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4 Motivational Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Under Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus: Is the Dopaminergic System Implicated?

4 Motivational Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Under Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus: Is the Dopaminergic System Implicated?

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576

Noncanonical pathways (cont.)

MAPK signaling, 164

psychostimulants, 163

Noradrenergic fibers, 26

Normalization Rule, 493, 496

Nucleus accumbens

acetylcholine neurotransmission, 29

acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 15

adjacent ventral caudate-putamen, 20

cue-induced reinstatement, 393–394

D1- and D2-expressing medium-sized

spiny neurons, 32

dopaminergic fibers, 26

extended amygdala, 25

non-pharmacological manipulations,

395–396

olfactory tubercle, 14, 15

priming-induced reinstatement,

391–393

stress-induced reinstatement, 394–395



O

Obsessive-compulsive behaviors, 78

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

decision-making process, 349

fronto-striatal loops, 276

orbitofronto-striatal model, 275, 276

pathophysiology, 276

OCD. See Obsessive-compulsive disorder

(OCD)

OFC. See Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 270, 271, 327, 491

OCD, 349

reward processing, 342

risk-seeking behavior, 343



P

Parietal cortex, 190–193

Parkinson’s disease (PD), 76, 77, 191–194,

366–373, 538–539

ACC, 270

basal ganglia, 190

BF and ACh, loss of, 119

cerebellar vs. basal ganglia, 147

cholinergic synapses, 120

in cognition, 194–197

cortico-striatal connectivity

CEN and SN, 193, 194

cortical networks, 191

cortico-striatal loops, 192

fcMRI techniques, 191

healthy control participants, 191



Index

large-scale functional network

analysis, 192

neurocognitive networks, 193

ventral striatum, 192

CSv and PIVC, 200

DA replacement therapy, 272

DBS, 346

decision-making skills, 345

“direct” and “indirect” pathways, 119

DLPFC, 270

dopaminergic nigrostriatal

(see Dopaminergic nigrostriatal

system)

dopaminergic treatment, 345

dorsal parieto-occipital sulcus, 200

executive functioning tasks, 190

eye tracking “heat map” representations,

202, 203

GPi anf GPe, 119

hypokinesia and dyskinesia, 119

L-dopa, 271

levodopa, 119

motor disorder, 189

neuroimaging and electrophysiological

study, 271

neuromodulatory activity, 120

nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, 345

and non-motor deficits, 190

OFC, 270

optic flow, 199

overdose hypothesis, 272

perception-action coupling, 204

resting state activity, 191

RPD and HC, 200, 202

sensory association areas, 189

SNc, 363

sustained attention and inhibitory

control, 190

synucleinopathy, 189

ventral striatum, 273

visual perception, 197–199

Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer (PIT), 439

PD. See Parkinson’s disease (PD)

Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), 529

Pedunculo-pontine tegmental nucleus

(PPTN), 462

Perceptual transitions, 548

Persistent low-threshold (PLT), 29

PET. See Positron emission tomography (PET)

PFC. See Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

Phonemic restoration, 483, 485–487

PLT. See Persistent low-threshold (PLT)

Positron emission tomography (PET), 230

Posterior parietal cortex (PPC), 493



Index

Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

description, 190

frontal-basal ganglia circuits, 190

Pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) loop

anatomical and physiological evidence, 228

cortical lesions, 230

cortico-basal ganglia, 219, 220

direct loop, 228, 229

hyperdirect loop, 226

Nambu’s theoretical work, 228

pallidal component, 225

vs. Broca’s area, 226–227

Progressive supranuclear palsy, 76

Protein translation pathways, 168

Proximity control, 552, 553

Psychostimulants, 328–330



R

Rapid onset dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP)

aberrant cerebellar activity, 145–147

cerebellar induction of dystonia, 145

distinctive syndrome, 144

mutations, 144

ouabain concentrations, 144

RNA interference (shRNA), 144

rCBF. See Regional cerebral blood flow

(rCBF)

RDP. See Rapid onset dystonia Parkinsonism

(RDP)

Reference signal, 524, 528, 530, 531

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), 74

Resonant wave, 482, 483

Reward

decision-making process, 340

magnitude and probability, 342

prediction error, 342

probability, 342

reward magnitude, 342

uncertainty, 343–344

Reward prediction errors (R-PEs)

