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3 Jack Beardsley Mealybug, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller

3 Jack Beardsley Mealybug, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller

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42



Fruit Crops: Papaya



405



Colonization of C. montrouzieri on Jackbeardsley Mealybug



Both adults and larvae of C. montrouzieri

were found feeding on all the stages of JMB both

in the field and laboratory. A single predatory

larva had consumed 3.83 (2–4), 13.75 (12–14),

68.88 (61–73) and 172.50 (164–179) mealybug

nymphs of 10 days old during the development of

first, second, third and fourth instar, respectively.

The larva of C. montrouzieri took 13.85 days to

complete its development on JMB. The predator

took 29.30 days on JMB (Mani et al. 2013a).



42.3.3 Biological Control

Among the natural enemies C. montrouzieri was

found in large numbers followed by S. epeus and

M. boninensis. The results on impact of natural

enemies on the population of JMB on papaya are

presented in table 3. A mean of 16.6 mealybugs/

plant was observed in mid May 2012. Following

the appearance of the mealybugs, the natural enemies have also started appearing on JMB. The

mealybug population steadily increased to 179 in

the mid August, and thereafter steadily declined

to 1.72 in the first week of December. The natural

enemies were observed throughout the study

period. The population of C. montrouzieri

reached peak of 65.62/plant in August. During

the same period, the mean of 10.00 Spalgis epeus

and 4.10 M. bonensis/plant were recorded. All

these three predators particularly C. montrouzieri

played a major role in the suppression of JMB on

papaya. Statistical analysis revealed that there

was no significant influence of weather factors on



the population of mealybugs. Hence the reduction of the mealybugs was attributed mainly to

the action of/by all the three predators particularly C. montrouzieri (Mani et al. 2013a).

Williams and Watson (1988) state “There are no

records of actual damage but the species is

polyphagous and, in the absence of suitable natural enemies, it could be injurious”. No classical

biological control attempt has been made for the

Jack Beardsley mealybug, and possibly it is kept

under control by the local natural enemies in the

invaded countries (Muniappan et al. 2011).

Hence there is no need for any panic for the new

invasive P. jackbeardsleyi in India (Mani et al.

2013a).



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43



Fruit Crops: Pineapple

M. Mani



43.1



Species



Pineapple plants worldwide are infested with

mealybugs feeding on the plant sap. Pink pineapple mealybug (PPM) Dysmicoccus brevipes

(Cockerell), and grey pineapple mealybug (GPM)

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley are the

mealybugs associated with pine apple plant

(Beardsley 1964). PPM is the most widely distributed mealybug on pineapple worldwide

(Williams and Watson 1988). It was thought by

Ferris (1950) to be of North American origin,

whereas, Carter (1935) considered it native to



Dysmicoccus brevipes



South America. Dysmicoccus brevipes is known

to attack pine apple in several countries including

India. This mealy bug generally occurs in moist

tropical areas where pineapples are grown. It has

been a prominent pest in Mauritius, tropical

Africa, the South Pacific Islands, Hawaii, and the

Philippines, Taiwan, and in common in the West

Indies, South and Central America, with its distribution extending into Florida and Louisiana in

the United States (Table 43.1). Dysmicoccus brevipes has become an increasing threat to pineapple cultivation in Kerala, West Bengal and Assam

in India.



D. neobrevipes



M. Mani (*)

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

e-mail: mmani1949@yahoo.co.in

© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_43



411



M. Mani



412

Table 43.1 List of mealybugs recorded in pine apple in different countries

Mealybug species

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockrell)

Dysmicoccus mackenziei Beardsley

Dysmicoccus neobreipes Beardsley

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

Phenacoccus hargreavesi (Laing)

Phenacoccus madeirensis Green

Planococcoides nijalensis (Laing)

Planococcus citri (Risso)

Planococcus minor Maskell

Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret)

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel

Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti)

Trionymus internodii (Hall)



43.2



Damage



D. brevipes is common on the roots of pineapple

and large colonies develop on the stems just

above ground level. The mealybugs may spread

upwards to feed in the floral cavities, on both

small and mature fruit, and on the crown leaves.

The leaves turn bright pink with some degree of

flaccidity. The leaf tips turn brown, curl downward and the leaf margins show a light inward

curving. Later, these symptoms become more

pronounced. Ultimately, the plant wilts and dries

with downward browning due to necrosis on leaf

tips. Finally, the leaf tips dry up completely, and

the bright pink turns completely dull.

