Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
10 Growth Regulators and Chitin Inhibitors

10 Growth Regulators and Chitin Inhibitors

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

56



Orchids



successful biological control agents of P. longispinus in potted Phalaenopsis orchids.

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri was used to control

P. longispinus on the orchids in Germany

(Lindemann and Richter 2007). Pseudococcus

maritimus is becoming serious on the orchids in

India. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri can be tried

against all the arboreal mealybug species.



56.12 General Management

Practices

Heavy infestations of mealybugs, especially on

many plants, require severe control methods

using insecticides. On the extreme side, if a plant

shows signs of decline from infestation, then it is

seriously advised to destroy that plant, as the low

likelihood of rejuvenating that plant may not justify the expense and effort of continued treatments. Also, destruction of a sick plant can be

used to justify the purchase of a new and healthier plant. If the mealybugs persist for long periods of time (e.g., >9 months) even with the usage

of the same insecticidal control method, then it

means probably that the mealybugs might have

developed a resistant population. The best resolution to this is to change the methods and chemicals. The same chemical should not be used more

than three to four times sequentially. After isolating the infested plants, it is suggested to give

them a thorough application of something different from what has been used. For example, if

insecticide is used, then switch on to an oil, soap,

or different insecticide. Resistance is not generally a problem with growth regulators, such as

kinoprene. Generally, an insecticide not labeled

for orchids should never be used. Whenever

using oils, soaps, and insecticides, be thorough,

change formulations frequently, and do not use

less than the minimum concentration of mixture,

or more than that is normally recommended. Too

little of a chemical enhances resistance, while too

high of a concentration may damage the plant.

Unless you are a commercial grower rotating

mixtures of chemicals, do not use chemicals prophylactically, that is, do not routinely use chemicals as a preventative, as it is a waste of chemical



533



(and money!), and such use allows resistant

mealybugs to develop. Finally, keep up the manual removal of all mealybugs, if possible.

Mealybugs are an excellent example of pests that

are easily transported and that create tremendous

problems. Though most orchid keepers in North

America obtain their plants from conscientious

growers in either Canada or the United States,

many persons do purchase plants while traveling,

in exchange from friends, or from questionable

sources. Everyone needs to be aware of the great

potential of inadvertently dispersing species to

new areas, particularly from international origins. There cannot be enough stress placed on

the recommendation that all plants come from

a reputable and quality grower, and are clean

of pests.



References

Beardsley JW (1986) Taxonomic Notes on Pseudococcus

elisae Borchsenius, a Mealybug New to the Hawaiian

Fauna (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proc Hawaiian

Entomol Soc 26:31–34

Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea:

Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic

importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 p

Bronson CH (2009) An orchid mealybug, Pseudococcus

dendrobiorum Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

Pest Alert, Florida Department of Agriculture and

Consumer Service, Florida, pp 1–3

Camporese P, Scaltriti GP (1991) Occurrence of

Pseudococcus microcirculus McKenzie (Homoptera:

Coccoidea) on greenhouse cultivated orchids. Inf

Fitopatol 41(11):59–61

Diaz A, Abreu N, Martin J, Suarez GM (2004) Hemiptera

associated with wild orchids. Fitosanidad 8(2):43–44

Gautam RD, Cooper B (2003) Insecticidal dip of some

tropical cut flowers for quarantine security against

pink Hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus.

Indian J Entomol 65(2):259–263

Gimpel WF Jr, Miller DR (1996) Systematic analysis of

the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus aritimus complex

(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Contrib Entomol Int

2(1):1–163

GiMyon K, Hwan LS, Jong HM, Gwan GH (2002) The

genus Pseudococcus (Westwood) (Sternorrhyncha:

Pseudococcidae) of Korea. J Asia Pac Entomol

5(2):145–154

Johnson PJ (2014) Mealybugs on Orchids. https://www.

aos.org/Default.aspx?id=511



534

Jullien J (2009) What is your diagnosis? [French] Quel est

votre diagnostic? PHM Revue Horticole 510:45–47

Lindemann S, Richter E (2007) Biological control of

Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) in

Phalaenopsis

hybrids.