DAergic A-PEs, 95

inhibitory expectation signals, 97

Reward-related processes, 325–327

Rhinal cortex (RHIN), 490

R-PEs. See Reward prediction errors (R-PEs)



S

Salience network (SN), 192

Schizophrenia (SCZ)

antipsychotic drugs, 274

dopamine hypothesis, 351

feedback-based learning, 351



577

hypodopaminergia, 274

LHb, 352

predictive and non-predictive stimuli, 275

symptoms, 273

WCST, 274

SCZ. See Schizophrenia (SCZ)

Semantic and phonological unification, 232, 233

Sensorimotor (somatic) network, 548–551

Sensorimotor learning, 435, 436

Sensorium commune, 417

Sensory-amygdala-orbitofrontal motivated

performance, 490–491

Serotonergic fibers, 26

SN. See Substantia nigra (SN)

Spectral timing, 467

Spinal cord, 461

Spiny neurons, 47

Stability-plasticity dilemma, 485

Stimulus–response (S-R), 414, 415

Stimulus–response learning, 426

STN-DBS

D2/D3R signal, 377, 378

DRT, 377

5-HT mechanism, 376

L-dopa, 373

limbic cortico-subcortical loops, 377

microdialysis study, 377

motivational and affective deficits, 374–376

motor and non-motor symptoms,

373–374, 378

Striatal cholinergic interneurons, 73–74

Striatal networks, 248–250

LI, 250, 251

maladaptive behaviors (see Maladaptive

behaviors)

S–R relationship, 253, 254

vortico-striatal loops, 250, 251

Striatal synaptic plasticity, 168–169

Striatum

AND theory, 418

learning and attention, 69

sensorimotor, 70

thalamostriatal projection system, 70

Striosomes (SD), 422, 490

Subcortical inputs

catecholaminergic modulatory inputs, 26

central medial, paracentral and central

lateral nuclei, 25

cholinergic fibers, 26, 27

dopaminergic cell groups, 26

limbic striatal afferents, 25

noradrenergic fibers, 26

pallidostriatal fibers, 25

serotonergic fibers, 26



578

Subcortical inputs (cont.)

striatal cholinergic interneurons, 25

thalamic midline and intralaminar

nuclei, 24

Substantia nigra (SN), 342

Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), 363,

369–371, 460, 462

6-OHDA, 367

VTA (see Ventral tegmental area (VTA))

Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), 461,

472, 499

Subthalamic nucleus (STN)

alcohol consumption, 324

DA dysregulation syndrome, 331

DBS, 319

decision-making, 346

drug addiction, 328–331

drug consumption, 324–325

food consumption, 323–324

glutamatergic inputs, 321, 322

locomotor activity, 327

output structures, 322

PD, 319, 320

reward circuit, 322, 323

reward-related processes, 325–327

zona incerta (ZI), 320

Superior colliculus (SC), 472, 474–475

Supplementary eye fields (SEF), 493, 497

Swanson’s classification, 513

Synaptic plasticity, 99–100

Syntactic unification, 232, 233



T

TANs. See Tonically active neurons (TANs)

TElencephalic Laminar Objective Selector

(TELOS), 473

TELOS model, 461, 469–471

Tonically active neurons (TANs), 28, 425

DA neurons, 90

defined, 90

Top-down attentive matching process, 484

Tourette syndrome (TS), 78, 350

Trained firing patterns, 465

Transition control



Index

cascade organization and velocity control,

533, 534

direct and indirect pathways, 535, 536

dopamine, 537, 538

dopamine depletion, 538, 539

PD, 538, 539

reference signals, 532

Tripartite model, 420, 422



V

Variable-speed arm movements

GO signals, 478

perturbations and obstacles, 478–482

VITE model, 476–478

Vector Associative Map (VAM), 504

Vector integration, 477

Ventral pallidum, 264

Ventral striatopallidal system

basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits,

12–14

dorsal and ventral, 12

internal and external segments, 11

neuronal mechanisms, 12

substantia innominata, 11, 12

Ventral striatum

dopamine, 268

dorsal striatum, 262

impulsivity, 272

salience and motivation, 267

Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 12, 14, 25, 342,

369–371

Vicarious trial and error, 417

VITE model, 461, 504

VTA. See Ventral tegmental area (VTA)



W

WCST. See Wisconsin card sorting test

(WCST)

Whispering dysphonia, 146

White matter

inferior prefrontal cortex and striatum, 222

internal carotid artery, 218

Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), 274



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