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3 The Dopaminergic Nigrostriatal System and Motivational Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease

3 The Dopaminergic Nigrostriatal System and Motivational Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease

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569



Index

spatial attention, 503

top-down attentional matching, 500–501

visual imagery, thinking, planning and

searching, 502

Basal ganglia loops, pre-SMA.

See Pre-supplementary motor area

(pre-SMA) loop

Basolateral amygdala

cue-induced, 401–402

non-pharmacological manipulations, 402

priming-induced, 400–401

Bayesian computational approaches

actor/critic, 439

behavior and neural correlates, 441–442

external factors, strategy selection, 443

individual differences, behavioral

control, 444

instrumental learning, 437

inverse probabilities, 435

memory-based behavioral systems, 433

model-based learning, 445, 446

model-free and model-based controllers, 438

model-free learning, 445, 446

pathologies, 444

PIT, 439

response-outcome (R-O) or goal-directed

learning, 437

sensorimotor learning, 435, 436

strategy selection, 442

task parameters, 442, 443

Bayesian modeling, 418

BBB. See Blood–brain barrier (BBB)

permeability

BEC. See Blood ethanol concentration (BEC)

Behavioral Neuroscience, 201, 203, 414

Bipolar disorder (BP), 354

Blepharospasm, focal dystonia, 146

Blood ethanol concentration (BEC),

297, 298

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability,

175, 176

BP. See Bipolar disorder (BP)

Broca’s area, 230

anterograde/retrograde tracer methods, 223

articulatory motor programming, 234

functional neuroimaging study, 222

lateral frontal cortices, 231

lateral premotor cortex, 232

opercularis/pars triangularis–putamen

fibers, 223

pars opercularis and pars triangularis, 234

PET, 230

vs. pre-SMA, 226–227

putamen, 225, 231



semantic and phonological unification,

232, 233

syntactic unification, 232, 233

tractography analysis, 222, 223

transcortical motor aphasia, 234–236



C

Canonical cAMP-related pathways

conditional DARPP-32 knockout mice, 163

ERK signaling, 161, 162

in molecular changes, 161

6-OHDA-lesioned rodents and MPTPtreated nonhuman primates, 161

PKA, role of, 161

CAPOS. See Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes

cavus, optic atrophy, and

sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS)

syndrome

cARTWORD model, 461, 480–481

CeA. See Central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)

Central executive network, 191

Central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA),

94–96

Centromedian (CM)

attentional deficits, 75

caudal and dorsolateral tiers, 70

DBS, 78

GABAergic projections, 70

learning acquisition, 75

learning and attention, 69

neurodegenerative diseases, 76–78

vs. non-CM/Pf-striatal systems, 72–73

rCBF, 74

sensorimotor putamen, 76

striatal cholinergic interneurons, 73–74

Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic

atrophy, and sensorineural hearing

loss (CAPOS) syndrome, 146–147

Cerebellar vs. basal ganglia, 144

anesthesia, 139

caudate stimulation, 141, 142

cerebral cortex, 140

common thalamic territory, 139

corticostriatal response, 141

dopaminergic system, 140

globus pallidus and substantia nigra, 139

intralaminar nuclei, 140

mossy fibers, 141

motor-related signals, 139, 140

pathological, 143–147

in PD, 147

pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, 142

psychiatric disorders, 147



570

Cerebellar vs. basal ganglia (cont.)

reciprocal communication, neural

circuits, 141

response, 140

RPD (see Rapid onset dystonia

parkinsonism (RDP))

α3 sodium pump, mutations in, 146–147

Cerebellum, 467

classic microcircuit, 135, 136

controlled limb muscles, 137

limb movements, 137

motor coordination, role in, 137

Purkinje cell activity, 136

vermis, lateral hemispheres and

paravermis, 135

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), 424

Cholinergic interneurons

acetylcholine neurotransmission, 29

dopaminergic cells, 28

glutamate/GABA co-transmitters, 29

local striatal dopamine release, 29

medium-sized spiny neurons, 28, 29

nicotinic receptor-mediated local dopamine

release, 28

striatal, 28

TANs, 28

Cocaine, 328–330, 391–399 (see also

Basolateral amygdala, Medial

prefrontal cortex (mPFC))