Nachrichtenbl

Dtsch

Pflanzenschutzdienst 59(4):77–86

Mahalakshmi V, Kalyanasundaram M, Karuppuchamy P,

Kannan M (2010) Biology and management of cotton

mealybug,

Phenacoccus

solenopsis

Tinsley

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Entomon 35(2):73–79



N.K. Meena et al.

Mandal D (2009) Eco-friendly management of

mealybug and wilt in pineapple. J Plant Prot Sci

1(1):40–43

Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of southern Asia. The

Natural History Museum/Southdene SDN. BHD,

London/Kuala Lumpur, 896 p

Yang SL (1997) Insect pests and harmful animals

of Phalaenopsis and their infestation habits.

Report of the Taiwan Sugur Research Institute,

Taiwan, pp 49–68



Medicinal Plants



57



V. Sridhar, L.S. Vinesh, and M. Mani



Mealybugs are injurious to several medicinal and

aromatic plants. Though medicinal and aromatic

plants play an important role in public healthcare

globally, they are affected by several mealybug

species. Incidence of P. solenopsis was observed

on a wide range of medicinal plants. Symptoms

of damage observed on these plants were twisted

and dried leaves and shoot, white fluffy mass on

stems, distorted or bushy shoots, presence of

honeydew, black sooty mould, small deformed

fruits, etc. (Chaudhary 2013). Various species of

mealybugs recorded on medicinal plants and

cropwise options for their management are presented below.



57.1



Aswagandha



Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (=Phenacoccus

insolitus; Centrococcus insolitus) is one of the

key pests on Aswagandha (Withania somnifera)

(Williams 2004). Since Aswagandha is a herbal

medicine, application of synthetic chemicals

leads to accumulation of toxic residues. Hence,

organic pest management including very safe

chemicals is the only option for this crop.

Ravikumar et al. (2008) found the application of

V. Sridhar (*) • L.S. Vinesh • M. Mani

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

e-mail: vsridhar@iihr.ernet.in



farmyard manure (FYM) (12.5 t/ha) + Azophos (2

kg/ha) + neem cake (1000 kg/ha) and need-based

foliar application of neem oil (3 %) to be very

effective in reducing the incidence of mealybug.

Striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)

is another mealybug species, which causes damage on Aswagandha by sucking the sap from the

lower surfaces of leaves and pods during

October–February (Kumar 2007; Ramanna

2009). Maximum population of 18 mealybugs

per plant was recorded during December 2008,

and the infested leaves turned yellowish and

dried up. Natural incidence of the predator

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri was observed on this

mealybug from Karnataka, India. Activity of

predators gradually increased from November

2008 to January 2009 and then declined from

February 2009 onward (Ramanna 2009).

Solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

(Tinsley), was reported on Aswagandha from

Tamil Nadu (Selvaraju and Sakthivel 2011).

Abbas et al. (2010) reported a mean infestation of

41 % by this mealybug on Aswagandha.

Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus

(Williams Granara de Willink), an invasive pest

was recorded in Tamil Nadu, India, in 2008, on

papaya, and has attained the status of a serious

pest on a wide range of host plants, including

Aswagandha (Sakthivel et al. 2012; Selvaraju

and Sakthivel 2011).



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_57



535



V. Sridhar et al.



536



57.1.1 Indian acalypha, Acalypha

indica

Striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) is

a major pest on Acalypha indica. Release of

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri resulted in complete

clearing of these mealybugs within 40 days of

release (Mani 2008). Coccidohystrix insolita also

damages this plant. Spalgis epius is the common

predator recorded on these mealybugs. Other

mealybugs recorded on this plant include

Phenacoccus solenopsis, P. madeirensis and



Paracoccus marginatus from Tamil

(Selvaraju and Sakthivel 2011).



Nadu



57.1.2 Decalepis hamiltonii

Mango mealybug, Rastrococcus iceryoides

(Green), is observed as the major mealybug on

this plant. Release of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

reduced mealybug population from 48.75/plant

in January to 1.26/plant in March (Mani et al.

