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7 Case II: Tangential, Normal, and Orthogonal Components

11.7 Case II: Tangential, Normal, and Orthogonal Components

277

We are concerned with transforming from R0 ; S0 to T 0 ; N 0 . The radial direction

component of G is

R0 Á G uO r D T 0 .uO T uO r / C N 0 .uO N uO r /

(11.133)

and in the transverse direction it is

S0 Á G uO Â D T 0 .uO T uO Â / C N 0 .uO N uO Â /

(11.134)

The scalar products are evaluated knowing that uO T and uO N are along and

perpendicular, respectively, to the velocity vector. So we may write

v D rP uO r C rfP uO Â D v uO r

(11.135)

rP

D uO r uO T D uO Â uO N

v

(11.136a)

Then the scalar products

rfP

D uO Â uO r D

v

uO r uO N

(11.136b)

The first parts of Eq. (11.136) can be seen from dot products of Eq. (11.135) by uO r

and uO Â , respectively. The second parts are from the unit vectors geometry. From the

elliptic motion we have

a.1 e2 /

1 C e cos f

p

r2 fP D h D k2 Ma.1

rD

(11.137a)

e2 /

(11.137b)

Evaluation of rP from the first and elimination of fP by means of the second yields

p

k Me sin f

rP D p

a.1 e2 /

p

k M.1 C e cos f /

rfP D

p

a.1 e2

p

k M.1 C e2 C 2e cos f /1=2

vD

p

a.1 e2 /

(11.138)

(11.139)

(11.140)

278

11 General Perturbations Theory

Then Eqs. (11.136) become

uO r uO T D uO Â uO N D

e sin f

rP

D

2

v

.1 C e C 2e cos f /1=2

(11.141a)

1 C e cos f

.1 C e2 C 2e cos f /1=2

(11.141b)

uO Â uO T D uO r uO N D

Substituting Eqs. (11.141) into Eqs. (11.133) and (11.134), we have

1 C e cos f

p

N0

1 C e2 C 2e cos f

(11.142)

1 C e cos f

e sin f

S0 D p

T0 C p

N0

2

1 C e C 2e cos f

1 C e2 C 2e cos f

(11.143)

e sin f

R0 D p

T0

1 C e2 C 2e cos f

With these equations and T 0 , N 0 given, one can substitute for R0 and S0 in

Eqs. (11.131) and obtain the perturbations in the elements due to a force that

has been resolved into tangential, normal, and orthogonal components (McCuskey

1963, pp. 147–149).

We must emphasize that some authors use a different convention for the NTW

frame (Vallado 2001, p. 163). In this convention, uO T is parallel to the direction of

the velocity vector, the normal axis uO N points away from the attraction center, and

uO W D uO N uO T . In this case, the transformation in Eq. (11.142) is written as (note

the sign differences in the N 0 terms)

e sin f

1 C e cos f

R0 D p

T0 C p

N0

1 C 2e cos f C e2

1 C 2e cos f C e2

(11.144a)

1 C e cos f

S0 D p

T0

1 C 2e cos f C e2

(11.144b)

e sin f

p

N0

1 C 2e cos f C e2

11.8 Expansion of the Third-Body Potential

To obtain the time rate of change of the orbital elements, the disturbing function

R must be expanded as an infinite series, where the orbital elements appear in the

coefficients or arguments of trigonometric series. It is also possible to expand the

disturbing function as a power series, for artificial satellites, or as a Chebysehev

series, as per Carpenter (1966).

Let m and m0 be the perturbed and perturbing masses, let r and r0 be their

distances from the central mass m1 , and let r0 > r at all times (recall Fig. 5.7).

The analysis is slightly different for r0 < r, and fails for the Neptune-Pluto case

where the values change with respect to each other. The perturbation function can

11.8 Expansion of the Third-Body Potential

279

be written as

2

RDk m

0

D k 2 m0

Ä

Ä

1

xx0 C yy0 C zz0

r03

r2 C r02

rr0 cos

r03

1=2

2rr0 cos

"

