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9 General Management of Mealybugs in Vegetables

9 General Management of Mealybugs in Vegetables

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464



A. Krishnamoorthy and M. Mani



Table 53.4 List of mealybug occurring on different vegetable crops

Mealybug species

Chlorozococcus pusillus

(De Lotto)

Chlorozococcus pusillus

(De Lotto)

Coccidohystrix insolita

(Green)

Dysmicoccus boninsis

(Kuwana)

Dysmicoccus brevipes

(Cockerell)



Dysmicoccus neobreipes

Beardsley

Dysmicoccus cucurbitae sp.

n.

Dysmicoccus lepelleyi

(Betrem)

Dysmicoccus grassii

(Leonardi)

Dysmicoccus lepelleyi

(Betrem)

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes

Beardsley

Eupersia gerbace Danziga

Ferrisia consobrina

Williams &Watson



Ferrisia virgata (Ckll)



Formicoccus (Panoccoides)

robustus Ezzat &

McConnell comb

Geococcus coffeae Green



Vegetables

Potato



Region/Country

Kenya, Uganda



Reference

Ben-Dov (1994)



Sweet potato



Kenya, Uganda



Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato



Pakistan



Williams (2004)



Sweet potato







Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato



Africa



Capsicum

Artocarpa utilis

Pumpkin



India









http://www.infonet-biovision.org/

default/ct/94/pests

Khan (1984)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Pumpkin



India



Khan (1984)



Artocarpus edulis







Williams (2004)



Chow chow



Neotropical region



Ben-Dov (1994)



Artocarpus edulis



Asia



Williams (2004)



Onion



Philippines



Williams (2004)



Onion

Potato



Korea, Mongolia

Australian, Ethiopian,

Neotropical & Pacific

region







Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



cowpea







Okra, sweet potato,

pumpkin







Dolichos, Coccinia

indica

Pumpkin







Ben-Dov (1994)

http://www.plantwise.org/

KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=23981

http://www.plantwise.org/

KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=23981

http://www.plantwise.org/

KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=23981

http://www.plantwise.org/

KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.

aspx?dsid=23981

Ben-Dov (1994)



Pakistan



Williams (2004)



Chillies

Sweet potato

potato





India





Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Phaseolus vulgaris

Cucurbita maxima

Pumpkin, Cucurbita

pepo

Sweet potato







(continued)



53



465



Vegetable Crops



Table 53.4 (continued)

Mealybug species

Heliococcus phaseoli

(Laing)

Maconellicoccus hirsutus

(Green)



Macrocepicoccus loranthi

Morrison

Nipaecoccus nipae

(Maskell)

Nipaecoccus viridis

(Newstead)

Paracoccus ferrisi Ezzat &

McConnel

Paracoccus burnerae

(Brain)

Paracoccus marginatus

Williams and Granara de

Willink



Phenacoccus madeirensis

Green

Phenacoccus parvus

Morrision



Vegetables

Phaseolus



Region/Country

Sierra Leone



Reference

Ben-Dov (1994)



Phaseolus vulgaris,

Brassica oleracea,

Pumpkin, Squash,

Tomato

Sweet potato

Dolichos

Artocarpus altilis

Artocarpus communis



USA







Bangladesh



Caribbean



Drumstick



Guyana





Ben-Dov (1994)

Etienne et al (1998)

(manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/

pdf/pest-topics/InsectPHMHosts.

pdf)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato



Bangladesh



Begum and Begum (1995)



Potato



India



Chillies



Mexico



David and Ananthakrishnan

(2004); Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato



Ethiopian region



Ben-Dov (1994)



Luffa cylindrical

Curcubita sp.



Ghana

Ghana

Palau

India

India

India

India

USA

Florida

Maldives

India





Ethiopian, neotropical

& Pacific region

Ethiopian, neotropical

& Pacific region

India



Cham et al. (2011)

Cham et al. (2011)

Muniappan et al. (2006)

Mani Chellappan (2011)

Mani Chellappan (2011)

Tanwar et al. (2010)

Mani Chellappan (2011)





Williams (2004)



Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Several vegetables



Pakistan



Arif et al. (2009)



Potatoes stored on a

farm



Oklahoma



Anonymous (1979)



