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12 Calendar-Based Practices for Grape Mealybug Management in India

12 Calendar-Based Practices for Grape Mealybug Management in India

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346



in the rainy season (July–August) can also be

given.

• One or two applications of dichlorvos 76 %

EC (2 mL/L) from mid-February to the first

week of March, if necessary, depending upon

the incidence of mealybugs and time of harvesting or one jet spray of water can also be

given on the bunches if the mealybugs are still

present just prior to harvest to dislodge the

mealybugs.



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39



Fruit Crops: Citrus

C.N. Rao, V.J. Shivankar, K.J. David, M. Mani,

and A. Krishnamoorthy



39.1



Mealybug Species



Mealybugs have become an increasing threat to

the cultivation of citrus, causing serious losses

throughout the world (Table 39.1). Among them,

the citrus mealybug (CM), Planococcus citri, the



pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis,

the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata and the

oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus are

important in India. Planococcus citri is universally present on citrus.



Life stages of Planococcus citri



Adult male



Adult female



C.N. Rao (*) • V.J. Shivankar • K.J. David

Central Citrus Research Institute,

Nagpur 440033, India

e-mail: nandikesh70@gmail.com



Egg mass



Nymphs



M. Mani • A. Krishnamoorthy

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_39



353



354



C.N. Rao et al.



Table 39.1 List of mealybug species recorded on citrus in different regions of the world

Species

Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa)

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell)



Crisicoccus chiponensis (Takahashi)

Crisicoccus matsumotoi

(Siraiwa)

Dysmicoccus lepelleyi (Betrem)

Dysmicoccus debregeasiae (Green)

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley



Region/Country

India

Philippines

India

Australia

Middle East

Columbia

USA

Japan

Russia

Argentina

Taiwan

India



References

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Williams and Watson (1988)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Borchsenius (1956); Ben-Dov (1994)

Borchsenius (1949); Borchsenius (1956)

Granara de Willink (1991)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)





India, Bangladesh,

Nepal, Sri Lanka

India



Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)



Australia

Brazil



Ferrisia consobrina Williams and

Watson

Ferrisia terani

Williams and Granara de Willink

Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel)



Pakistan

Philippines, Sicily

Australia, Ethiopia,

Neotropical and Pacific region

Argentina

India



Australia

South Africa

Argentina

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)



India



Australia

South Africa

Columbia

Bangladesh

USA

Argentina



Williams and Watson (1988),

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994), Williams and Watson

(1988)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Watson (1988), Williams

and Granara de Willink (1992), Williams

(2004)

Williams and Watson (1988)

Ben-Dov (1991), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992);

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ali (1968), Williams and Watson (1988),

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Williams (2004), Mani and

Krishnamoorthy (2008)

Williams (1985), Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink (1979/1991)

(continued)



39



355



Fruit Crops: Citrus



Table 39.1 (continued)

Species

Formicococcus latens sp. n.

Formicococcus robustus

(Ezzat and McConnell)

Geococcus citrinus Kuwana

Geococcus coffeae Green

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)



Region/Country

India

India

Bangladesh

China, Japan

India

India



Australia



Nipaecoccus brasilicus

Williams and Granara de Willink

Nipaecoccus filamentosus (Cockerell)

Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell)



Kenya

Central Africa

Saudi Arabia

USA

Bangladesh

Columbia

Brazil

Iran

India

Mexico

USA

China

Argentina



Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)



Paracoccus burnerae (Brain)



Paracoccus glaucus (Maskell)

Paracoccus interceptus Lit



Portugal

India

Australia

Iraq

USA

Middle East

Bangladesh, China, Japan

Taiwan

Israel

Jordan

Bhutan

India

South Africa

Yemen

New Zealand

India

Malaysia, Thailand

Philippines



References

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Green (1922)

Williams (1996), Williams (2004),

Williams and Watson (1988), Williams

(1985), Mani and Krishnamoorthy (1999)

Brookes (1964), Williams and Watson

(1988), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (1986a), Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (1986a)

Matile-Ferrero (1984)

Chang and Miller (1996)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994)

Kondo et al. (2008)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Khalaf and Aberoomand (1989)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Carvalho and Aguiar (1997)

Ali (1957), Williams and Watson (1988),

Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2002)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Abdul Rassoul (1970)

Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987)

Ben-Dov (1985)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Lo and Tao (1966)

Bar Zaki et al. (1988)

Sharaf (1997)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Marotta et al. (2001)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Williams (2004)

Lit (1997)

(continued)



356



C.N. Rao et al.