2011).



Cryptyolaemus feeding on C. insolita on coleus



Rastrococcus ceryoides on Decalepis namiltoni



57.1.3 Coleus



(Sakthivel et al. 2012; Selvaraju and Sakthivel

2011). Phenacoccus solenopsis is reported on S.

nigrum from Tamil Nadu (Vijay and Suresh

2013a, b) and Pakistan (Arif et al. 2009).



Medicinal coleus (Coleus forskohlii) is an important medicinal crop, which contains forskolin in

their roots. Coccidohystrix insolita is the important pest on C. forskohlii, and also on C. aromaticus (Vijay and Suresh 2013a). Release of C.

montrouzieri reduced mealybug population

within 40 days (Mani et al. 2011) on Coleus.



57.1.5 Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum

Paracoccus marginatus in India is reported on

Ocimum sanctum (Tanwar et al. 2010) and P. solenopsis on O. basilicum in Pakistan (Arif et al. 2009).



57.1.4 Black night shade, Solanum

nigrum

57.1.6 Turmeric, Curcuma longa

Solanum nigrum is an important ingredient in traditional Indian medicines. Papaya mealybug,

Paracoccus marginatus, is an invasive pest

recorded on black night shade in Tamil Nadu



Papaya mealybug, P. marginatus, was reported

on turmeric from Tamil Nadu (Selvaraju and

Sakthivel 2011).



57



Medicinal Plants



57.1.7 Neem, Azadirachta indica

In Tamil Nadu, India, Pseudococcus gilbertensis

(Beardsley) (Karthikeyan et al. 1993) and

Paracoccus marginatus (Sakthivel et al. 2012;

Selvaraju and Sakthivel 2011) are known to

attack neem. Maconellicoccus hirsutus was also

reported on this plant by Williams (1986).



57.1.8 Sweet Indian Mallow, Abutilon

indicum

Paracoccus marginatus and Phenacoccus solenopsis were reported on this crop from Tamil

Nadu (Selvaraju and Sakthivel 2011), and P. solenopsis from Pakistan (Arif et al. 2009). Percentage

infestation by P. solenopsis was recorded as 7.6

by Abbas et al. (2010) from Pakistan.



537



57.2



Gulancha, Tinospora

cordifolia



Incidence of spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus

viridis (Newstead) on Tinospora cordifolia

was recorded from Bangalore, India (Saroja

et al. 2013). This pest also attacks other

medicinal crops, viz., Leucas aspera, Mimosa

pudica, and Phyllanthus emblica (Vijay and

Suresh 2013a; Williams 2004). Thick clusters

of cotton-like masses were seen on leaves and

vines. The mealybug population ranged at an

average of 10–12 mealybugs per leaf. The

infested leaves showed symptoms of chlorosis

on leaves and drying. The honeydew excretion

was heavy, which attracted ants, and served as

a medium for sooty mould development

(Saroja et al. 2013).



57.1.9 Indian gooseberry,

Phyllanthus emblica

Spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, is

known to feed on this plant (Ramadasan and

Harikumar 2011; Vijay and Suresh 2013a, b;

Williams 2004). Of late, E. officinalis is grown

widely for export purpose, for its medicinal properties, and is grown in all altitudes, and widespread occurrence was noticed in other parts of

the country. E. officinalis, being grown as rainfed crop under water-stressed conditions, paved

way for the multiplication of insects. Improper

use of insecticides also resulted in increased incidence of mealybugs in E. officinalis. The population is higher in hot climatic conditions coupled

with high relative humidity (Vijay and Suresh

2013a).



57.1.10 Indian Senna, Cassia

angustifolia

Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus, an

invasive mealybug, was recorded as a pest on this

medicinal plant from Tamil Nadu (Selvaraju and

Sakthivel 2011).



Nipaecoccus viridis on T. cordifolia



57.2.1 Lavender

Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski) is known to

damage Lavender (Lavandula spica) in France

(Matile-Ferrero and Germain 2004).