Benincasa hispida

Dolichos lablab

Achyranthus aspera

Amaranthus

Phaseolus vulgaris

Cucumis melo

Brassica oleracea

Peas

Potato

Amaranthus

potato

Amaranthus



Phenacoccus pumilus

Kritshenko

Phenacoccus solenopsis

Tinsley

Phenacoccus solani Ferris



Chillies

Amaranthus



Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



(continued)



A. Krishnamoorthy and M. Mani



466

Table 53.4 (continued)

Mealybug species

Planococcus citri (Risso)



Planococcus kraunhiae

(Kuwana)

Planococcus lilacinus

Cockerell

Planococcus minor

(Maskell)



Pseudococcus

calceolarieae (Maskell)

Pseudococcus elisae

Borchsenius

Pseudococcus

jackbeardsley Gimpel and

Miller

Pseudococcus longispinus

(Targioni Tozzetti)



Pseudococcus trukensis

Bearsley

Pseudococcus viburni

(Signoret)



Rasrococcus iceryoides

(Green)

Vryburgia brevicruris

(McKenzie)



Vegetables

Brassia oleracea,

Cucumus melo,

pumpkin

Faba bean & Broad

bean

Brassica oleracea



Region/Country





Reference

Ben-Dov (1994); Williams (2004)







Narai and Murai (2002)



India



Potato

Amaranthus

Sweet potato

Dioscorea sp.

Colocasia sp.

Pumpkin



Thailand

Trinidad

Trinidad

Trinidad

Trinidad

India



Cucumber, lettuce,

pepper, pumpkin, and

tomato, asparagus,

beans, beets, cabbage

Brassica oleracea,

Pumpkin, Chow

chow, Chillies

Sweet potato

Potato



Florida



David and Ananthakrishnan

(2004); Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Francis et al. (2012)

Francis et al. (2012)

Francis et al. (2012)

Francis et al. (2012)

Anand Persad and Ayub khan

(2006)

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/

creatures/orn/mealybug/

mealybug.htm







Ben-Dov (1994)



Sri Lanka





Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (1988)



Chillies

Potato, Ivory gourd



Pacific region and

Southern Asia

Brunei

Hawaii



Several Vegetables

Potato

Potato

Chillies

Bread fruit



Many countries

Israel









Gillani et al. (2009)

Wysoki et al. (1977)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato

Potato

Beet root, pumpkin,

Chow chow

Dolichos

Pumpkin

Potato



UK

South America





Copland et al. (1993)

Charles (2011)

Ben-Dov (1994)





India

Australia, California,

Israel

Australia, California

& Israel



Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Potato



Phaseolus vulgaris



Williams (1988)

Beardsley (1986)



Ben-Dov (1994)



53



Vegetable Crops



53.10 Mechanical and Cultural

Control

The practices include removal of heavily infested

shoots and fruits and destroying them, proper

sanitation in polyhouses and in the field, use of

clean planting materials will help in preventing

the mealybug infestations and removal of alternate host as well as weed plants in and surrounding areas.



53.11 Biological Control

Biological control of mealybugs is a promising,

most effective long term solution and alternative

to chemical control in commercial green house

crops to mealybug infestations to a large extent

and also to limited scale in the fields. A number

of natural enemies, including several parasitoids

and predators are known to attack mealybugs

even when their population densities is low and

they continue to attack the mealybugs, keeping

their population at low level or wipe out the

mealybug population. Biological control by

release of predators has been proved very successful. The important predators of mealybug

nymphs are coccinellid beetles such as

Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Scymnus coccivora

and Nephus regularis. Among predators,

Australian ladybird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been used successfully to reduce

large populations of mealybugs in India. It is

considered as one of the important predator of

many mealybug species occurring in greenhouses

and interior landscapes. The other biocontrol

agents reported to be found effective against

mealybugs

are

Anagyrus

pseudococci,

Leptomastix dactylopii, Coccidoxynoides perminutus for Planococcus citri and Anagyrus

kamali for Maconellicoccus hirsutus. The microbial agents Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria

bassiana are also effective during high humid

months in reducing the populations of mealybugs. Identity of mealybugs and selection of correct biocontrol agents play a major role in

suppressing the mealybugs.



467



53.12 Chemical Control

Chemical insecticides cannot be out rightly

rejected from mealybug pest control schedule.