behavior, laboratory animals, 389–390

drug addiction, 389

(see also Hippocampus)

mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, 390

mPFC (see Medial prefrontal cortex

(mPFC))

in nucleus accumbens (see Nucleus

accumbens)

neurobiological and neurochemical

basis, 389

neuronal circuitry, 390–391

Cognitive control, 417

Cognitive control network, 191, 192

Cognitive-Emotional-Motor (CogEM), 490

Cognitive-motor deficits, 119–120

dopamine terminals, loss of, 118

dual cholinergic and dopaminergic system

loss

associative (dorsomedial) striatum, 120

MCMCT (see Michigan Complex

Motor Control Task (MCMCT))

error movements, 124

external cues/secondary tasks, 118

GABAergic medium spiny neurons, 117

goal-directed behaviors, 118



Index

initiation and fine-tuning of, 117

neuronal circuits and rapid

communication, 117

in PD (see Parkinson’s disease (PD))

sensory-motor functions, 118

striatal dopamine loss, 124–126

Competitive queuing (CQ), 493

Complementary Computing, 459

Complementary spatial/motor processes, 505

Conditioned stimulus (CS), 244–245, 488

Conscious ARTWORD (cARTWORD),

482, 484

Conscious speech, 482, 483

Consummatory network, 553

Contingent Negative Variation (CNV), 467

Control theory, 523–525

Cortical inputs

axonal arborizations, 22

diffuse terminal fields, 24

overlap of, 22–24

prefrontal corticostriatal projections, 22

reward, cognitive and motor processes, 24

somatosensory cortices, 20

topographical arrangement, 20–21

Cortical processing streams, 504

Cortico-BG networks

associative striatum, 549

bidirectional control, 554

consummatory network, 553

feedback function, 556

limbic network, 551, 553, 554

mesolimbic dopamine, 555

motivational hierarchy, 557

negative feedback controllers, 548

perceptual transitions, 548

proximity control, 552, 553

sensorimotor striatum, 548

striatal classification, 547

transition controllers, 547, 548

Corticostriatal projection, 540, 542

Cortico-striatal terminations, 421



D

D2/D3R

dopaminergic nigrostriatal system, 371

STN-DBS, 377, 378

DA. See Dopamine (DA) system

DBS. See Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

Decision-making process, 345

ADHD, 347–349

amygdala activity, 344

dopaminergic neurons, 342

OCD, 349, 350



Index

OFC, 342

PD (see Parkinson’s disease (PD))

reward uncertainty, 343

rewards and avoiding threats, 340

risk and ambiguity, 341

schizophrenia, 351–352

SN, 342

temporal discounting, 341

TS, 350

value and utility, 340

VTA, 342

Deep brain stimulation (DBS), 78, 346

GABAergic interneurons, 396

nucleus accumbens and mPFC, 402

and optogenetics, 395

therapeutic intervention, cocaine, 390

Default mode network, 191, 192

Deli-noise-[ery/eration], 483

Delivery/deliberation, 484

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental

disorders IV (DSM-IV), 364

DID. See Drinking in the dark (DID)

Direct and indirect pathway neurons

addiction and obesity, 59–60

D1 and D2-expressing neurons, 54

Drd1a-expressing neurons, 58

GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents, 54

Go signal, 59

heterogeneous electrophysiological and

morphological properties, 53

movement control, 54–57

protein kinase A inhibitors, 58

reward-based learning, 57

RT-PCR and confocal microscopy, 54

specific sensory/environmental context, 57

transmission-blocking tetanus toxin

approach, 58

Directions-Into-Velocities-of-Articulators

(DIVA), 478

Direction-to-Rotation Effector Control

Transform (DIRECT), 478

Distributed ARTSCAN (dARTSCAN), 503

DLPFC. See Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

(DLPFC)

DLS. See Dorsolateral striatum (DLS)

DMS. See Dorsomedial striatum (DMS)