Apart from the various crops mentioned

above, there are so many hosts recorded from different medicinal and aromatic plants for various

mealybugs by different authors. Countries or

places of their records with their host plants are

presented in Table 57.1, along with the names of

authors.



V. Sridhar et al.



538

Table 57.1 Various medicinal and aromatic plants infested with different mealybugs

Mealybugs

Paracoccus marginatus (Williams

Granara de Willink)



Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley)



Country/Medicinal plants, where recorded

India



Achyranthes aspera; Alternanthera sessilis:

Amaranthus viridis; Amaranthus spinosus;

Boerhavia diffusa; Calotropis gigantea; Cassia

angustifolia; Celosia argentea; Cleome

gynandra; Cleome viscose; Crotalaria retusa;

Glinus lotoides; Guettarda speciosa; Jatropha

gossypiifolia; Leucas aspera; Lippia nodiflora;

Physalis minimam; Phyllanthus fraternus;

Phyllanthus amarus; Pulmonaria longifolia;

Solanum xanthocarpum; Tephrosia purpurea;

Trianthema portulacastrum; Tribulus terrestris;

Wedelia chinensis; Canthium inerme;

Phyllanthus niruri; Convolvulus arvensis;

Commelina benghalensis

India

Adhatoda vasica Nees, Alstonia scholaris (L.)

R. Br., Rauvolfia serpentina (L.),Benth. Ex.

Kurz, Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H. Rob,

Bauhinia variegata, Ficus exasperate,

Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum,

Couroupita guianensis, Indigofera tinctoria,

Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus,

Phyllanthus fraternus, Datura stramonium,

Ghana

Wedelia trilobata; Sida sp.

India



References

Selvaraju and Sakthivel

(2011), Tanwar et al.

(2010)



Chellappan et al. (2013)



Cham et al. (2011)

Vennila et al. (2013), Vijay

and Suresh (2013a) and

Vijay and Suresh (2013b),

Nagrare et al. (2009), Saini

et al. (2009)

(continued)



57



Medicinal Plants



539



Table 57.1 (continued)

Mealybugs



Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)



Country/Medicinal plants, where recorded

Trianthema portulacastrum; Commelina

bengalensis; Sida cordifolia; Portulaca

grandiflora; Corchorus trilocularis ;Boerhavia

diffusa; Phyllanthus niruri; Acmella uliginosa;

Abelmoschus ficulneu; Lactuca runcinata;

Digera muricata; Asteracantha longifolia;

Triumfetta rhomboidea; Pentanema indicum;

Aerva lanata; Phyllanthus amarus; Sida acuta;

Phyllanthus reticulatus; Corchorus

trilocularis; Euphorbia geniculata; Portulaca

oleracea; Acalypha india; Solanum trilobatum;

Datura metel; Ocimum basilicum; Ocimum

sanctum; Rhinocanthus nasutus; Andrographis

paniculata; Solanum khasianum; Abrus

precatorius; Artemisia nilagria; Solanum

nigrum;Amaranthus sp.; Gymnea sylvestris;

Vitex leooryxylon; Strilobanthus cilatus;

Acerva lanata; Artemesia nilagiria; Vernonia

cineria; Cassia occidentalis; Cleome viscosa;

Eleusine indica; Coleus forskohli; Coleus

aromaticus; Leucas aspera; Mentha longifolia;

Piper longum; Plumbago zeylanica; Vitex

negundo; Vitex leooryxylon; Tribulus terrestris

India, Gujarat

Hibiscus sabdariffa, Hibiscus rosa- sinensis,

Abutilon indicum, Sida cordata, Abelmoschus

moschatus, Artemisia annua, Tagetus erecta,

Tagetus minuta, Chrysanthemum maximum,

Parthenium hysterophorus, Cestium diumum,

Datura metel, Withania somnifera, Solanum

khasianum, Cestrurn noctumum, Solanum

nigrum, Commiphora wightii, Murraya

koenigii, Plantago indica, Tinospora

cordifolia, Adhatoda vasica, Boerhaavia

diffusa, Merremia turpethum, Rosa damascene,

Vetiveria zizanioides,Cymbopogon

fluxeouuses,Abrus precatorius, Desmodium

gangeticum,Cyamopsis tetragonopoloba,

Achyranthes aspera,Mimosa pudica,Crataeva

nurvala, Plumbago zeylanica,Kicloxia incana,

Kicloxia ossisima, Lantana camera,Gymnema

syltvestre

Pakistan

Achyranthes aspera; Amaranthus viridis;

