Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
4 Life at the Root, Identifying the Core Space Use Values

4 Life at the Root, Identifying the Core Space Use Values

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

58



4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



Alternate exit beside a kitchen and common outside area in a Gbagyi extended family

compound respectively.



Women’s domestic chores at the entrance open space and a tpical pegieon hut located

outide the compound.



Fig. 4.24 Outdoor functional areas in Gbagyi compounds



activities in homes were examined through social science enquiry with qualitative

method (Elo et al. 2014; Taylor-Powell and Steele 1996). Participants were

observed in their environment with the author engaging with inhabitants (Johnson

and Turner 2003). Thereafter, households’ social communication with space was

recorded in field notes, sketches and photographs for content analysis. Information

obtained was subjected to member checking and peer review for in-depth accuracy

of evidence to adequately represent the subject matter.

The bulk of information obtained is then subjected to qualitative factor analysis

(QFA) in search of significant features that provide space use meaning of the ethnic

groups under investigation. This process involves reducing large piece of information into key attributes as adopted by Mirkin (1987). Thus, first activity and

activity space were analysed using qualitative constant comparison measured by

frequency in occurrence. This process identified similar categories in space–activity

relation among the ethnic groups producing common attributes that are compared

with background studies (Willig 2013). Subsequently, this cross-cultural investigation led to the search for patterns and dimensions (Eisenhardt 1989) and also

developing domains (Hsieh and Shannon 2005; Onwuegbuzie et al. 2012). In this

regard, twenty underlying themes on spatial arrangement across the ethnic groups

were identified. In addition, qualitative technique was used to relate sematic

functional link amid themes and activity space use (Spradley 1979). Then, a taxonomic illustration, functionally relating activity = Y and activity space = X,

delineated space use and basic activities. Furthermore, typical house pattern of the



4.4 Life at the Root, Identifying the Core Space Use Values



59



ethnic groups was produced from various households examined. This was supported with gamma diagram representation in order to identify common arrangement pattern and core functional spaces.



4.5



Sustainable Indigenous Sociocultural Attributes



In consistent with the theory of affordance where social interactions relate to

physical setting in developing theories (Greeno 1994), information from field notes,

sketches and photographs measured through qualitative content analysis revealed

manifestations (Downe-Wamboldt 1992; Schreier 2012). The qualitative approach

adopted covers ethnographic principles of coding, developing domains, and taxonomic techniques (Onwuegbuzie et al. 2012). Consequently, inhabitants’ interaction through their activities with spatial configuration of their homes was observed

and weighed using nominal scaling to relate ordered entities. The observation

revealed that housing is perceived beyond a living place, and it is conceived as an

abode in which routine space interactions integrate social existence of household.

Subsequently, tangible and intangible activities that relate space characters and

related to the ethnic groups evolved from coded information as presented in

Table 4.1. They constitute the themes describing core activity variables identified

with households in the region. These were further grouped based on similarity

index developing factors from a group of related themes and illustrated in

Table 4.2.

The cultural context account is presented in the domain matrix with coded

information of content relationship of activity and activity space relationship across

the ethnic groups in line with (Polit and Beck 2012; Schreier 2012). Consequently,

significant activities as related to the ethnic groups are recorded forming relevant

categories (Elo and Kyngäs 2008) as shown in Table 4.3. Afterwards, observed

measures across the ethnic groups were related qualitatively using the doctrines of

confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish factors consisting of varying sets

of indicators (Brown and Moore 2012a). Rate of occurrence across the sample and

ethnic groups and tangibility form the fit indices used in the measurement. These

spatial space use attributes manifested spatial variables that form tangible space

uses common to the ethnic groups considered. These were subsequently represented

in a taxonomic presentation (see Table 4.4). Then, it becomes the cultural base

attributes to be observed in the transformed public housing units investigated and

reported in the next chapter. Significantly, the outcome communicates core activity

space usage communal to the ethnic groups and useful for consideration in public

housing design. Meanwhile, some activities across the ethnic groups take place in

open spaces such as courtyards, some of which are represented in Table 4.5. This

logical trail of qualitative analysis revealed the underlying notable and consistent

attribute common to these ethnic groups to be observed for design reflexion. These

attributes and their functional value are further outlined. They include accessibility,

visitors’ reception, outdoor relaxation, household distribution, social events, and