Correspondingly, the roots cease to elongate and

collapse. Often, new roots appear above the old

ones, and, concurrently, the renewed aerial

growth associated. Sometimes, infected plants

recover from the ailment, and normal new leaves

come out at the centre. Mealybugs attack in basal

portion and in fruit as well (Mandal 2009). The

plants exhibit stunted appearance and size of

fruits are reduced. Mealybugs may cause pineapple growers problems because they may impact

the size of pineapple fruit due to withdrawal of

plant nutrients; they produce large volumes of



Region

Several countries

India, Indonesia, Philippines

Neotropical region

Several countries

Malaysia



India, Malaysia

Ethiopian





Florida





Singapore



Israel



Reference

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams(2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



the sweet liquid called “honeydew” that makes

the pineapple fruit sticky and black coloured

from an associated fungus called sooty mould.

In Hawaii, D. brevipes is known to occur in

two forms with distinctive body colours and biologies, and with different capacities to produce

disorders or disease in pineapple plants (Carter

1936). Pink pineapple mealybug (PPM) D. brevipes and grey pineapple mealybug D. neobrevipes

are the primary vectors of Pineapple Mealybug

Wilt Associated Virus (PMWaV). On the Cook

Islands of Atui and Mangaia, D. brevipes (whose

dissemination is assured by ants, mainly Pheidole

megacephala) could seriously affect the developing pineapple industry. And honeydew secretion

by the mealybugs causes a decay of the maturing

fruits. In conclusion, four types of damage are

possible on pineapple: (1) the transmission of

pineapple wilt (also called mealybug wilt and

edge-wilt); (2) the production of chlorotic areas

where there has been prolonged feeding and the

underlying tissues have been exhausted; (3) damage to the bottom of the pineapple by the feeding

of large mealybug populations which makes the

bottom slices unmarketable and may cause the

rotting and leaking of the fruits; and (4) “mealybug stripe” which results from the feeding of a



43



Fruit Crops: Pineapple



short section of each of 3 or 4 inner whorl leaves.

It is characterized by streaks of pale green to yel-



413



low and by the collapsing of the water storage

tissues within these streaks.



Mealybug damage on pineapple



43.3



Behaviour



Pineapple mealybugs are secretive in habit and

usually inhabit the base of their host plants such

as the lower portions of stems and the butts of

pineapple plants, These sites of attack differ from

that of grey pineapple mealybugs which are normally found on the aerial parts of its hosts such as

leaves, stems, aerial roots, and flower and fruit

clusters.



43.4



Natural Enemies



There are many natural enemies known to attack

D. brevipes. Parasites include Aenasius cariocus

Compere, Aenasius colombiensis Compere,

Anagyrus ananatis Gahan, Euryhopauus propinquus Kerrich, Hambletonia pseudococcina

Compere and Ptomastidae abnormis (Girault).

Predators include Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

Mulsant, Lobodiplosis pseudococci Felt, Nephus

bilucernarius Mulsant, Scymnus (Pullus) unicatus Sicard and Scymnus pictus Gorham. Although

many natural enemies to the pineapple mealybug

are present, they exhibit minimal control if protective ants are tending the mealybug colony. The

encyrtid Anagyrus ananatis preferred to parasitize adult females of Dysmicoccus brevipes. It is

capable of parasitizing up to 27 mealybugs

(González et al. 2005). It can be found attacking

mealybugs in the presence of ants, although its

impact on mealybug mortality is low. When ants

are absent, the parasitoid is highly effective in



lowering the mealybug populations in pineapple

plantings (Hill 1983).



43.5



Management



Mealybug control often focuses on the control of

caretaking ants that are essential for the proper

development of pineapple mealybugs. They provide the mealybugs for shelter, protection from

predators and parasites, and keep them clean

from detritus that may accumulate in the secreted

honeydew and be deleterious to the colony.

Because of the essential role of the ants, management practices often include the control of tending ant species. Without the ants, mealybug

populations are small and slow to invade new

areas and the field would be free of a serious

mealybug infestation. Three ant species are

responsible for maintaining mealybug populations on pineapple.

Carter (1967) asserted that it is essential to

first control ants in the pineapple fields prior to

control of pine apple wilt. Ant control relies

heavily on bait preparations since insecticides are

used most efficiently and selectively in this form

(McEwen et al. 1979). Insecticidal baits are a

common and effective method of controlling

ants. Amdro (hydramethylnon) and insect growth

regulators are the most promising chemicals for

ant control in pineapple (Reimer et al. 1990).

When ants encounter a fence or wall they are

likely to travel the course of the fence rather than

up and over the fence to forage on the other side.



M. Mani



414



Physical barriers such as ant fences running parallel to the field periphery are partially successful

in keeping ants out of the field, and subsequently

controlling mealybug populations.