Phyllanthus niruri; Mentha longifolia;

Ocimum basilicum; Portulaca oleracea;

Datura metel; Solanum nigrum

India

Clerodendron infortunatum; Erythrina

variegate; Eugenia jambolana; Glyricidia

sepium; Hibiscus acetosella; Hibiscus

cannabinus; Hibiscus sabdariffa; Mikania

cordata; Phyllanthus niruri; Portulaca

oleracea; Portulaca quadrifida; Spondias

dulcis; Zizyphus mauritiana



References



Chaudhary (2013)



Arif et al.(2009)



Singh and Ghosh (1970);

Ghose (1972), Fletcher

(1919); Mani (1986); Rao

et al. (1984); Babu and

Azam (1987); Ghose

(1961); Dutt et al. (1951);

Balikai (1999); Balikai and

Bagali (2000)

(continued)



V. Sridhar et al.



540

Table 57.1 (continued)

Mealybugs

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell)

Planococcus minor (Maskell)

Planococcus citri (Risso)

Paraputo odontomachi (Takahshi)



Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green)

Coccidohystrix insolita (Green)



Nipaecoccus sp., Paracoccus sp.,

and Phenacoccus sp.

Nipaecoccus viridis

Rhizoecus dianthi (Green)

Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)



Rastrococcus iceryoides infested

Leucas aspera



Country/Medicinal plants, where recorded

India

Ocimum sanctum

Ocimum sanctum

Ocimum sanctum

India, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore and

Vietnam

Garcinia

India

Leucas aspera

India

Solanum khasianum

Coleus aromaticus

Spain

Lippia alba, L. geminate, Ocimum sanctum

India

Ocimum sanctum

Withania somnifera

India

Leucas aspera, Mimosa pudica, and

Phyllanthus emblica

India

Nerium oleander

Asia

Embelica officinalis and Leucas aspera

Abrus precatorius



Nipaecoccus viridis

infested Phyllanthus emblica



References

Vijay and Suresh (2013b)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams 2004



Vijay and Suresh(2013b)

Vijay and Suresh (2013b)



Martinez et al. (2010)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Vijay and Suresh (2013a)



Varshney (1992), Ben-Dov

(1994), Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Ferrisia virgata on Vinca rosea



57



Medicinal Plants



References

Abbas G, Arif MJ, Ashfaq M, Aslam M, Saeed S (2010)

Host plants, distribution and overwintering of cotton

mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis); Hemiptera:

Pseudococcidae. Int J Agric Biol 12:421–425

Arif MI, Rafiq M, Ghaffar A (2009) Host plants of cotton

mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace

to cotton agro ecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. Int

J Agric Biol 11:163–167

Babu TR, Azam KM (1987) Studies on biology, host spectrum and seasonal population fluctuation of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on grapevine.

Indian J Hortic 44:284–288

Balikai RA (1999) New record of alternate host plants of

grape mealy bug. Insect Environ 5:81

Balikai RA, Bagali AN (2000) Population density of

mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus on ber (Zizyphus

mauritiana) and economic losses. Agric Sci Dig

20:62–63

Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea:

Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic

importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 p

Cham D, Davis H, Obeng-Ofori D, Owusu E (2011) Host

Range of the Newly Invasive Mealy bug Species

Paracocccus marginatus Williams and Granara De

Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Two

Ecological Zones of Ghana. Res Zool 1:1–7

Chaudhary V (2013) Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley on medicinal and aromatic plants in

cotton agroecosystem of Gujarat. Insect Environ

18(3/4):92–94

Chellappan M, Lawrence L, Indhu P, Cherian T, Anitha S,

Jimcymaria T (2013) Host range and distribution pattern of papaya mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus

Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera :

Pseudococcidae) on selected Euphorbiaceae hosts in

Kerala. J Trop Agric 51(1–2):51–59

Dutt N, Mukerjee PK, Sen Gupta N (1951) Preliminary

observations on the incidence of Phenacoccus hirsutus Green and its effect on the growth of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var altissima hort. Indian J Agric Sci

21:231–237

Fletcher TB (1919) Report of the Imperial Entomologist.