But selection of insecticides, which are comparatively safe to the insect natural enemies, should

be taken into consideration. Mealybug management includes locating the ant colonies and

destroying them with drenching of chlorpyriphos

20 EC @ 2.5 ml/l or dusting with malathion; spot

treatment with any recommended insecticides

such as chlorpyriphos 0.05 % or carbaryl 0.05 %

or fenitrothion 0.05 %; spraying with insecticidal

soap or horticultural oil or fish oil resin soap @ 2

ml/l of water; soil drenching with imidacloprid

200 SL through drip irrigation @ 400 ml/ac;

foliar spray with IGR buprofezin @1.25 g 1 g/l

after 30 days of soil drenching; when parasitized

mealybugs or predators are present, spraying

with dichlorvos @ 2 ml/l, dimethoate @ 2 ml/l,

chlorpyiphos @ 2 ml/l, imidacloprid @ 0.75 ml/l

at 15 days interval and; use of dichlorvos (0.2 %)

in combination with fish oil rosin soap (25 g/l) as

spray.



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(2012) Molecular typing of mealybug Phenacoccus

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Thursday, 12 Nov 2009. Available on-line at http://



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w w w. h i n d u . c o m / s e t a / 2 0 0 9 / 1 1 / 1 2 / s t o ries/2009111250181400.htm

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54



Tuber Crops

M. Mani, M. Kalyanasundaram, C.A. Jayaprakas,

E.R. Harish, R.S. Sreerag, and M. Nedunchezhiyan



Mealybugs are injurious to tuber crops, mainly

cassava (Manihot esculenta), and to some extent

to taro (Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea

spp.), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Lam.), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), elephant foot

yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius), yam bean

(Pachyrrhizus erosus), and enset (Ensete

ventricosum).



54.1



Cassava



54.1.1 Species

Mealybugs are highly injurious in South America,

Africa, India, Hawaii, Philippines, and Thailand

(Table 54.1). According to Williams (1978), 10

species of mealybugs are known in the world on



M. Mani (*)

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

e-mail: mmani1949@yahoo.co.in

M. Kalyanasundaram

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,

Coimbatore 3, India

C.A. Jayaprakas • E.R. Harish • R.S. Sreerag

Central Tuber crops research Institute,

Trivandrum 17, India

M. Nedunchezhiyan

Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research

Institute, Dumuduma, Bhubaneswar 751 019, India



cassava, and 6 species of mealybugs known on

cassava in West Africa. Mealybugs are most injurious in South America. In the 1970s, the cassava

mealybug appeared and threatened to decimate

the African cassava industry (Greathead 1978).

An account of mealybugs attacking cassava in

Neotropics and Africa is given by Cox and

Williams (1981). Paracoccus marginatus

(Williams and Granara de Willink) invaded several countries and caused severe damage to cassava (tapioca), particularly in India (Shylesha

et al. 2011). Stictococcus vayssierei (Richard

[Homoptera: Stictococcidae]), wrongly called as

cassava root mealybug, is really cassava root scale

(http://www.cabi.org/iscbeta/datasheet/118988).

According to Parsa et al. (2012), a total of 24 species of mealybugs are known to attack Manihot

esculenta. A list of mealybug species reported on

cassava in different regions is given in table.

Among the mealybug species, Phenacoccus

manihoti, Phenacoccus herreni, and Paracoccus

marginatus are reported to cause heavy loss to the

cassava industry.



54.1.2 Phenacoccus manihoti

The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is one of the most

severe pests of cassava in the world. Phenacoccus

manihoti, the neotropical species (South

America), was accidentally introduced to Africa



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_54



471



472



M. Mani et al.



Table 54.1 List of mealybug species reported on cassava in different regions

Mealybug species

Dysmicoccus bispinosus

(Beardsley)

Dysmicoccus brevipes

(Cockerell)

Ferrisia consobrina (Williams

and Watson)

Ferrisia tereani (Williams and

Granara de Wilink)

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)



Maconellicoccus hirsutus

(Green)

Paracoccus marginatus

(Williams and Granara de

Willink)



Phenacoccus gossypii (Tinsley)

Phenacoccus herreni (Cox and

Williams)



Phenacoccus madeirensis

(Green)

Phenacoccus manihoti

(Matile-Ferrero)



Country/Region

Neotropical region



Reference

Ben-Dov (1994)







Ben-Dov (1994)







Ben-Dov (1994)