43.6



Cultural Control



Previously infested fields should be turned over

and all crop residues removed and burnt. Crop

residues and grass roots left in the field may harbour mealybug populations until the new crop

has developed enough to support a mealybug

population. Field borders should be kept clean of

weeds and debris that may support mealybugs

between plantings. Weeds also provide alternative food sources that maintain ant populations

between periods where mealybug infestations are

small. A common cultural practice is to allow a

field to lie fallow for 6–12 months after postratoon knockdown. This period is referred to as

the inter cycle. Shortly before replanting, the

field is burnt to remove pineapple trash.



43.7



residual effects. The thick, waxy coating on

mealybugs makes insecticide penetration difficult. Even the use of systemic insecticides is frequently impractical for mealybug control.

Pineapple industry, however, still needs an alternative for diazinon that can be used on mature

fruit prior to fruit harvest.

Dipping the basal portion of the planting

material in methyl parathion @ 0.02 to 0.05 % or

monocrotophos @ 0.02 % as a prophylactic measure and application of carbofuran 3G @ 15 to 17

kgha-1 in affected fields or phorate 10G @ 1.75

kgaiha-1 at 100 DAP can effectively control

pineapple mealybug (Anonymous 2007). It indicated that the basal portion of the planting material needed double prophylactic measures

(phorate 10 G and neem cake ground application

at 100 DAP and 180 DAP respectively), and

three times manual weeding helps to protect from

mealybug infestation (Mandal 2007). According

to the Pineapple Technical, PNB Krishi

Samachar, Punjab National Bank expressed their

views that BCR in pineapple cultivation may be

1.92 and invest rupee return (IRR) may be more

than 50 % (Anonymous 2007).



Chemical Control



Granular formulations of commercial products

30 kg aldicarb/ha, 60 kg thiofanox/ha or 60 kg

carbofuran/ha, gave the best results against

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) (Menezes et al.

1977). Malathion or diazinon is still used for

direct mealybug control in pineapple, when ant

control does not result in a sufficient reduction in

mealybug populations. The chemical control of

mealybugs is not easy. Complete coverage of a

pineapple plant with insecticides not possible.

Mealybugs tend to be deep in leaf axils, under the

sepals of blossoms, or inside of closed blossom

cups where they are protected from insecticidal

sprays (Jahn 1995). According to Hu et al., spraying of quinalphos @ 0.025 %, fenitrothion @

0.05 %, fenthion @ 0.05 %, chlorpyriphos @

0.05 %, dimethoate @ 0.05 % or monocrotophos

@ 0.05 % is done carefully so that the chemicals

should reach the base and also the sides of the

plant. Among non-systemic organophosphates,

diazinon provided a minimum of 30 days of



43.8



Biological Control



Elimination of tending ants from pineapple fields

with the ant bait has led to improved mealybug

suppression by their natural enemies. In a sense,

the pineapple industry already uses biological

control to manage wilt disease transmitted by

mealybugs. When ants are controlled through

chemical means, mealybug populations are regulated by the myriad of natural enemies found in

pineapple fields. However, parasites became

established but did not provide adequate control

of mealybugs particularly in the presence of ants.



43.9



Hawaii



Attempts to establish effective natural enemies of

the pineapple mealybug were conducted over a

long period but with little success in the early

years. A number of the species imported specifi-



43



Fruit Crops: Pineapple



cally against this mealybug did not propagate

readily on the Hawaiian form, nor was establishment secured with a long list of general predators, among which were about 12 species of

Hyperaspis and 6 species of Scymnus, presumably well adapted to attack on this mealy bug.

Some minor degree of control was attributable to

the establishment of the cecidomyiid predator,

Vincentodiplosis pseudococci (Felt), imported

from Mexico in 1930, and to a few of the numerous coccinellids that had been imported as general mealybug feeders (Fullaway 1924, 1933;

Swezey 1925; Carter 1935; Zimmerman 1948).

Mealybug species Pseudococcus bromelias on

pineapple was kept down by C. montrouzieri in

Hawaii (Fullaway 1922). The encyrtid

Euryrhopalus schwarzi (How.) (=pretiosa

Timb.) and the cecidomyiid Dicrodiplosis guatemalensis Felt, both imported in 1935 from

Guatemala, have been reported as established.

Two encyrtid parasites, Anagyrus coccidivorus

Dozier to A. ananatis Gahan and Hambletonia



Anagyrus ananatis



Mass production of a desired biological agent

is crucial to the implementation of any augmentative biological control program. The ability to

store reared biological control agents provides an

opportunity to manufacture them during low

demand periods and utilize them during high

demand periods. It also permits synchronized

field releases of natural enemies during the critical stages of pest outbreaks. Anagyrus ananatis

prepupal and pupal stages could be stored for

over 6 weeks at 15 °C without affecting their

eclosion rate. When immatures were stored at



415



pseudococcina Comp., were imported from Brazil

in 1935–1936 and further stocks of the latter species from Venezuela and Colombia. It was found

that the H. pseudococcina from Brazil, which is a

bisexual race, would not propagate on the

Hawaiian D. brevipes, but the stock from

Venezuela, which reproduces parthenogenetically, was well adapted to it. Both of the above

species became established (Carter 1937).