Scientific Report of Agricultural Research Institute,

Pusa for 1918–19, pp. 86–103.

Ghose SK (1961) Studies of some coccids (Coccoidea:

Hemiptera) of economic importance in West Bengal,

India. Indian Agric 5:57–78

Ghose SK (1972) Biology of the mealybug,

Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Indian Agric 16:323–332

Karthikeyan K, Rangarajan AV, Velusamy R (1993) Major

pests of neem and their management in southern Tamil

Nadu. Abstr World Neem Conf Feb. 24–28, Bangalore,

India, Indian Society of Tobacco Science,

Rajahmundry, India. pp.25



541

Kumar HR (2007) Survey of pests of medicinal plants

with special reference to biology and management of

Epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata

Fabricius

(Coleoptera:

Coccinellidae)

on

Ashwagandha. M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci.,

Dharwad (India).

Mani M (1986) Distribution, bioecology and management

of grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

with special reference to its natural enemies. Ph.

D. Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Bangalore (India)

Mani M (2008) Record of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae:

Homoptera) of ornamentals in India. J Insect Sci

21:305–306

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Shivaraju C (2011)

Biological suppression of major mealy bug species on

horticultural crops in India. J Hortic Sci 6:85–100

Martinez M, de Los A, Blanco E (2010) Mealybug

(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated to medicinal plants

[Spanish]. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 25(1):67–68

Matile-Ferrero D, Germain JF (2004) Eriococcus munroi

(Boratynski), new pest on Lavandin in France, and

note on two mealybugs new for France (Hemiptera,

Eriococcidae and Pseudococcidae) [French]. Bull Soc

Entomol France 109(2):191–192

Nagrare VS, Kranthi S, Biradar VK, Zade NN, Sangode V,

Kakde G, Shukla M, Shirave D, Khadi BM, Kranthi

KR (2009) Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybugs species, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton in India. Bull

Entomol Res 1:1–5

Ramadasan K, Harikumar KB (2011) Phyllanthus

Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal

Applications, CRC Press, − Health & Fitness – 393p

Ramanna D (2009) Investigations on pests of madicinal

plants and their management with special reference to

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (Linn.). Thesis

submitted to University of Agricultural Sciences,

Dharwad for M. Sc. (Ag) in Ag. Entomology,88p.

Rao PRM, Kanakaraju A, Appa Rao RV, Azam KM (1984)

New record of predators on mealy bug of mesta. Qutly

News lett Pl Prote Comm 27:12

Ravikumar A, Rajendran R, Chinniah C, Irulandi S, Pandi

R (2008) Evaluation of certain organic nutrient sources

against mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolitus (Green.)

and the spotted leaf beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fab. on Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera Dunal.

J Pestic 1:28–31

Saini RK, Pala Ram, Sharma SS, Rohilla HR (2009)

Mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) and its

survival in cotton ecosystem in Haryana. Proc Nation

Symp. Bt Cotton: Opportunities Prospects, Cent Inst

Cot Res, Nagpur, p102.

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M,

Srinivasan T (2012) Host plants of invasive papaya.