Ä

1

r Á2

rÁ

cos

1

C

2

Dk m

r0

r0

r0

"Ä

r Á2

rÁ

k 2 m0

1C 0

2 0 cos

D 0

r

r

r

2

1=2

0

1=2

rr0 cos

r03

rÁ

cos

r0

#

#

(11.145)

where is the angle between the radius vectors. Expanding the first term in the

bracket by the binomial theorem, we have

Ä

1C

1=2

r Á2

rÁ

cos

2

r0

r0

Â

Ã

r Á2

3

1

rÁ

2

C cos

D 1 C 0 cos C 0

r

r

2

2

Â

Â

Ã

5

r Á3

3

r Á4 3

cos C cos3

C 0

C 0

r

2

2

r

8

15

cos2

4

C

35

cos4

8

Ã

C :::

(11.146)

The groups of trigonometric functions in Eq. (11.146) that appear due to

expanding part of the disturbing function are Legendre polynomials of the first kind,

Pn .cos /. The Legendre polynomials, generally denoted for some argument x by

Pn .x/, are useful when expanding functions such as

1

kr

D p

r0 k

r2 C r02

1

2rr0 cos

D

1

X

.r0 /n

nD0

rnC1

Pn .cos /

(11.147)

Each Legendre polynomial, Pn .x/, is an nth degree polynomial. It may be expressed

using the Rodrigues formula:

Pn .x/ D

1 dn

.x2

2n nŠ dxn

1/n

(11.148)

280

11 General Perturbations Theory

For example, P0 .x/ D 1, P1 .x/ D x, P2 .x/ D 0:5.3x2 1/ and P3 .x/ D 0:5.5x3 3x/.

In our case, the polynomials are then

P0 .cos / D 1

(11.149)

P1 .cos / D cos

(11.150)

P2 .cos / D

P3 .cos / D

P4 .cos / D

D

P5 .cos / D

1

1

Œ3 cos2

1 D Œ3 cos 2 C 1

2

4

1

1

Œ5 cos3

3 cos D Œ5 cos 3 C 3 cos

2

8

1

Œ35 cos4

30 cos2 C 3

8

1

Œ35 cos 4 C 20 cos 2 C 9

64

1

Œ63 cos5

70 cos3 C 15 cos

8

(11.151)

(11.152)

(11.153)

(11.154)

The Legendre polynomials are uniformly bounded, that is

jPn .cos /j Ä 1; n D 0; 1; 2; 3; : : :

(11.155)

1

X

r Án

Pn .cos /

r0

nD0

(11.156)

so the series

is convergent, since r=r0 < 1 by our choice. Combining Eqs. (11.145) and (11.146),

where the r cos =r0 terms cancel, we have

Ä

r Á2

k 2 m0

r Á3

r Á4

R D 0 1 C 0 P2 C 0 P3 C 0 P4 C : : :

(11.157)

r

r

r

r

We must now look at r=r0 and the polynomials Pn .cos / to determine R in terms of

2

the orbital elements. Let us consider the factors in rr0 P2 .cos / separately.

11.8.1 The Factor .r=r0 /2

In Sect. 5.9, we saw Kepler’s equation and how we can expand E in trigonometric

functions of the mean anomaly M. Likewise, we can expand to the e2 term

1

1 2

r

D 1 C e2 e cos M

e cos 2M C : : :

a

2

2

a

D 1 C e cos M C e2 cos 2M C : : :

r

(11.158)

(11.159)

11.8 Expansion of the Third-Body Potential

Â

1

eC 1

2

cos E D

281

Ã

3 2

1

e cos M C e cos 2M

8

2

3 2

e cos 3M C : : :

8

Ã

Â

1

1 2

e sin M C e sin 2M

sin E D 1

8

2

C

C

(11.160)

3 2

e sin 3M C : : :

8

(11.161)

From r=a and a=r,

Â Ã

r

aÁ

r Á a0

D

r0

a

r0

a0

Ä

1

a

D 0 1 C e2 e cos M

a

2

1 2

e cos 2M

2

1 C e0 cos M 0 C e02 cos 2M 0

(11.162)

Squaring Eq. (11.162) yields in terms to order e2

r Á2

a Á2

1 C e2 C e2 cos2 M

D 0

0

r

a

2e cos M

e2 cos 2M

C e0 cos2 M 0 C 2e0 cos M 0 C 4ee0 cos M cos M 0

C 2e02 cos 2M 0 C : : :

(11.163)

Terms such as cos2 M and cos M cos M 0 can be transformed into functions of

multiple angles or sums and differences of angles,

1

.1 C cos 2M/

2

1

cos M cos M 0 D Œcos.M C M 0 / C cos.M

2

cos2 M D

(11.164)

M 0 /

(11.165)

So Eq. (11.162) becomes

Ä

r Á2

3

a Á2

1

1 C e2 C e02

D 0

0

r

a

2

2

2e cos M C 2e0 cos M 0

1 2

5

e cos 2M C e02 cos 2M 0

2

2

2ee0 cos.M

M0 /

2ee0 cos.M C M 0 /

(11.166)

Thus, .r=r0 /2 is the sum of terms of the form Apq cos. pM C qM 0 /, where p and q are

integers, either positive, negative, or zero, and Apq are functions of a; a0 ; e; e0 .

