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6 Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius)

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M. Mani et al.



486



Mealybugs on elephant foot yam



54.7



Yam Bean



Yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus (L) Urban), otherwise called potato bean, is grown for its starchy

root. The stripped mealybug Ferrisia virgata

(Cockerell) infestation was found infesting on

yam bean seed crop in Orissa State, India. At the

time of infestation, the crop was in fruiting stage.

The plants were full of immature young pods. The

initial infestation was found on the lower side of

the bottom leaves. Soon, it was seen on growing

points and young immature pods. Initially, the

infested parts were full of white mealy substances.

Later, the apical meristem and other growing parts

turned black. The young pods were curled inward

and blackened. The other infested parts also

slowly blackened and dried. Dry weather due to

low rainfall, high relative humidity followed by

low relative humidity, and high variation in maximum and minimum temperatures (diurnal variation) during the year 2011 might be responsible

for the outbreak of F. virgata on yam bean.

(Nedunchezhiyan et al. 2014).



Yam bean infested with Ferrisia virgata



Lower number of infested pods per plant,

higher number of uninfested pods/plant, seeds/

pod, 100-seed weight, seed yield/plant, and

seed yield (kg/ha) were observed with the

application of two sprayings of acephate

0.03 % (spray fluid 250 L/ha) (Nedunchezhiyan

et al. 2014).



54



487



Tuber Crops



54.8



Enset



Presently, more than 12 million people in Ethiopia

depend on enset as a source of food. Its production is strongly hampered by the enset root

mealybug Cataenococcus ensete (Williams and

Matile-Ferrero) in Ethiopia (Addis et al. 2008).

Enset plants infested with mealybugs have a

retarded growth and dried lateral leaves. The

insects attack all plant age groups, but symptoms

are more severe on 2-to-4 years old enset plants.

Enset root mealybugs are found on roots and

corms. Early infestations by root mealybugs can

be easily overlooked, because they live underground, and no visual symptoms will be observed

on the plant parts above the ground, until extensive damage has been made to the roots and corm

(Hara et al. 2001). However, during periods of

extreme drought, the mealybugs tend to move

toward the corm when some of the roots drought.

The dispersal mechanism of enset root mealybugs is facilitated by the movement of infested

suckers, farm implements during cultivation,

repeated transplanting operations, and association with ants. The population density of the

mealybugs was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on



the roots than the corms. Enset root mealybugs

were found up to a soil depth of 60 cm and up to

80 cm from the corm. In addition, about 90 % of

the mealybugs were found within a 60 cm radius

from the plant (Addis, 2008).



54.8.1 Management

Repeated ploughing and sanitation of enset fields

has also been reported as a control option for

reducing enset root mealybug population numbers (Tadesse et al. 2003). Application of farmyard manure (20 kg plant-1 year-1) resulted in

vigorously growing plants with lower population

numbers of enset root mealybugs (Anonymous

2002). Among the insecticides tested, chloropyrifos and diazinon have shown promising results

for its control and eradication (Tadesse 2006).

Soil drenching with diazinon 60 % EC and chlorpyrifos 48 % EC caused at least 98 % mortality,

both under field and greenhouse conditions

(Tadesse et al. 2010). Still, cost-effective and

user-friendly control measures for the enset root

mealybug have not yet been developed (Tadesse

2006) (Table 54.3).



Table 54.3 List of mealybugs recorded on tuber crops other than cassava

Crop and Mealybug

species

Country

Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato)

Guam

Ferrisia virgata

(Cockerell)

Bangladesh

Geococcus coffeae

(Green)

Maconellicoccus

hirsutus (Green)

Phenacoccus

solenosis (Tinsley)



Reference



India



IIse Schreiner (2000)

http://www.aappbckv.org/journal/archive/6%20Sudden%

20outbreak% 20of% 20mealybug.pdf

David and Ananthakrishnan (2004)



USA



manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/pdf/pest-topics/InsectPHMHosts.pdf