Table 39.1 (continued)

Species

Paracoccus marginatus

(Williams and Granara de Willink)



Paracoccus tripurae Williams

Phenacoccus madeirensis Green

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero

Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley



Phenacoccus solani Ferris

Phenacoccus tucumanus

Granera de Willink

Planococcus citri (Risso)



Region/Country

Mexico

USA

Ghana

Palau

Florida

Sri Lanka

India

Many countries

Ethiopia and

Neotropical region

India

Pakistan

USA



Neotropical

India

Australia

South Africa

USA

Argentina



Pl. kraunhiae (Kuwana)



Morocco

Hawaii

Queensland

Black Sea coast

France

Spain

Italy

Israel

Portugal

Peru

Chile

Palestine

Cyprus

Greece

Brazil

Sudan

Turkey

Bermuda

Portugal

Yemen

European Russia, Soviet

Central Asia, Turkmenia,

Georgia

California



References

Miller and Miller (2002)

Ben-Dov (1994),

Miller and Miller (2002)

Cham et al. (2011)

Muniappan et al. (2006)

Walker et al. (2003)

Galanihe et al. (2010)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Suresh and Chandra Kavitha (2008)

Arif et al. (2009)

McKenzie (1967)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004), Ben-Dov (1994);

Krishnamoorthy and Singh (1987)

Williams (1985); Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink (1991); Ben-Dov

(1994)

Abdelkhalek et al. (1998)

Bartlett (1977)

Murray (1978)

Rubtsov (1954)

Pussard (1938); Panis (1979)

Martinez-Ferrer et al. (2003)

Ortu and Pruta (1985)

Bartlett (1977)

Ferriera (1939)

Bartlett (1977)

Gonzalez and Rojas (1966)

Bodenheimer (1951)

Krambias and Kontzonis (1980)

Argyriou (1974)

Gravena (2003)

Tag Elsir and Osman (2011)

Ozkan et al. (2001)

Bartlett (1977)

Franco and Marotta (1999)

Marotta et al. (2001)

Niyazov (1969)



Smith and Armitage (1931)

(continued)



39



357



Fruit Crops: Citrus



Table 39.1 (continued)

Species

Planococcus minor (Maskell)



Region/Country

India

Australia

Fiji



Uruguay

New Zealand

Argentina

India

Philippines



Bangladesh, India, Pakistan



References

Williams (2004); Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Watson (1988); Ben-Dov

(1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams and Granara de Willink (1992);

Ben-Dov (1994)

Granara de Willink et al. (1997)

Williams and Butcher (1987); Cox (1987)

Granara de Willink (1991)

Mani (1995a, b)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)



Brazil

Neotropical region



Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



India, Thailand, Indonesia,

Vietnam

India

Sri Lanka



Williams (2004)



USA

Micronesia

Israel

Bhutan, Bangladesh,

Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines,

Malaysia, Sri Lanka

Israel

Japan

Israel

California

New Zealand

Italy

Portugal



India, Thailand

Italy

California

Abkhazia

Italy



Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)

Beardsley (1966)

Blumberg et al. (1999a, b))

Williams (2004)



Madagascar

Mexico



Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.)

Planococcus minor (Maskell)

Planococcoides robustus

(Ezzat and McConnell )

Plotococcus minutus (Hempel)

Plotococcus neotropicus

Williams de Granara

Pseudococcus baliteus Lit and

Calilung

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel

(Pseudococcus citriculus Green)

Pseudococcus citriculus Green



Pseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.)



Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel

Pseudococcus fragilis Brain



Williams (2004)

Green (1922)



Ragusa and Swirski (1977)

Itioka and Inoue (1996)

Rosen (1967)

Luck and Forster (2003)

Cox (1977)

Rotundo et al. (1980)

Franco and Marotta (1999)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Viggiani (1970)

Smith and Armitage (1931)

Stephanov (1935)

Viggiani (1970)

(continued)



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