Dopamine (DA) system, 537–538

action selection, 88

aminergic neurotransmitter, 87

amygdala system, 96

anterior caudate, 266

aversive prediction error (A-PE)

signaling, 94

basic connectivity, BG, 88, 89



571

BLA and BOLD, 94

blood–brain barrier, 88

cell firing rate, 97–98

cost–benefit analysis, 98

DAergic A-PEs, 95

direct and indirect pathways, 88

dorsal and ventral striatum, 268

DRN, 95 (see also Electrical coupling)

fMRI data, 94

habit formation, 100–101

inhibitory expectation signals, 96, 97

internal reinforcement signal, 92–93

LTD and LTP, glutamatergic synapses, 88

NAcc core, 99

“neural comparators”, 96

PAG neurons, 94

release, 101–103

release sites, BG, 87

reward prediction error signal, 93

striatal activations, 99

in striatum, 90–91

synaptic plasticity, 99–100

TAN, DAergic regulation, 89, 90

ventromedial mesencephalon, 264

Vip-expressing DA2D pool, 96

vlPAG, 95

Dopamine D1 receptor supersensitivity

AC activity and cAMP synthesis, 156

D1 and D2 class, 156

G protein and adenylyl cyclase activity,

157–159

G trafficking, 159

impaired, 157, 158

in vitro binding assays and in situ

hybridization studies, 157

novel signaling complexes, 160–161

6-OHDA-lesioned rat model, 157

Dopamine depletion, 538–539

Dopamine islands, 424

Dopamine receptors

BAC technology, 52

combined confocal and retrograde labeling

study, 52

direct and indirect MSN, 53

Drd1a and Drd2 expression, 51

gene expression studies, 53

molecular cloning studies, 51

patch-clamp and single-cell qPCR

analysis, 52

striatonigral axon collaterals, 53

Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), 377

Dopaminergic nigrostriatal system

D2/D3R agonist, 371

mesocorticolimbic system, 367–369



572



Index



Dopaminergic nigrostriatal system (cont.)

motivated behaviors, 369–371

selective optogenetic modulation, 372

SNc, 367

VTA, 367

Dopaminergic Now Print signals, 463

Dorsal attention network, 191

Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), 376

Dorsal striatum

caudate nucleus and putamen, 262

CS–US association, 255

DA signaling, 272

LI, 253

ventral striatum, 273

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 270

Dorsolateral striatum (DLS), 414, 445

CIE exposure, 300

ERK activation, 293

GABAergic transmission, 298

glutamatergic activation, 304

habits, 290

sensorimotor cortices, 290

siRNA, 307

Dorsomedial striatum (DMS), 414, 445

goal-directed behaviors, 290

LTP, 292

mIPSC frequency, 298

Drinking in the dark (DID), 298, 299

DRN. See Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN)

DRT. See Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT)

Drug addiction

alcohol, 330

cocaine and psychostimulants, 328–330

heroin, 330

sex, 330–331

DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and statistical manual

of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV)

DYNA, 445



Entorhinal–hippocampal system, 468–469

EPSC. See Excitatory postsynaptic current

(EPSC)

ERK. See Extracellular signal-regulated

kinase (ERK)

Excitatory matching, 504

Excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC)

GABA, 291

NMDAR, 292

stimulation-induced depression, 296

External globus pallidus (GPe), 3, 5

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), 293

Eye movements

amygdala, 475

and cognition, 469

crippling combinatorial explosion, 475

discriminative and scheduling

constraints, 476

FEF neurons, 476

frontal–parietal resonance codes, 473

gating reactive and planned behaviors,

471–473

inferotemporal-amygdala-orbitofrontal

resonance, 475, 476

invariant object categories, 475

neural models, 475

object recognition, 475

saccade tasks, 473

TELOS model, 475

Eye movement sequences

BG implementation, 498

direct and indirect pathways, 498

FEF loop and gate, 499

frontal–parietal resonance, 498

GPi/SNr, 499

rehearsal and collicular gates, 500

SC loop and gate, 500

WM loop and gate, 499



E

Early onset primary dystonia, 145–146

Electrical coupling

beta rhythm genesis, 104

FSINs, 105

gap junctions, 104

hyperpolarization, 104

muscarinic ACh receptors, 104

rodent PD models, 105

Endocannabinoids (eCBs)

EPSC amplitude, 296

LTD, 292

neurotransmitter release, 294

plasticity, 299



F

Fast spiking (FS) interneurons, 29, 30

Feedback function, 556

FLETE model, 461

FOG. See Freezing of gait (FOG)