Argentina



Ben-Dov (1994)



India

Congo

Colombia

The United States



Williams (2004)

Matile-Ferrero (1978)

Castillo and Bellotti (1990)

manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/pdf/pest-topics/

InsectPHMHosts.pdf

Cham et al. (2011)

Mani Chellappan (2011)

Galanihe et al. (2010)

Muniappan et al.(2006)

Pantoja et al. (2007)

Miller and Miller (2002)

Muniappan et al. (2008)

Mastoi et al. (2011)

Saengyotl and Burikam (2011)

Milena Varela et al (1982)

Dorn et al.(2003a)

Calatayud et al. (2001)

Castillo and Bellotti (1990)

Bento et al. (2000)

Castillo and Bellotti (1990)

Borowka et al (1997)

Castillo and Bellotti (1990)

Shylesha and Sunil Joshi (2012)

Mtambo (1995)

Chakupurakal et al. (1994)

Giga (1994)

Cudjoe et al. (1992)

Reyd and le Ru (1992)

Schulthess et al. (1991)

James (1987)

Boussienguet et al. (1991)

Hennessey et al. (1990)

Lohr et al (1990)



Ghana

India

Sri Lanka

Palau

Puerto Rico

Florida

Indonesia

Malaysia

Thailand

Colombia

Latin America

South America

Colombia

Northeastern Brazil

Colombia

Malawi

Colombia

India

Tanzania

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Ghana

Congo

Ibadan, Nigeria

Sierra Leone

Gabon

Zaire

Bolivia, Brazil, and

Paraguay

Ivory Coast

Zambia

Malawi

Colombia

Uganda

Hawaii



Minko and Bekon (2005)

Chakupurakal et al. (1996))

Borowka et al. (1997)

Castillo and Bellotti (1990)

Nweke (2010)

Beardsley (1978)

(continued)



54



Tuber Crops



473



Table 54.1 (continued)

Mealybug species

Phenacoccus solenopsis

(Tinsley)

Planococcus citri (Risso)

Planococcus furcisetosus

(Mamet)

Planococcus minor (Maskell)

Pseudococcus elisae

(Borchsenius)

Pseudococcus longispinus

(Targioni Tozzetti)

Pseudococcus mandio

(Williams)

Pseudococcus maritimus

(Ehrhorn)

Pseudococcus viburni

Puto barberi (Cockerell)



Country/Region

The United States



Reference

Ben-Dov et al.(2012)



Congo





Matile-Ferrero (1978)

Ben-Dov (1994)



Trinidad

The Philippines



Francis et al.(2012)

Lit et al.(1990)







Ben-Dov (1994)



Paraguay, Bolivia, and

Brazil

Nearctic and neotropical



Pegoraro and Bellotti (1994)





Neotropical



Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



in the early 1970s, and it has become naturalized

throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Phenacoccus

manihoti, an oligophagous mealybug, is considered as the major pest on an international scale



Distribution of P. manihoti on cassava Parsa et al. (2012)



Ben-Dov (1994)



(Matile-Ferrero 1978; Neuenschwander et al.

1991; Williams and Granara de Willink 1992;

Zeddies et al. 2001).



M. Mani et al.



474



Phenacoccus manihoti



Ants attending cassava mealybug



Damage to cassava by P. manihoti



54.1.3 Damage

Damage includes destruction of terminal shoots

and expanded leaves by sucking of sap (and

possibly by the introduction of a salivary toxin),

leading to short internodes, small leaves, and

sometimes die-back. The economic damage is

partly from the loss of fresh leaves (which are

edible) and partly from the loss in root yield. In

some parts of Bas-Zaire, complete defoliation

of cassava plants by the mealybug was observed

(Ezumah and Knight 1978). When P. manihoti

feeds on cassava, it causes severe distortion of



terminal shoots, yellowing and curling of

leaves, reduced internodes, stunting, and weakening of stems used for crop propagation. The

mealybug feeding reduced new leaf production,

and assimilation and allocation of dry matter to

storage roots. Yield of severely infested cassava

plants was lost between 9 % and 46 % during

the dry season. At the beginning of the rainy

season, mobilization of reserves from storage

roots for regrowth caused temporary root yield

losses of up to 75 %. Yield losses at harvest,

measured 12 months after planting, were

52–58 % in infested plants (Schulthess et al.



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