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12 Calendar-Based Practices for Grape Mealybug Management in India

12 Calendar-Based Practices for Grape Mealybug Management in India

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in the rainy season (July–August) can also be


• One or two applications of dichlorvos 76 %

EC (2 mL/L) from mid-February to the first

week of March, if necessary, depending upon

the incidence of mealybugs and time of harvesting or one jet spray of water can also be

given on the bunches if the mealybugs are still

present just prior to harvest to dislodge the



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Fruit Crops: Citrus

C.N. Rao, V.J. Shivankar, K.J. David, M. Mani,

and A. Krishnamoorthy


Mealybug Species

Mealybugs have become an increasing threat to

the cultivation of citrus, causing serious losses

throughout the world (Table 39.1). Among them,

the citrus mealybug (CM), Planococcus citri, the

pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis,

the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata and the

oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus are

important in India. Planococcus citri is universally present on citrus.

Life stages of Planococcus citri

Adult male

Adult female

C.N. Rao (*) • V.J. Shivankar • K.J. David

Central Citrus Research Institute,

Nagpur 440033, India

e-mail: nandikesh70@gmail.com

Egg mass


M. Mani • A. Krishnamoorthy

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_39



C.N. Rao et al.

Table 39.1 List of mealybug species recorded on citrus in different regions of the world


Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa)

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell)

Crisicoccus chiponensis (Takahashi)

Crisicoccus matsumotoi


Dysmicoccus lepelleyi (Betrem)

Dysmicoccus debregeasiae (Green)

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley






Middle East









Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Williams and Watson (1988)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Borchsenius (1956); Ben-Dov (1994)

Borchsenius (1949); Borchsenius (1956)

Granara de Willink (1991)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

India, Bangladesh,

Nepal, Sri Lanka


Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)



Ferrisia consobrina Williams and


Ferrisia terani

Williams and Granara de Willink

Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel)


Philippines, Sicily

Australia, Ethiopia,

Neotropical and Pacific region




South Africa


Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)



South Africa





Williams and Watson (1988),

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994), Williams and Watson


Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Watson (1988), Williams

and Granara de Willink (1992), Williams


Williams and Watson (1988)

Ben-Dov (1991), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992);

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ali (1968), Williams and Watson (1988),

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Williams (2004), Mani and

Krishnamoorthy (2008)

Williams (1985), Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink (1979/1991)




Fruit Crops: Citrus

Table 39.1 (continued)


Formicococcus latens sp. n.

Formicococcus robustus

(Ezzat and McConnell)

Geococcus citrinus Kuwana

Geococcus coffeae Green

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)





China, Japan




Nipaecoccus brasilicus

Williams and Granara de Willink

Nipaecoccus filamentosus (Cockerell)

Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell)


Central Africa

Saudi Arabia











Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)

Paracoccus burnerae (Brain)

Paracoccus glaucus (Maskell)

Paracoccus interceptus Lit






Middle East

Bangladesh, China, Japan






South Africa


New Zealand


Malaysia, Thailand



Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Green (1922)

Williams (1996), Williams (2004),

Williams and Watson (1988), Williams

(1985), Mani and Krishnamoorthy (1999)

Brookes (1964), Williams and Watson

(1988), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (1986a), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (1986a)

Matile-Ferrero (1984)

Chang and Miller (1996)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Khalaf and Aberoomand (1989)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Carvalho and Aguiar (1997)

Ali (1957), Williams and Watson (1988),

Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2002)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Abdul Rassoul (1970)

Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987)

Ben-Dov (1985)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Lo and Tao (1966)

Bar Zaki et al. (1988)

Sharaf (1997)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Marotta et al. (2001)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Lit (1997)



C.N. Rao et al.

Table 39.1 (continued)


Paracoccus marginatus

(Williams and Granara de Willink)

Paracoccus tripurae Williams

Phenacoccus madeirensis Green

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero

Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley

Phenacoccus solani Ferris

Phenacoccus tucumanus

Granera de Willink

Planococcus citri (Risso)







Sri Lanka


Many countries

Ethiopia and

Neotropical region







South Africa



Pl. kraunhiae (Kuwana)




Black Sea coast

















European Russia, Soviet

Central Asia, Turkmenia,




Miller and Miller (2002)

Ben-Dov (1994),

Miller and Miller (2002)

Cham et al. (2011)

Muniappan et al. (2006)

Walker et al. (2003)

Galanihe et al. (2010)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Suresh and Chandra Kavitha (2008)

Arif et al. (2009)

McKenzie (1967)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994);

Krishnamoorthy and Singh (1987)

Williams (1985); Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink (1991); Ben-Dov


Abdelkhalek et al. (1998)

Bartlett (1977)

Murray (1978)

Rubtsov (1954)

Pussard (1938); Panis (1979)

Martinez-Ferrer et al. (2003)

Ortu and Pruta (1985)

Bartlett (1977)

Ferriera (1939)

Bartlett (1977)

Gonzalez and Rojas (1966)

Bodenheimer (1951)

Krambias and Kontzonis (1980)

Argyriou (1974)

Gravena (2003)

Tag Elsir and Osman (2011)

Ozkan et al. (2001)

Bartlett (1977)

Franco and Marotta (1999)

Marotta et al. (2001)

Niyazov (1969)

Smith and Armitage (1931)




Fruit Crops: Citrus

Table 39.1 (continued)


Planococcus minor (Maskell)






New Zealand




Bangladesh, India, Pakistan


Williams (2004); Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Watson (1988); Ben-Dov


Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992);

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink et al. (1997)

Williams and Butcher (1987); Cox (1987)

Granara de Willink (1991)

Mani (1995a, b)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)


Neotropical region

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

India, Thailand, Indonesia,



Sri Lanka

Williams (2004)




Bhutan, Bangladesh,

Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines,

Malaysia, Sri Lanka





New Zealand



India, Thailand





Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)

Beardsley (1966)

Blumberg et al. (1999a, b))

Williams (2004)



Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.)

Planococcus minor (Maskell)

Planococcoides robustus

(Ezzat and McConnell )

Plotococcus minutus (Hempel)

Plotococcus neotropicus

Williams de Granara

Pseudococcus baliteus Lit and


Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel

(Pseudococcus citriculus Green)

Pseudococcus citriculus Green

Pseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.)

Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel

Pseudococcus fragilis Brain

Williams (2004)

Green (1922)

Ragusa and Swirski (1977)

Itioka and Inoue (1996)

Rosen (1967)

Luck and Forster (2003)

Cox (1977)

Rotundo et al. (1980)

Franco and Marotta (1999)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Viggiani (1970)

Smith and Armitage (1931)

Stephanov (1935)

Viggiani (1970)


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