Anagyrus ananatis Gahan (Hymenoptera:

Encyrtidae) is the most common solitary, endoparasitoid of PPM in Hawaii. The parasitoid has

provided partial control of PPM in association

with other natural enemies. Field parasitization

of PPM by A. ananatis in the presence of ants can

be as high as 9.9 %. It was present in all pineapple fields surveyed and parasitized ant-tended

mealybugs (Gonzalez et al. 1999). Because of its

host specificity, abundance, and persistence, A.

ananatis was chosen as a candidate for an augmentative biological control project targeted

against PPM (González-Hernández et al. 1999).



Hambletonia pseudococcina



14.8 °C, they had emergence rates comparable to

the control after 8 weeks, which indicated high

survival rates at that temperature.



43.10 Florida

Although D. brevipes was only of very minor significance on a few small pineapple plantings in

Florida, stocks of Hambletonia pseudococcina

Comp. were imported from Puerto Rico in 1943–

1944. The 1943 releases of very small numbers



M. Mani



416



were unsuccessful, but 374 adults released at

three sites in 1944 resulted in establishment at

Sebring, Florida.



43.15 Taiwan and Bonnin Islands

C. montrouzieri was imported for the control of

D. brevipes but was only partially successful in

Taiwan and Bonnin Islands (Sakimura 1935).



43.11 Puerto Rico

Anagyrus coccidivorus Doz. and Hambletonia

pseudococcina Comp. were received from Brazil,

via Hawaii in 1937–1938. The first was propagated in the insectary and over 7,000 adults

released in the field. Despite releases continuing

into 1940, there have been no recoveries.

Although only two females of the unisexual race

of Hambletonia pseudococcina were received

alive, about 7,000 adults were reared and

released. Establishment of H. pseudococcina

occurred readily and field populations built up

rapidly (Bartlett 1939).



43.12 Jamaica

There have been no reports of establishment of

Hambletonia pseudococcina, Hyperaspis sp.,

and Diomus sp., imported from Hawaii in 1939.



43.16 Africa

The ladybird beetle was introduced into South

Africa in 1900. Later it became established on

other crops but it was not effective against D. brevipes on pineapple (Greathead 1971). The predator was colonized on D. brevipes in pineapple

plantations in West Africa (Mallamaire 1954).



43.17 Virginia

Mass releases of C. montrouzieri were made to

control the heavy infestations of Pseudococcus

comstocki on pineapple in Virginia but the predator proved ineffective against the mealybug

(Haeussler and Clancy 1944).



References

43.13 Philippine Islands

The predators Cleodiplosis koebelei (Felt),

Scymnus margipaliens Muls., and Hyperaspis silvestrii Weise were all established from Hawaiian

importations in 1931, but reports as to their effectiveness are not available. In Philippines, C. montrouzieri was introduced against pineapple

mealybug from USA in 1928 but establishment

was reported only at one locality (Rao et al. 1971).



43.14 Mauritius

In Mauritius, biological control efforts against D.

brevipes centred on C. montrouzieri which was

imported from South Africa during 1936–1939.

A total of 1,949 individuals were released in 19

sites in 1939–1940. No field recoveries were

made (Mamet 1949).



Anonymous (2007) Pineapple technical, PNB Krishi

Samachar, Punjab National Bank (http://www.pnbkrishi.com/index.htm)

Bartlett KA (1939) Introduction and colonization of two

parasites of the pine apple mealybug in Pouerto Rico.

P R Univ J Agric 23:67–72

Beardsley JW (1964) Notes on the pineapple mealybug

complex, with descriptions of two new species

(Homoptera:Pseudococcidae). Proc Hawaii Entomol

Soc XIX(1):55–68

Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea:

Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic

importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 p

Carter W (1935) Studies on biological control of

Pseudococcus brevipes (Ckl.) in Jamaica and Central

America. J Econ Entomol 28:1037–1041

Carter W (1936) Insects and plant diseases. Hawaii

Entomol Soc Proc 9:159–170

Carter W (1937) Importation and laboratory breeding of

two chalcid parasites of Pseudococcus brevipes Ckll.

J Econ Entomol 30:370–72

Carter W (1967) Insects and related pests of pineapple in

Hawaii. Pineapple Research Institute, Honolulu



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