60



4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



Table 4.1 Emergent activities coded from field notes and photographs

Activity



Design-related issues



Tangibles



Intangibles



Domestic chores

Guest reception

Accessibility

Keeping pets/domestic animals

Open-air relaxation

Social get-togethers

Cooking and food storage

Children playing

Laundry services

Overnight guest lodging

Resident relations’ lodging

Cultural events

Privacy

Household organisation

Occupation



Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Functional space

Inspire space use

Inspire space use

Reflect space use



Household kinship distribution

Physical, visual and social

linkage

Reflection of ethnic identity



Reflect space use

Reflect space use



Children growth into adolescents

Neighbourhood identity



Social

integration

Separate spaces

Reflect space use



Social pattern

Gender separated

Type and location

Social pattern

Subjectively fused

Logically defined

Logically defined

Logically defined

Logically defined

Gender defined

Identifiable space

Spatial distribution

Gender domination

Hierarchical

Size and

distribution

Space location

Gender dominant

Imaginary pattern

Privacy

Imperative



cooking and storage. They constitute the mainstream values discovered as common

to these ethnic settings.



4.5.1



Accessibility



Accesses into compounds have both unique and symbolic functional characters.

First, it has multifunctional character that includes use for rest by the adult males of

the household. Social and family meetings are also held in the access halls. Second,

access is through a symbolic entrance hut with two openings opposite each other to

receive and lead people to the compound. These openings remain open to provide

for lighting and ventilation in the absence of windows. It is a buffer lying between

outdoor area and the built spaces of the compound. In addition, multi-household

compounds have alternate service exits as smaller entrance huts and sometimes as

opening created within the fence. Impliedly, entrance huts are information, meeting,

reception and resting point for visitors and male adult inhabitants. Also, the



4.5 Sustainable Indigenous Sociocultural Attributes

Table 4.2 Developing

categories from the identified

themes



61



Themes (variables)



Categories (factors)



Domestic chores

Guest reception

Privacy

Accessibility

Keeping pets/domestic animals

Open-air relaxation

Household organisation

Occupation

Social get-together

Cooking and food storage

Children playing

Laundry services

Overnight guest lodging

Kingship distribution

Resident relations’ lodging

Physical, visual and social linkage

Children growth into adolescent

Reflection of ethnic identity

Cultural events

Neighbourhood identity



Family values



Family lifestyle



Social activities



Family structure



Social identity



flexibility of functions allows the entrance hut to be used for other functions like

entrepreneur and children religious lessons. It controls inhabitants’ territorial

boundary where visitors are screened. Inclusively, entrance halls are functional

spaces that provide social integration and cohesion for inhabitants and guests and

thus significant attribute in root space layout (see Figs. 4.25, 4.26 and 4.27).



4.5.2



Visitors’ Reception



Households usually feel honoured by hosting guests as it offers them the opportunity to display hospitality. In this regard, reception areas are ranked depending on

guest intimacy with the household members and the weather situations. Although

the entrance hall functions as the living room, inhabitants prefer open space

reception in order to relate to the natural environment. Consequently, open space at

entry, fore courtyards and inner courtyards are useful spaces often utilised for this

purpose. Generally, visitors are received in the open space if the weather is at low

temperature that the body can withstand. Male strangers and neighbours are

restricted to the outside environment at most the entrance hall, while relations and

extended family members are allowed into the forecourt. Female visitors are

received in the inner courtyards, while relations extend into the wives’ living huts.