Ethiopia



http://www.ppse.org.et/index.php?option=com_content&view=article

&id=40:selonopsis-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenosis-tinsleyhompotera-pseudococcidae-a-new-threat-to-cotton-production-inethiopia&catid=7:-news&Itemid=3

(continued)



488



M. Mani et al.



Table 54.3 (continued)

Crop and Mealybug

species

Paracoccus

marginatus (Williams

and Granara de

Willink)



Country

Texas

Florida

Palau

Ghana

Africa



Planococcus kenyae

(LePelley)

Trinidad

Planococcus minor

(Maskell

Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Schott))

The United

Maconellicoccus

States

hirsutus (Green)

Taro -Colocasia esculenta

Dysmicoccus brevipes –

(Cockerell)

The Philippines

Dysmicoccus

neobreipes

(Beardsley)



Ferrisia virgata

(Cockerell)



Geococcus coffeae

(Green)

Trinidad

Maconellicoccus

hirsutus (Green)

The United

States

Kerala

Paracoccus

marginatus (Williams

and Granara de

Willink)

The United

Planococcus minor

States

(Maskell)

Trinidad

India

The United

Pseudococcus

States

longispinus (Targioni

Tozzetti)

Africa

India, Indonesia

Rasrococcus invadens –

(Williams)

India

Rhizoecus

amorphophalli

(Betrem)

Yam (Dioscorea)

The United

Maconellicoccus

States

hirsutus (Green)

Nigeria,West

Planococcus

Indies

furcisetosus (Mamet)



Reference

Tarah Damask (http://homeguides.sfgate.com/causes-white-bumpssweet-potato-leaves-42692.html)

Walker et al. (2003)

Pest Alert ( 2003)

Cham et al. (2011)

http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/94/pests

Francis et al. (2012)



manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/pdf/pest-topics/InsectPHMHosts.pdf



Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)



http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=23981

Ben-Dov (1994)

http://www.ncipmc.org/phmb/elson.cen.umontreal.ca/revue/

phyto/1999/v80/n2/706185ar.pdf

manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/pdf/pest-topics/InsectPHMHosts.pdf

Mani Chellappan et al. (2013)



http://www.invasive.org/caps/host.cfm?host=5369

Francis et al. (2012)

Ben-Dov (1994);Williams (2004)

http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=45079

http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/94/pests

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)



manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/pdf/pest-topics/InsectPHMHosts.pdf

Ben-Dov (1994)

(continued)



54



489



Tuber Crops



Table 54.3 (continued)

Crop and Mealybug

species

Planococcus halli

(Ezzat and

McConnell)



Country

Africa and the

West Indies

Florida

Trinidad



Reference

Cox and Wetton (1988)



https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in947

Francis et al. (2012)

Planococcus minor

(Maskell)

http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/94/pests

Africa

Planococcus kenyae

(Le Pelley)

Ibadan, Nigeria

Akinlosotu (1984)

Planococcus halli

(Ezzat and

McConnell)

Solomon islands

Ben-Dov (1994)

Planococcus

dioscoreae (Williams)

Ben-Dov (1994);Williams (2004)

Rasrococcus invadens Malaysia

(Williams)

India

Williams (2004)

Rhizoecus

amorphophalli

(Betrem)

Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius)

Kerala, India

Mani Chellappan et al. (2013)

Paracoccus

marginatus (Williams

and Granara de

Willink)

Williams (2004)

Pseudococcus cryptus India

(Hempel)

India

Williams (2004)

Rasrococcus

iceryoides (Green)

Enset (Ensete ventricosum)

Addis et al. (2008)

Cataenococcus ensete Ethiopia

(Williams and

Matile-Ferrer)



