, Miyi and Huize.
The genetic distances between the Chinese populations based on ITS and β-tubulin
sequences confirmed the existence of these two groups. Moreover, there was a
significant phylogeographical structure within the Chinese T. indicum complex
(Wang et al. 2006). The existence of a sinuous limit between the two groups
suggested that at least two factors could be involved in their differentiation: a
northward migration after the last glaciation and a possible recolonisation from
the bottom of the valleys. Chen et al. (2011) also showed that the Chinese
T. indicum specimens were distributed in two significant clades using the multigene
phylogenetic analysis and supposed that they should be at least two cryptic species.
Recently, the mating-type genes of T. indicum were described (Belfiori
et al. 2013). Similar to T. melanosporum, T. indicum displays only one matingtype gene per haploid genome, suggesting it is also a heterothallic species. By
analysing 115 ascomata imported to Italy from China, Belfiori et al. (2013) found
two genetic groups according to ITS sequences called A and B, with the B group
being divided into B1 and B2 as in Paolocci et al. (1997).
The sequence and organisation of the mating-type genes and idiomorphs showed
significant divergence between T. indicum truffles displaying the ITS class A and
those displaying classes B1 and B2. This result suggested the presence of at least
two cryptic species in T. indicum corresponding to T. indicum_A and T. indicum_B
(Belfiori et al. 2013). The use of mating-type genes at a large scale could therefore
enhance our understanding of the T. indicum complex.
2 The Black Truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber indicum
In conclusion, we suggest considering T. indicum, T. himalayense, T. sinense,
T. pseudohimalayense, T. formosanum and the Japanese specimens belonging to the
Melanosporum group as forming one morphological species complex, T. indicum
(Cooke and Massee). Among the Chinese T. indicum complex, we suggest the
existence of at least two groups, which could be considered as geographical
ecotypes or cryptic species. The Taiwanese samples described as T. formosanum
and the unnamed Japanese samples could form two other ecotypes or cryptic
species. It is also probable that the Indian specimens form one or several other
ecotypes. Taxonomy and species identification about T. indicum complex seems
quietly problematic because the holotype T. indicum, collected from Indian city of
Mussooree one century ago, is too old to DNA extraction. New collection for Tuber
in this region needs to be done in the near future. Whatever, the Chinese T. indicum
genome-sequencing project (see Chap. 9) will allow for description of highly
polymorphic molecular markers, such as microsatellites that are suitable to analyse
population genetics and to identify ecotypes (Molinier et al. 2015).
Tuber indicum and T. melanosporum: Friend or Foe?
Phylogenetically, T. indicum and T. melanosporum are closely related, since they
share a common ancestor from a few million years ago (Jeandroz et al. 2008; Bonito
et al. 2013). The morphological similarity of T. indicum and T. melanosporum
explains the development of this Chinese species as an export to Europe. However,
T. melanosporum with ascomata of conspicuous warts, densely spiny ascospores
(spine 2–3 μm high), different geological distribution, couple with volatile organic
compound (VOC) composition (or more intense and complex aroma) (Cullere´
et al. 2013) differs from T. indicum complex (ascospores with sparse spine
5–7 μm high) and formed a separate clade in the Melanosporum group.
In France, since the 1990s, about 30 t of T. indicum were imported each year;
according to French customs, data less is imported today. These truffles are preserved in cans, commercialised and sold in supermarkets. Tuber indicum can be
considered an exotic species and putatively invasive (Murat et al. 2008). Invasive
species include organisms that have been introduced, deliberately or not, outside
their natural habitats. They can cause significant irreversible environmental and
socio-economic impacts on the genetic, species and ecosystem levels (Moore 2000).
Comandini and Pacioni (1997) described the T. indicum mycorrhiza with host
plant Quercus pubescens Willd. ECMs of T. indicum with this oak species are
monopodial-pinnate, ochraceous-amber and surface smooth with loosely long spiny
especially on the very tip. Mantle outer are pseudoparenchymatous and very
heterogeneous and inner plectenchymatous. The mycorrhiza of T. indicum has
very similar morphological character with T. melanosporum, presenting both a
puzzle-like hypal and spinule-like cystidia sometime with orthogonal branch
(Zambonelli et al. 1997). However, the cells in the outer layers of mantle in
T. indicum are always bigger than those in T. melanosporum (Geng et al. 2009).
J. Chen et al.
In addition, the formation of mycorrhizae of T. indicum was earlier and more
abundant compared with T. melanosporum with their host plant (Mabru et al. 2001).
Tuber indicum ECMs were detected in a truffle orchard in Italy (Murat et al. 2008).
The same occurred in North America, where T. indicum was able to fruit (Bonito
et al. 2011). Due to the introduction (intentional or not) of T. indicum in
T. melanosporum habitats, the two species are potentially in contact. It can thus be
asked, what ecological consequences might arise? Murat and colleagues (2008)
presented different questions regarding the introduction of T. indicum in Europe:
Are both species able to inbreed? Is T. indicum able to spread over long distances?
Is T. indicum really capable of replacing T. melanosporum in truffle grounds? We have
no additional information on the last two questions, but the characteristics of matingtype genes for both species highlight the closeness of T. indicum and
T. melanosporum. For both MAT genes, the divergence level between the two
T. indicum classes (A and B) is similar to that between T. indicum and
T. melanosporum (Belfiori et al. 2013). It is impossible to say with certainty that
they are able to inbreed, but the possibility cannot be excluded, especially since
interspecies mating has been observed in different fungal taxa, such as Ophiostoma
(Brasier et al. 1998) or Heterobasidion (Chase and Ullrich 1990). It is therefore critical
to avoid the introduction of T. indicum and to prevent any production of inoculated
seedlings with this species outside its natural habitat. To avoid the introduction of
T. indicum in Europe, new molecular biology high-throughput techniques are now
applied to inoculated seedling quality control in France, Italy and Spain (Murat 2015).