Freezing of gait (FOG), 125

Frontal eye fields (FEF), 473

FS. See Fast spiking (FS) interneurons



G

γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 291, 294, 298, 498

GABAergic interneurons

dopamine D1 and D2 output channels, 30



573



Index

excitatory inputs, 30

NMDA and AMPA receptor glutamatergic

innervation, 30

PLT and FS interneurons, 29

Gliovascular mechanisms, 174

Globus pallidus (GP)

basal ganglia, structure of, 3

external segment (GPe), 499

GPe and GPi, 3

internal segment (GPi), 499

SNc, SNr and SNI, 3

Goal-directed behavior, 349, 364

Goal-directed learning, 437–439

Golgi labeling method, 47

GP. See Globus pallidus (GP)

GPe. See External globus pallidus

(GPe)

GPi. See Internal globus pallidus (GPi)



H

Habenula

epithalamus to mesencephalon, 14

rostromedial tegmental nucleus, 37

ventral striatopallidal system

access, 35

Habit- and goal-directed dichotomy,

445, 446

Habit(s), 290, 304, 308

Habit learning, 437, 438, 446

HD. See Huntington’s disease (HD)

Heroin, 330

HFS. See High frequency stimulation

(HFS)

High frequency stimulation (HFS), 292, 293,

299, 300

Hippocampus

cue-induced, 399–400

non-pharmacological manipulations, 400

priming-induced, 399

formation

anterograde and retrograde labeling,

18–19

description, 17

entorhinal cortex, 18

in nucleus accumbens, 17

Huntington’s disease (HD), 76

CAG, 277

dorsal-to-ventral striatal involvement, 278

dorsal–ventral progression, 278

HTT, 277

neuroimaging study, 278

NR2B subunit, 277

Hypothesis testing, 417



I

Imaginative mode

action observation and simulation, 546

functions, 545

motor control, 545

neural implementation, 545, 546

reference signal, 544, 545

remembering process, 544

technical meaning, 544

Immediate serial recall (ISR), 497

Instrumental learning

habit- and goal-directed strategies, 437

model-free and model-based controllers, 438

spatial learning strategies, 437

Internal globus pallidus (GPi), 3, 5

Internally guided lexical selection, 236

Intracellular signaling pathways, 161–168

canonical cAMP-related pathways,

161–163

noncanonical pathways, 163–166

nuclear signaling events, 166–167

protein translation pathways, 168

In-vivo electrophysiological recording

techniques

DLS, rats, 430

DMS and DLS, 433

dorsal striatal function, 428, 429

memory-based behavior, 432

MSN neurons, 430

neuronal responses, 429

stimulus–response associations, 431

stimulus–response task, 429–431

T-maze task, 431

win–stay task, 431

Item-Order-Rank working memory

activity gradients, 492–493

circuit design, 493–497

primacy gradient, 492

SEF, 497

sequential learning and performance,

saccades, 492



L

Laminar computing, 460

Language learning, 485

Language processing, 222–226

anastomotic circulation, 218

athetosis, 219

Broca’s area–basal ganglia loops

(see Broca’s area)

“direct” and “indirect” loops, 221

hypoperfusion, 218

“indirect” and “hyperdirect” loops, 220



574

Language processing (cont.)

pre-SMA–basal ganglia loops

(see Pre-SMA loop)

quadrilateral zone, 217

tractography, 221

white matter, 218

Latent inhibition (LI)

CS–US association, 250, 251

Nac, 250

Lateral habenula (LHb), 352, 353

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). See also

Dopamine D1 receptor

supersensitivity

BBB permeability, 175–176

cholinergic interneurons, function of, 156

gene expression profiles, 171–173

gliovascular mechanisms, 174

glutamate receptors, 169–170 (see also

Intracellular signaling pathways)

nonhuman primates, 156

Parkinsonian and dyskinetic motor

features, 155

PD, treatment for, 155

striatal synaptic plasticity, 168–169

transcription factors and early genes, 171

Learning, 69, 75, 76

LHb. See Lateral habenula (LHb)