282

11 General Perturbations Theory

11.8.2 The Factor P2 .cos /

We have the polynomial

P2 .cos / D

First we want the form of cos

3

1

C cos2

2

2

(11.167)

in terms of the orbital elements. From Eq. (11.66),

O

r D xOi C yOj C zkO D PO C ÁQ

(11.168)

D r cos f D a cos E ae

p

Á D r sin f D a sin E 1 e2

(11.169)

and

(11.170)

we have

O D aŒ.cos E

r D PO C ÁQ

p

e/PO C . 1

O

e2 sin E/Q

(11.171)

O are unit vectors, functions of ; !; i, as given in Eqs. (11.62). An

where PO and Q

equation similar to Eq. (11.171) can be written expressing r0 to appropriate unit

O 0 , where the prime denotes the disturbing planet. So we can write

vectors PO 0 and Q

cos

Á

Á

0 O0

O

O0

PO C ÁQ

P C Á0 Q

r rO 0

D

D

rr0

rr0

0 O O0

O PO 0 C Á0 PO Q

O 0 C ÁÁ0 Q

O Q

O0

P P C Á 0Q

D

rr0

Examining a term such as 0 PO PO 0 =rr0 , since D a.cos E e/ and

e0 /, using the expansion for cos E in Eq. (11.158) we have

0

(11.172)

D a0 .cos E0

Â ÃÄ

3 2

3

1

a Á a0

e C .1

e / cos M C e cos 2M

D

rr0

r

r0

2

8

2

Ä

3

3 0

3 02

1

C e2 cos 3M

e C .1

e / cos M 0 C e0 cos 2M 0

8

2

8

2

0

C

3 02

e cos 3M 0

8

(11.173)

A typical product from the two brackets is of the form cos pM cos qM 0 , which can

be transformed into the form Œcos. pM C qM 0 / C cos. pM qM 0 /=2.

11.8 Expansion of the Third-Body Potential

283

Products of these terms by series expressions for .a=r/ and .a0 =r/ can be reduced

in a similar manner. So the product 0 =rr0 takes the form Bpq cos. pM C qM 0 /,

where p and q are integers, and Bpq are functions of a; a0 ; e; e0 . The product PO PO0 D

P1 P01 C P2 P02 C P3 P03 , where the components are

P1 D cos

cos !

sin

sin ! cos i

(11.174)

P2 D sin

cos ! C cos

sin ! cos i

(11.175)

P3 D sin ! sin i

(11.176)

and similarly for P01 ; P02 ; P03 . We can write cos i D 1 2 sin2 .i=2/ and, since i is a

small quantity, sin.i=2/ i=2 D . So cos i D 1 2 2 . Then P1 D cos. C !/ C

2 2 sin ! sin , and, using 2 sin ! sin D Œcos. C !/ cos.

!/,

P1 D .1

2

P01 D .1

02

/ cos.

/ cos.

C !/ C

0

2

!/

cos.

C !0/ C

02

0

cos.

(11.177a)

!0/

(11.177b)

O can be expressed similarly.

Other components of PO and Q

We are interested in the form of PO PO0 . From Eqs. (11.177), the product of P1 P01

will consist of terms of the form cos. C!/ cos. 0 C! 0 /, which reduce to sums such

0

as Œcos. C!C 0 C! 0 /Ccos. C!