The taxonomic position of T. melanosporum is clear, but it is more complex for
T. indicum. The use of new molecular markers such as MAT genes could therefore
be useful to address the complexity of the T. indicum clade as suggested by Belfiori
et al. (2013). It is also important to inform local agencies that T. indicum could
represent a risk for European truffles. The progress in T. melanosporum cultivation
and its recognition by The European Commission as an agricultural product will
favour the development of truffle cultivation in Europe. However, scientists have to
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The Burgundy Truffle (Tuber aestivum syn.
uncinatum): A Truffle Species with a Wide
Habitat Range over Europe
Virginie Molinier, Martina Peter, Ulrich Stobbe, and Simon Egli
Among the at least 180 existing truffle species, Tuber aestivum Vittad. (syn. Tuber
uncinatum Chatin) is one of the most sought after (Bonito et al. 2010). With prices
from 200 to 600 € per kg, it is commercially attractive for traders and consumers
worldwide. The early season fruiting bodies are called summer truffles, whereas
chefs and gourmets make a distinction for the late season fruiting bodies, which are
called Burgundy truffles and are of higher quality and value. The confusion around
the two varieties and their scientific nomenclature is subject to ongoing discussion
and will be clarified in the following chapter. Unlike the even pricier truffle species
Tuber melanosporum Vittad. and Tuber magnatum Pico, which are restricted to
Mediterranean regions, T. aestivum is distributed all over Europe and occurs in
habitats over broad ecological amplitude (Stobbe et al. 2013a). The wide range of
possible soils, climates, and host plants, together with its market value and its long
harvest season, makes this species interesting for cultivation. Today, Burgundy
truffles are harvested on plantations spanning Europe from Italy in the south to
Sweden in the north and from Spain in the west to Hungary in the east (De Roman
and Boa 2004; Gogan Csorbaine et al. 2007; Hall et al. 2007; Bencivenga
et al. 2009; Weden et al. 2009). Particularly in Central and Eastern European
countries, until recently excluded from traditional truffle production with
T. melanosporum, newly emerging cultivation endeavors appear promising (Stobbe
et al. 2013a).
V. Molinier (*) • M. Peter • S. Egli
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), 8903 Birmensdorf,
Deutsche Truffelbaăume, Karl-B
ucheler Str. 1, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
A. Zambonelli et al. (eds.), True Truffle (Tuber spp.) in the World, Soil Biology 47,
V. Molinier et al.
In this chapter, taxonomic status of T. aestivum is presented, morphological
characteristics of this species are described, and a summary of geographical distribution including ecological requirements and genetic structure is finally provided.
Taxonomic Status of T. aestivum
First Descriptions of T. aestivum and the Beginning
of Taxonomic Controversy
In 1831, Carlo Vittadini, a renowned Italian mycologist, described in detail a new
Tuber species: T. aestivum, the summer truffle (Vittadini 1831). This species had
already been mentioned in two prior documents: in 1729 by Micheli in “Nova
Plantarum Genera” and in 1801 by Persoon in “Synopsis Methodica Fungorum”
(Micheli 1729; Persoon 1801). Although both botanists named the species “Tuber
aestivum,” Vittadini kept the denomination but added his own name and presented
himself as the first detailed descriptor. Therefore, “Vittad.” became the official
authority for the species. The name “Tuber aestivum” stems from observations
about the maturity period of ascomata (aestivum means summer in Latin). This
Tuber species has a light brown gleba with a black peridium and, according to
Vittadini, was present throughout Europe. In 1869, the French botanist Adolphe
Chatin mentioned T. aestivum in his book “La Truffe” (Chatin 1869). He provided
information about the maturity period and indicated that maturity was reached from
May-July in the south of France, around August in the north of France, and even
during winter near Paris in Charenton and Nogent (Chatin 1869).
A few years later, the same author described a new Tuber species, T. uncinatum
(Chatin 1887). Although very similar to T. aestivum in appearance, Chatin considered T. uncinatum a new species. From a morphological point of view, fully ripe
T. uncinatum fruiting bodies have a darker gleba than T. aestivum and feature hooks
in the spore reticulum (uncinatum means hooked in Latin; Chatin 1887). The
presence of these hooks was later determined to be an artifact created by the flexible
walls of the spore reticulum bending slightly at the top (Chevalier and Frochot
1997; Fischer 1897).
Since Chatin’s work, different opinions have been voiced about whether
T. aestivum and T. uncinatum are two different species, varieties, or merely
morphotypes. This discussion was and still is particularly important because of
the high commercial value of this precious edible fungus. To differentiate the two
taxa, additional morphological criteria have been described, such as the peridium
(see Fig. 3.1c). Tuber uncinatum has been described as having smaller warts than
T. aestivum and as having nonstriated warts (Chatin 1887; Riousset et al. 2001).
Another important feature is the height of the spore reticulum, which was not
mentioned by Vittadini in his first description. Spore reticulum with a 2 μm height
is associated with T. aestivum, whereas T. uncinatum has a 4 μm spore reticulum