Social

activities



Lifestyle



Courtyards



Outer sections



Inner sections



Male



Female



Laundry



Overnight guest



Outdoor, Courtyard



Children play



Courtyard



Female



Wet kitchen,

Courtyard



Outdoor, entrance

hall



Male



Cooking and pantry



Social gathering



Farming, craft



Occupation



Inner courtyard



Female



Gender divide



Outdoor, outer yard



Male



Outdoor relaxation



Household

organisation



Birds, goat and

sheep



Entrance hall



Inner core



Pets/domestic animals



Accessibility



Outer core



Female



Courtyard



Female



Male



Outdoor and outer

yard



Male



Guest reception



Privacy



Courtyards



Domestic services



Female huts



Male huts



Courtyards



Outdoor,

Courtyard



Courtyard



Flexible around

the house



Farming,

Nomad



Flexible



Open

courtyards



Birds, sheep

and cow



Multi-access



Curtain matting



Courtyard



Outdoor



Courtyards



Fulani



Ethnic groups/activity space



Hausa



Values



Gender



Variables



Factors



Activity



Domain



Table 4.3 Domain matrix



Kanuri



Female room



House head

room



Courtyards



Outdoor,

Courtyard



Wet kitchen,

room foyer



Courtyard



Outdoor



Farming, Hat

embroidery



Gender divide



Courtyard



Front of hut and

outdoor



Birds, goat and

cow



Single entry



Restricted to

rooms



Front of room



Outdoor and

Front of room



Courtyards



Tiv



Female huts



Male huts



Courtyards



Outdoor, Courtyard



Wet kitchen,

Courtyard



Outdoor and

courtyards



Farming



Flexible



Hut foyer,

Courtyard and

outdoor



Birds and goat



Multi-access



Restricted to rooms



Central hut and

courtyards



Courtyards



Nupe



Gwari



Inner sections



Outer sections



Courtyards



Outdoor, Courtyard



Wet kitchen,

Courtyard



Courtyard



Outdoor, entrance

hall



Farming, craft



Gender divide



(continued)



Inner sections



Outer sections



Courtyards



Outdoor, Courtyard



Wet kitchen,

Courtyard



Courtyard



Outdoor, Entrance

hall



Farming



Gender divide



Courtyard



Entrance Hall and

outdoor



Entrance Hall and

outdoor

Courtyard



Birds and goat



Multi-access



Restricted to rooms



Courtyards



Outdoor



Courtyards



Birds and goat



Multi-access



Courtyard

buffer/curtain



Courtyards and

rooms



Entrance hall



Courtyards



62

4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



Outdoor



Irregular patterns



Neighbourhood

Identity



Inner section



Female



Ethnic events



Outer section



Male



Children growth



Clusters of extended

family



Courtyard, Screen

wall, Clustering



Gender, visual and

social connection



Ethnic identity



Aged/own hut



Relations as residents



Social

identity



Hierarchy



Kingship distribution



Irregular

patterns



Outdoor



Clusters of

nuclear family



Hut defined



Flexible



Aged/own hut



Flexible



Fulani



Ethnic groups/activity space



Hausa



Family

structure



Gender



Variables



Factors



Activity



Domain



Table 4.3 (continued)



Kanuri



Repeated

patterns



Outdoor



Clusters of

nuclear family



Hut defined



Flexible



Aged/own hut



Flexible



Tiv



Curvilinear patterns



Outdoor



Clusters of nuclear

family



Hut defined



Flexible



Aged/own hut



Flexible



Nupe



Irregular patterns



Outdoor



Clusters of extended

family



Inner section



Outer section



Courtyard, Screen

wall, Clustering



Aged/own hut



Hierarchy



Gwari



Irregular patterns



Outdoor



Clusters of nuclear

family



Inner section



Outer section



Courtyard, Screen

wall, Clustering



Aged/own hut



Hierarchy



4.5 Sustainable Indigenous Sociocultural Attributes

63



64



4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



Table 4.4 Taxonomic matrix of activity and activity spaces

Variables (activity

space)

Entrance hall, multiple

exits

Outdoor, entrance hall

and front of house

heads’ room

Courtyard and front of

female rooms

Outer courtyard

Inner female apartment

Outside open space,

entrance hall and outer

courtyards

Inner courtyards

Buffer huts and

courtyards

Clustered and shared

facilities



Outdoor, entrance hall

and central court

Inner female dominated

courtyard



Gender issues



Activity dimension

Accessibility



Male guest



Guest



Guest reception



Female guest

Male guest

Female guest

Male folks



Female folks

Hierarchical

(gender

separated)

Flexible

(screen

matting

barriers)

Male venue



Overnight guest

accommodation

Outdoor relaxation



Household

organisation and

family distribution



Social connections,

teenagers and ethnic

identity



Social gatherings

and cultural events



Female venue



Table 4.5 Activities with similar functional space use across the ethnic groups

Activity



Activity space



Domestic chores

Keeping pets and domestic animals

Laundry services

Resident relations (usually house head’s

mother)

Cultural events

Neighbourhood identity

Children playing



Inner courtyard

Fore and inner courtyards

Fore and inner courtyards

Accommodated in separate huts



Privacy in interaction



Open spaces (indoor and outdoor)

Flexible patterns

Outdoor open spaces, fore and inner

courtyards

Gender restricted and space use defined



Overall, visitors’ reception is a social activity of which the space used to receive

and entertain the guest relates the importance and intimacy of the guest to his host.