! 0 /=2. The products from PO PO0 and other

scalar products in Eq. (11.172) are of the form Cj cos .j1 C j2 0 C j3 ! C j4 ! 0 /,

where ji ; i D 1; 2; 3; 4 are integers and Cj are functions of and 0 . From this

analysis of the form of 0 P1 P01 =rr0 , we can see that the form of the perturbation

function will be

X

R D k 2 m0

Cp .a; a0 ; e; e0 ; ; 0 /

p

cos p1 M C p

2M 0 C p3

0

C p4

C p5 ! C p6 ! 0

(11.178)

where pi ; i D 1; : : : ; 6 are integers. The expression for R can be used in Eq. (11.108)

to obtain the perturbations in the orbital elements. Let M D nt C ; M 0 D n0 t C 0 ,

so

p1 M C p2 M 0 D . p1 n C p2 n0 /t C p1 C p2

0

(11.179)

Denote the angular argument in R by

Â D . p1 n C p2 n0 /t C p1 C p2

0

C p3

C p4

0

C p5 ! C p6 ! 0

(11.180)

If we consider the orbital elements of the perturbing body m0 as constants,

Eq. (11.180) becomes

Â D . p1 n C p2 n0 /t C p1 C p3

C p 5 ! C Â0

(11.181)

284

11 General Perturbations Theory

0

where Â0 contains the contributions from p2 ; p4 ; p6 ;

R D k 2 m0

X

Cp cosŒ. p1 n C p2 n0 /t C p1 C p3

0

;

; ! 0 . Then

C p 5 ! C Â0

(11.182)

p

where the summation refers to all pi ; i D 1; : : : ; 6. Then

@R

D

@

(

@R

D

@

k 2 m0

0;

k 2 m0

P

p

X

Cp p1 sin ; p1 Ô 0

p1 D 0

(11.183a)

Cp p3 sin Â

(11.183b)

X

@R

D k 2 m0

Cp p5 sin Â

@!

p

(11.183c)

p

X @Cp

@R

D k 2 m0

cos Â

@e

@e

p

Â ÃX

@Cp

1 2 0

@R

i

D k m cos

cos Â

@i

2

2 p @

X @Cp

@R

D k 2 m0

cos Â

@a

@a

p

k 2 m0

X

p

(11.183d)

(11.183e)

Ã

Â

@n

sin Â

Cp p1 t

@a

(11.183f)

where @n=@a D 3n=2a. Substituting Eq. (11.183e) into Eq. (11.108d) we have

P D

k2 m0 cos.i=2/ X @Cp

@R

D

cos Â

p

e2 @i

2na2 sin i 1 e2 p @

1

p

2

na sin i 1

(11.184)

Usually, m0 is small compared with the central mass; hence, as a first approximation,

the elements on the right of Eq. (11.184) are assumed constant. The derivative of P

becomes a periodic function of t alone, if p1 and p2 are not both zero. If p1 and p2

are both zero, P is a constant, say A. We can consider P separated, so

P DAC

X

Bp cosŒ. p1 n C p2 n0 /t C

1

(11.185)

p

where 1 D p1 0 C p3 0 C p5 !0 C 0 , and the zero subscript denotes fixed

elements. Integrating Eq. (11.185) we have

D

0

C At C

X

p

Bp

sinŒ. p1 n C p2 n0 /t C

. p1 n C p2 n0 /

1

(11.186)

11.8 Expansion of the Third-Body Potential

285

where p1 and p2 are not both zero. The linear part of the change in , At, is known

as a secular perturbation term. From Eq. (11.184), we see that, if p1 n C p2 n0 D

0, a secular term will arise. This requires commensurability in the periods of the

perturbed and perturbing planets. If P and P0 are these periods, then

n

P0

D 0 D

P

n

p2

p1

(11.187)

and p1 and p2 are integers. Jupiter and Saturn approach the ratio 5:2. The nature of

the periodic perturbations in an element such as depends on the magnitude of Bp ,

and on p1 nCp2 n0 . Bp is not large in the solar system. If p1 nCp2 n0 is large for a given

pair of values . p1 ; p2 /, then for these values of p1 ; p2 will have periodic terms of

small amplitude and short period. These are short-period inequalities. If, for a pair

of values p1 ; p2 , the quantity p1 n C p2 n0 is small, then will have a perturbation

with a large amplitude and a long period. These are long-period inequalities. From

the equations for all the elements, it can be seen that all the elements, except a, will

exhibit secular and periodic changes, from analysis made to the first order in m0 ,

such as that for . For the semimajor axis, however,

aP D

2k2 m0 X

Cp p1 sin ;

na

p

p1 Ô 0

(11.188)

aP 0;

p1 D 0

(11.189)

The semimajor axis oscillates about the mean value a0 , where a D a0 C ı.a/ with a

period

PD

2

p1 n C p2 n0

where

ı.a/ D

Â

Ã

2k2 m0 X

p1

cos Â

Cp

na0

p1 n C p2 n0

(11.190)

It has been shown that to the third power in m0 , there is no secular change in a.