Limbic network, 551, 553, 554

Limbic system, 263

Limbic ventral striatum, 20–27

amygdaloid inputs, 18

amygdalostriatal transition zone, 16

brain regions, 16

collateralization patterns, 35

cortical afferents and vascularization,

15, 16

cortical inputs (see Cortical inputs)

cytoarchitectonic criteria, 14

emotional and higher cognitive behavioral

functions, 17

glutamate and GABA transporters, 27

hippocampal formation, 17, 18

histochemical/immunohistochemical

characteristics, 15

lateral habenula, 35, 36

limbic and autonomic inputs, 36

neurochemical/immunohistochemical

staining techniques, 17

normal reward- and aversive-related

behaviors, 37

nucleus accumbens, 17

RMTg and VTA, 36

serotonin innervation, 15

striatal zones, 15



Index

subcortical inputs (see Subcortical inputs)

ventral striatal efferents, 30–34

List chunks, 461, 480–482, 484, 487, 492

lisTELOS model, 461, 493, 494, 498

Long-term depression (LTD), 100, 292, 295,

302, 467

Long-term facilitation (LTF), 291

Low-threshold spiking interneurons (LTSI),

289, 294

LTF. See Long-term facilitation (LTF)

LTM Invariance Principle, 493, 497

LTSI. See Low-threshold spiking interneurons

(LTSI)



M

Macrocircuit, 480–481

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

anhedonia, 353

LHb dysfunction, 353

striatal opioid/endocannabinoid

systems, 354

Maladaptive behavior

automatic response, 248, 249

drug addiction, 248, 249

nigrostriatal system, 249–250

Masking field, 484

Matrisomes, 425, 426

MDD. See Major depressive disorder (MDD)

Measure of muscle activity (EMG), 527

Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)

cue-induced, 397–398

non-pharmacological manipulations,

398–399

priming-induced, 396–397

stress-induced, 398

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), 72, 262, 265

Medium spiny projection neurons (MSPNs),

498–499

Medium spiny striatal neurons, 51–53

(see also Direct and indirect

pathway neurons)

dopamine receptors (see Dopamine

receptors)

enkephalin immunoreactivity, 51

GABA, 48

golgi labeling method/electron microscopy, 47

peptides, co-expression of, 48–49

projection neurons, 49

retrograde labeling study, 50

rodent and primate studies, 51

spiny and aspiny neurons, 47

striatonigral/direct pathway neurons, 50

type I, 47



Index

Memory-based behavioral systems, 432, 433

mEPSCs. See Miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs)

Mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), 529

Mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, 390

Mesolimbic dopamine, 37, 555

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

(MPTP), 76, 77

Michigan Complex Motor Control Task

(MCMCT)

cholinergic transients, 124

description, 120

dorsomedial “associative” striatum, 121

lesions, 121

neurocircuitry, 121, 123

quantitative histological analyses, 121

Microdialysis, 377

Miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs), 291, 297, 301

Miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs), 298, 299

mIPSCs. See Miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs)

Model-based learning, 438–440

Model-free and model-based controllers, 438

Model-free learning

action selection process, 438

actor–critic model-free controller, 439

vs. model-based learning, 440

Mood disorders

anhedonia, 353

BP, 354

LHb dysfunction, 353

MDD (see Major depressive disorder

(MDD))

striatal opioid/endocannabinoid systems, 354

Motivated behaviors, 369–371

Motivational deficits, 366

dopaminergic neurodegenerative process

(see Dopaminergic nigrostriatal

system)

SNc, 369–371

VTA, 369–371

Motivational hierarchy, 557

MOTIVATOR model, 461, 487–489

Motor control, 146, 541

Movement gating processes, 505

mPFC. See Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)

MPTP. See 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)

MSNs. See Medium spiny neurons (MSNs)

Myoclonus dystonia, 145



N

nAChRs. See Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

(nAChRs)

The Neostriatum, 413, 414



575

Neo-(dorsal) striatum, 419–422

DLS, 415

DMS, 415

electrophysiological data, 415

“inhibitory” and “motor” theories, 415

motor/cognitive functions, 416

neuroanatomy (see Neuroanatomy)