Madras Agric J 99:615–619

Saroja S, Kamala Jayanthi PD, Verghese A, Ranganath

HR, Mani M (2013) Incidence of spherical mealybug

Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) on medicinal plant

Tinospora cardifolia. Insect Environ 19:168–170



542

Selvaraju NG, Sakthivel N (2011) Host plants of papaya

mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and

Granara de Willink.) in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka J Agric

Sci 24(4):567–569

Singh MP, Ghosh SN (1970) Studies on Maconellicoccus

hirsutus causing ‘bunchy top’ in mesta. Indian J Sci

Ind 4:99–105

Tanwar RK, Jeyakumar P, Vennila S (2010) Papaya

mealybug and its management strategies, Technical

bulletin 22. National Centre for Integrated Pest

Management, New Delhi, 22 p

Varshney RK (1992) A check list of the scale insects and

mealybugs of South Asia. Part- 1. Rec Zool Surv India

Occ Paper 139:1–152

Vennila S, Prasad YG, Prabhakar M, Agarwal M, Sreedevi

G, Bambawale OM (2013) Weed hosts of cotton mealy



V. Sridhar et al.

bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera:

Pseudococcidoae). J Environ Biol 34:153–158

Vijay S, Suresh S (2013a) Coccid pests of flower and

medicinal crops in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka J Agric Sci

26:46–53

Vijay S, Suresh S (2013b) Host plants of Phenacoccus

spp. complex in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka J Agric Sci

26:147–151

Williams DJ (1986) The identity and distribution of

Maconellicoccus Ezat (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

in Africa. Bull Entomol Res 76:621–624

Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of south Asia. The Natural

History Museum/Southdene SDN, BHD, London/

Kuala Lumpur, 896 p



58



Plantation Crops

Chandrika Mohan, P. Rajan,

and A. Josephrajkumar



The plantation crops viz., coconut, arecanut,

cocoa and tea are traditionally grown in India.

The products and by-products of these crops

form vital inputs for several industries and sustain livelihood for many million farm families.

Infestation by insects form a crucial limiting

factor in attaining the production potential of

plantation crops. Among the sucking pest complex,

mealy bugs, being polyphagous constitute a key

biotic stress that reduce plantation crop yield significantly. Fifty-seven species of Pseudococcids

have been recorded on palms (Table 58.1). Half

of the Palmivorous species belong to the genera

Dysmicoccus, Planococcus, Pseudococcus and

Rhizoecus. Among the wide array of mealy bug

species, Dysmicoccus has the most palmivorous

species (eight) including three species known

only from palms. The most commonly reported

mealy bug pest of palms are highly polyphagous

species, distributed worldwide and are primarily

known as pests of crops other than palms.

Classical examples include Dysmicoccus brevipes, Nipaecoccus nipae and Pseudococcus

longispinus. Few mealybug species namely

Dysmicoccus hambletoni, Dysmicoccus cocotis,

Dysmicoccus finitimus, Neosimmondsia hirsuta,



C. Mohan (*) • P. Rajan • A. Josephrajkumar

ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute,

Kayamkulam, 690 533 Alappuzha district,

Kerala, India

e-mail: cmcpcri@gmail.com



Palmicultor palmarum, Phenacoccus sakai,

Planococcoides anaboranae, Pseudococcus portiludovici, Tylococcus malaccensis, Crinitococcus

palmae and Cyperia angolica are almost

restricted to palms.



58.1



Coconut



In coconut, nine important species of mealybugs

are reported from India viz. Palmicultor palmarum Ehron. Dysmicoccus cocotis Maskell,

Pseudococcus longispinus Targ. Pseudococcus

cryptus, Planococcus lilacinus, Pseudococcus

microadonidam, Nipaecoccus nipae Maskell,

Dysmicoccus finitimus and Rhizoecus sp. In

Guam, Coccidohstrix insolita was observed

infesting coconut palm (Aubrey Moore et al. 2014).

Ferrisia virgata is also known to infest coconut

( http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/

Datasheet.aspx?dsid=23981).



58.1.1 Palmicultor palmarum

Palmicultor palmarum infests young seedlings

especially when they are closely spaced or in

nurseries and greenhouses. It does little damage

to mature coconut palms but sometimes kills

seedlings. It has been observed in dense aggregations on leaf axils especially on spindle/spear

leaves and at the base of spear leaves. Red ants



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_58



543



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

10 Growth Regulators and Chitin Inhibitors

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×