A typical Tiv reception within the Ate, and at the outdoor area is illustrated in

Fig. 4.28.



4.5 Sustainable Indigenous Sociocultural Attributes



(a)



65



(b)



a & b are typical entrance hall of two compounds viewed from the outside in Kutigi, Nigeria.



(c)



(d)



c & d are outer and inner view of a typical entrance hall in Kastina, Nigeria.



(e)



(f)



e & f are inner view of a typical alternate exit in compounds located in Niger, Nigeria.



(g)



(h)



g and h are a typical view of entrance into compounds in Borno, Nigeria.



Fig. 4.25 Entrance halls and alternate exits into typical traditional compounds



66



4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



Typical entrance halls in settled Fulani compound at Gerei Adamawa, Nigeria



Fig. 4.26 Entrance view of compounds in Geirei, Adamawa



Fig. 4.27 Entrance view of

compound in Makurdi, Benue



An entrance into a typical urban Tiv Ate symbolising cultural integration

in urban house design



4.5.3



Outdoor Relaxation



Synonymous with visitors’ reception, inhabitants generally perform outdoor rest

during their leisure in open spaces within and outside the compound. So, open

spaces at the entrance are used for siting. Also, households ensure that courtyards

provide gender privacy as it is crucial to inhabitants. Besides, while courtyards are

tangibly defined, open spaces at the entrance are imaginary and function defined

with the street providing boundary at one end and building line at the other end.

Typical outdoor relaxation and interactions are shown in Figs. 4.29 and 4.30,

respectively. Several compounds were seen to have planted trees in these open

spaces in order to provide shade during high intensity of sun in addition to building

orientation which helps to shield the sun during sunrise and sunset. In addition,

outdoor areas are utilised by households for sleeping as shown in Fig. 4.31.

Moreover, guest receptions in addition to social events which occasionally hold in

open spaces describe the functional flexibility of these spaces.



4.5 Sustainable Indigenous Sociocultural Attributes



(a)



(c)



(e)



67



(b)



(d)



(f)



a is a typical out door guest reception in community in Nigeria. b shows the reception hall centrally situated

in the compound. However, while of study in the urban community shows the the reception hall modified as

shown in c & e , with d & f as the interior respectively. This implies the social meaning of space to the

households & community.



Fig. 4.28 Typical guest receptions in a community in Benue, Nigeria



4.5.4



Household Distribution



Compound organisation considers gender privacy with adult unmarried males

accommodated at the fore courtyard, strategically connecting the entrance and the

inner courtyard reserved for women. The inner core is provided for women

domestic chores and their sleeping rooms. The house head’s room or living area in

the case of the Tiv is located centrally between the fore courtyard and the women

section allowing for easy monitoring of the compound activities. Compounds have

hierarchical arrangement of functions with huts distinguished by size, location and

ranking. For instance, the compound head’s brother who lives with him in the same

compound has a bigger and more glamorous hut than the male children in the

forecourt. Also, in a typical Tiv compound, the most favourable wife to the house

head at any given time lives in the hut beside the house head’s hut. The social

arrangement is a reflection of the social system that enhances social cohesion in the

cohabitation of inhabitants and space interaction (Fig. 4.32).



68



4 Search for Cultural Attributes Appropriate for Design Ideals



(a)



(c)



(b)



(d)



a shows guest enjoying outdoor relaxation while waiting for the house head in Kastina, Nigeria. b shows

house head with friend in outdoor relaxation. c & d are outdoor open space for relaxation shaded by trees in

compounds in Yola, Nigeria.



Fig. 4.29 Outdoor open spaces for relaxation



(a)



(b)



a & b show women in outdoor relaxation outside their dwellings in Katsina and Niger respectively.



Fig. 4.30 Women engaging in outdoor relaxation



4.5.5



Social Events and Domestic Chores



Households display strength of hospitality, reception and social solidarity during

social events which are usually hosted in open spaces and public spaces within and

around the compound. Since social gatherings occur occasionally, open outdoor

spaces, courtyards, foyers and entrance halls which are used for the function are

usually at their functional highpoint hosting guests as they relax, feast, chat, and

sometimes engage in devotion. The entire houses observed have one or more



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

4 Life at the Root, Identifying the Core Space Use Values

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×