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1 Automatic and Controlled Processes: A Historical View

1 Automatic and Controlled Processes: A Historical View

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Chapter 19



Neural Dynamics of the Basal Ganglia During

Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Learning

and Gating

Stephen Grossberg



19.1  Introduction

19.1.1  L

 inking Brain to Mind with Neural Models: Method

of Minimal Anatomies

The rapid development of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience parallels the growing interest in mechanistically linking brain mechanisms to behavioral functions.

Expressed in another way, this interest asks: How can a brain gives rise to a mind?

How can the classical Mind/Body Problem be solved? The remarkable experimental

and theoretical progress in understanding brain or mind in the fields of neuroscience

and psychology has not often provided clear mechanistic links between them, if

only because mind is an emergent property that arises from widespread interactions

among multiple brain regions, and experimental methods can probe the detailed

structure of such interactions only partially. Yet establishing such a linkage between

brain and mind is crucial in any mature theory of how a brain or mind works.

Without such a link, the mechanisms of the brain have no functional significance,

and the functions of behavior have no mechanistic explanation.

In order to establish such a link with sufficient clarity for it to be scientifically

predictive, rigorous mathematical models are needed that can simultaneously

describe multiple levels of brain and behavioral organization. A rapidly growing

number of such models can now quantitatively simulate the neurophysiologically

recorded dynamics of identified nerve cells in known anatomies and the behaviors

that they control. Many predictions of these models have also been supported by



S. Grossberg, Ph.D. (*)

Center for Adaptive Systems, Graduate Program in Cognitive and Neural Systems,

Department of Mathematics, Boston University, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA

e-mail: steve@bu.edu

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

J.-J. Soghomonian (ed.), The Basal Ganglia, Innovations in Cognitive

Neuroscience, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42743-0_19



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