This, of course, becomes important when considering the stability of the planetary

orbit. The analysis discussed can, of course, be applied to the other elements. The

expressions derived are only to first order, so they only contain the factor m0 .

We started with the assumption that the elements were constants. If we now were

to re-substitute with the secular and periodic terms for the elements, we should

obtain the second approximation with terms in t2 , which would all contain the factor

m02 ; and thus higher approximations are derived.

The semimajor axis, as mentioned, and the eccentricity, are critical for the

stability of the system. If the eccentricity changed sufficiently, we might have a close

286

11 General Perturbations Theory

approach between planets and a radical change in orbits. In 1776, Lagrange showed

that the semimajor axis was stable to the first order. In 1809, Poisson showed the

same result applied when m02 terms are included. The higher order condition is less

certain. Hagihara (1957, 1972) has discussed the stability question. Laskar (2008)

and Laskar et al. (2011) presented a number of important results on the subject.

There are many more possible approaches to perturbation theory using various

coordinates such as rectangular coordinates, Hansen variables, and so on. Likewise,

other series such as Chebyshev series can be used in place of trigonometric series

(McCuskey 1963, pp. 153–158).

11.9 The Earth-Moon System

The motion of the Moon around the Earth influenced by the Sun is a complex

problem. This is due to the large mass ratio of the Moon with respect to the Earth

and the proximity of the Moon to the Earth. The primary mass, m1 , is the Earth, m,

the perturbed mass, is the Moon, and m0 is the Sun. The Moon’s orbit is inclined

about 5ı to the ecliptic; for this discussion we will neglect this inclination. Also

we will neglect the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The Earth’s

eccentricity e D 0:016 has only a second order effect on the analysis. The problem

then is reduced to a two-dimensional one.

Let be the celestial longitude of the Moon and 0 the longitude of the Sun, as

shown in Fig. 11.3.

0

From Eq. (11.157), with D

the perturbation function becomes

RD

Ä

r Á2

k 2 m0

1 C 0 P2 cos

0

a

a

0

C :::

(11.191)

Fig. 11.3 Sun-Earth-Moon

geometry

Moon

Sun

′

′

Ψ

Ψ′

11.9 The Earth-Moon System

287

where a0 is the assumed circular radius of the Earth’s orbit. R will be truncated at

second order terms in .r=a0 /. From the Legendre coefficients we have

0

P2 Œcos.

/ D

0

1 C 3 cos 2.

4

/

and since .r=a0 /2 D .a=a0 /2 .r=a/2 , R may be written as

RD

Ä

k 2 m0

1 a Á2 r Á2

3 a Á2 r Á2

1

C

D

cos 2.

a0

4 a0

a

4 a0

a

0

/

(11.192)

R must be expressed in terms of the elements of the Moon’s orbit. Neglecting the

terms in Eq. (11.166) containing e0 , which has been assumed to be zero, we have

Ä

3e2

a Á2

r Á2

1

C

D

a0

a0

2

2e cos M

1 2

e cos 2M

2

(11.193)

in terms of second order in e. Since the Moon, Sun, and Earth have been assumed

to be in the same plane, we take D C ! C f , where f is the true anomaly of the

Moon. Then

r Á2

cos 2

a

0

D

r Á2

cos 2f C 2

a

C!

0

(11.194)

which is expanded to

r Á2

cos2 f cos 2

C!

a

h rÁ

ih rÁ

i

2

sin f

cos f sin 2

a

a

2

0

r Á2

cos 2

a

C!

C!

0

0

(11.195)

p

From r cos f D a cos E ae and r sin f D a sin E 1 e2 , and the expansions of

cos E and sin E in terms of M, we have

Â

Ã

3 2

3

1

r

cos f D 1

e cos M C e cos 2M C e2 cos 3M

a

8

2

8

3

e

2

Â

r

sin f D 1

a

(11.196)

Ã

5 2

3

1

e sin M C e sin 2M C e2 sin 3M

8

2

8

(11.197)

## Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

## 7 Einstein's Modification of the Orbit Equation

## 3 Angular Momentum, or Areal Velocity, Integral

## 7 Hill's Restricted Three-Body Problem

## 9 Application of Jacobi's Theorem to the Two-body Problem

## 6 Case I: Radial, Transverse, and Orthogonal Components

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7 Case II: Tangential, Normal, and Orthogonal Components