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Ornamental Plants



55



V. Sridhar, L.S. Vinesh, and M. Mani



Mealybugs are worldwide pests of ornamental

plants grown indoors and outdoors. Both greenhouse and open cultivated grown ornamentals are

commonly attacked by different mealybugs. In

recent years, mealy bugs have become an increasing

threat to the cultivation of several ornamentals in

India (Jhansi Rani 2001; Mani and Krishnamoorthy

2003). Mealybug infestation reduces vigour and

growth of the foliage which reduces the beauty of

ornamental plant and affects marketability (Hamlen

1975). Mealybugs are a quarantine problem on

exported foliage and flowers. Mealybugs cost growers and retailers millions of dollars per year in control costs and crop damage (Gullan and Kosztarab

1997). An exhaustive list of mealybugs on various

ornamentals from different parts of the world has

been documented by Mattiuz et al. (2006), Cham

et al. (2011) and Arif et al. (2009) (Table 55.1).



55.1



Hibiscus



The greatest mealybug host diversity is found in

Hibiscus spp. Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green),

Coccidohystrix insolita (Green), Planococcus

V. Sridhar (*) • L.S. Vinesh • M. Mani

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

e-mail: vsridhar@iihr.ernet.in



citri (Risso), Phenacoccus solani Tinsley and

Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de

Willink are some of the important mealybugs

recorded on this crop.



55.1.1 Maconellicoccus hirsutus

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a preferred and economically important host of M. hirsutus also

popularly known as pink hibiscus mealybug

(PHMB), and is considered as a prolific pest that

injects a toxin at the point of feeding, causing

severe distortion of leaves and stunted growth

(Vitullo et al. 2009). Severe outbreak of M. hirsutus was noticed on ornamentals around Cairo in

1920. Biological control is the best option for the

suppression of the pink hibiscus mealybug. The

parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi and

Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Musant are the best-known natural enemies to keep PHMB under check. Anagyrus

kamali has been reported to be an outstanding

natural enemy in Egypt, Hawaii, Caribbean

islands and Florida, and is able to dramatically

suppress pink hibiscus mealybug populations.

The introduction of C. montrouzieri was facilitated by India into Caribbean islands to control

M. hirsutus on several ornamental plants including hibiscus (Gautam 2003).



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_55



495



Heliococcus danzigae

Bazarov

Hypogeococcus

barbarae Rau

Hypogeococcus

pungens Granara de

Willink



Geococcus coffeae

Green



Ferrisia virgata

(Cockerell)



Mealybug species

Chaetococcus

bambusae (Maskell)

Delottococcus

confusus (De Lotto)

Dysmicoccus boninsis

(Kuwana)

Dysmicoccus

mackenziei Beardsley

Exallomochlus

hispidus (Morrison)

Ferrisia virgata

(Cockerell)



http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=23981

Sakthivel et al. (2012)

Vijay and Suresh (2013)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Neotropical region

Malaysia

Philippines

India

India



India

India



India

India



India



India

Malaysia

Palaearctic region



Heliconia



Hibiscus



Ornamentals

Bauhinia purpurea

Sida rhombifolia

Croton, Dracaena

Ixora

Acalypha bicolor, Codiaeum

variegatum & Nerium

Croton, Dracaena

Durantha

Acalypha bicolor

Hibiscus, Crotons &

Gladiolus



New York

Puerto Rico, Caribbean

and Mexico



Aster



Cacti



Nerium, Canna

Coleus

Canna

Rose



Lapis (1970)

Mani (2008)

Kumar and Sheela (2002)

http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=23981

Williams (2004)

Vijay and Suresh (2013); Ben-Dov (1994); Suresh and Mohanasundaram (1996)







Canna



Helmuth et al. (2010)



Ben-Dov (1994)



Williams (2004)



Ben-Dov (1994)



Ben-Dov (1994)



Passarinho et al. (2006); Leandro et al. (2006)



Portugal



Protea, Leucospermum



Reference

Hodges and Hodges (2004)



Region/country

Florida



Host plant

Ornamental bamboo



Table 55.1 List of some mealybugs recorded on different ornamental plants



496

V. Sridhar et al.



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