Network dynamics, 486

Neural models

basal ganglia modeling, 458–459

brain and mind, 457–458

complementary and laminar computing,

459–460

reinforcement learning, 460–462

Neuroanatomy, 420

basal ganglia, 419

cortico-striatal areas, 420

dorsal striatum (DS), 420

dorsal/ventral striatal distinction, 421

neo-striatum, 419

PD, 419

tripartite model, 422

visual projection, 420

Neurochemical compartmentalization

acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

histochemistry, 423

catecholamine histofluorescence, 422

ChAT activity, 424

CPu, 425

hippocampus activation, 428

neurobehavioral integration, 426–428

reinforcement learning, 425, 426

three-dimensional reconstructions, 423

vesicular glutamate and GABA

transporters, 423

Neurodegenerative diseases

HD (see Huntington’s disease (HD))

PD (see Parkinson’s disease (PD))

Neuromuscular control system, 479

Neuronal plasticity, 292, 299, 300

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), 126

Nigrostriatal system, 249–250

NMDA. See N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)

N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA), 291, 292,

300, 308

Noncanonical pathways, 163–166

bromocriptine, 164

CalDAG-GEFI and CalDAG-GEFII

genes, 165

canonical Gαolf-PKA-cAMP pathway, 163

chronic treatment, 166

dominant negative variants, 165

early gene FosB/∆FosB, 164

Gq-coupled receptors, 165



576

Noncanonical pathways (cont.)

MAPK signaling, 164

psychostimulants, 163

Noradrenergic fibers, 26

Normalization Rule, 493, 496

Nucleus accumbens

acetylcholine neurotransmission, 29

acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 15

adjacent ventral caudate-putamen, 20

cue-induced reinstatement, 393–394

D1- and D2-expressing medium-sized

spiny neurons, 32

dopaminergic fibers, 26

extended amygdala, 25

non-pharmacological manipulations,

395–396

olfactory tubercle, 14, 15

priming-induced reinstatement,

391–393

stress-induced reinstatement, 394–395



O

Obsessive-compulsive behaviors, 78

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

decision-making process, 349

fronto-striatal loops, 276

orbitofronto-striatal model, 275, 276

pathophysiology, 276

OCD. See Obsessive-compulsive disorder

(OCD)

OFC. See Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 270, 271, 327, 491

OCD, 349

reward processing, 342

risk-seeking behavior, 343



P

Parietal cortex, 190–193

Parkinson’s disease (PD), 76, 77, 191–194,

366–373, 538–539

ACC, 270

basal ganglia, 190

BF and ACh, loss of, 119

cerebellar vs. basal ganglia, 147

cholinergic synapses, 120

in cognition, 194–197

cortico-striatal connectivity

CEN and SN, 193, 194

cortical networks, 191

cortico-striatal loops, 192

fcMRI techniques, 191

healthy control participants, 191



Index

large-scale functional network

analysis, 192

neurocognitive networks, 193

ventral striatum, 192

CSv and PIVC, 200

DA replacement therapy, 272

DBS, 346

decision-making skills, 345

“direct” and “indirect” pathways, 119

DLPFC, 270

dopaminergic nigrostriatal

(see Dopaminergic nigrostriatal

system)

dopaminergic treatment, 345

dorsal parieto-occipital sulcus, 200

executive functioning tasks, 190

eye tracking “heat map” representations,

202, 203

GPi anf GPe, 119

hypokinesia and dyskinesia, 119

L-dopa, 271

levodopa, 119

motor disorder, 189

neuroimaging and electrophysiological

study, 271

neuromodulatory activity, 120

nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, 345

and non-motor deficits, 190

OFC, 270

optic flow, 199

overdose hypothesis, 272

perception-action coupling, 204

resting state activity, 191

RPD and HC, 200, 202

sensory association areas, 189

SNc, 363

sustained attention and inhibitory

control, 190

synucleinopathy, 189

ventral striatum, 273

visual perception, 197–199

Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer (PIT), 439

PD. See Parkinson’s disease (PD)

Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), 529

Pedunculo-pontine tegmental nucleus

(PPTN), 462

Perceptual transitions, 548

Persistent low-threshold (PLT), 29

PET. See Positron emission tomography (PET)

PFC. See Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

Phonemic restoration, 483, 485–487

PLT. See Persistent low-threshold (PLT)

Positron emission tomography (PET), 230

Posterior parietal cortex (PPC), 493



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