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3 Factors Influencing Incidence of Mealybugs

3 Factors Influencing Incidence of Mealybugs

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G. Katti



242



(2005) reported an average damage up to 7 % in

the rice-growing areas of West Bengal. Ghode

and Mishra (1988) reported a serious outbreak of

its occurrence in Dhenkanal, Cuttack and Puri

districts of Orissa state, the affected areas being

4,000 ha, 2,780 ha and 303 ha, respectively.

Velusamy and Babu (1986) observed a severe

attack of mealybugs in an area of 100 ha of rice in

the Pudukottai district of Tamil Nadu, India. The

population of adults and nymphs was 650–750/

hill and the affected plants failed to produce panicles. Later in two villages of Tamil Nadu,

extremely severe incidence of mealybug populations was reported up to 91.1 per tiller (Nalini

et al. 2011). There was yield reduction in

extremely stunted rice plants at a population level

of 50 mealybugs/hill (Backialakshmi 1994). The

association of high mealybug incidence with the

occurrence of sheath rot disease further aggravates the yield reducing potential of this pest in

rice (Alam and Karim 1981; Lakshmanan et al.

1988; 1991). Rice mealybugs are also associated

with rice chlorotic streak viruses as the transmission studies with the bug were positive. There

have been reports of widespread and severe outbreaks of rice mealybug infestation with association of sheath blight and sheath rot diseases in

Bangladesh during the drought years of 1950,

1957, 1966, 1972 and 1979 (Alam et al. 1979).

Both traditional and improved varieties showed

infestation, and the crop losses were estimated at

30 % because of the combined effects of drought

and mealybug. Pradhan (1981) mentioned B. rehi

as a pest of rice in the Terai belt of Nepal which

included areas of Sarlahi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat

and Dhanusha. Rice mealybug has also been

reported as tuttle mealybug-infesting Bermuda

grass (Cynodon dactylon) in USA (Ben-Dov

2012).



19.5



timely destroying of the infested plants are useful

in preventing its spread and impact.



19.6



Varietal Resistance



Traditional/local varieties and improved cultivated varieties showed low levels of resistance

(Alam et al. 1979; Heinrichs 1983). Radja (1985)

and Gopalan et al. (1987b) reported varieties

such as IET 8616, AS 89090 and IET 12798 with

low infestation after screening them under field

conditions. Mallikarjuna Rao (1987) found that

TNAU 80030, TM 1087 and CO 43 were tolerant, with the outer leaf tip turning yellowish,

despite high bug population, while TNAU 831520

and TNAU 831521 were found to be resistant and

moderately resistant, respectively. Further studies identified more resistant sources such as Ptb

33, IR 56 and IR 58, Tending, Badal 2, Rathu

Heenati, Ptb 21, Sufaida 172, IR 42 and IR 72,

Senawee, Sufaida 172, DR 52 and ARC 575

(Jayarani 1992: Jayarani and Velusamy 1994:

Backialakshmi 1994). The studies on resistance

mechanism indicated that feeding by rice mealybug resulted in a marginal increase in total phenolic content and a large increase in total sugars,

reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, isoleucine

and proline content of the rice plants (Gopalan

et al. 1987c). Resistant varieties had low total

nitrogen, low potassium and high calcium contents compared with the moderately resistant and

susceptible varieties (Mallikarjuna Rao 1987).

Antixenosis and antibiosis were also reported,

resulting in low oviposition and egg hatchability,

slow nymphal development, reduced adult longevity and low fecundity. Steam distillate extracts

of resistant varieties adversely affected the ovipositional behaviour and were toxic to crawlers

(Lakshmanan and Velusamy 1991).



Management

19.7



It is difficult to control B. rehi because of its protective waxy covering over its entire body and a

secure position in between the stalks and leaf

sheath; however, early detection of the infestation in the nursery as well as pulling out and



Cultural Control



Removal of alternative hosts in the vicinity of the

field is recommended to prevent pest multiplication (Ayyar 1939). It is also advised to infested

plants at the post-panicle initiation stage, burying



19



Rice



243



them in the soil and replanting to prevent further

spread of the pest (Alam et al. 1979). Early planting and regular irrigation had also resulted in

lower levels of mealybug infestation (Pradhan

1981; Radja 1985; Gopalan et al. 1987a). The

application of organic products such as raw sugarcane trash and farmyard manure reduced the

infestation (Backialakshmi 1994).



19.8



Biological Control



Few natural enemies have been recorded as potential enemies of different stages of rice mealybugs,

and no field release studies have been made. The

parasitoids recorded so far are Ceraphron sp.,

Adelencyrtus sp., Cheiloneurus sp., Doliphoceras

sp., Mayeridia sp., Parasyrphophagus sp.,

Xanthoencyrtus sp., Rhopus fullawayi, Gyranusa

sp., Aprostocetus sp., Chrysochoris sp., Desostenus

sp., Tetrastichus sp., Lymaemon sp., Callitula sp.,

Diparini sp. and Thysanus sp., while predator species include Anatrichus pygmaeus Lamb,

Domomyza perspicax (Knab), Leucopis luteicornis Malloch and Scymnus sp. (Cherian et al. 1935;

Ayyar 1939; Manjunath 1968; Prakasa Rao and

Das 1971; David and Ananthakrishnan 2004;

Raguraman et al. 1991; Pathak and Khan 1994 and

Backialakshmi 1994; CABI 2003). Recent surveys

to explore parasitoids associated with B. rehi conducted in two villages of Tamil Nadu, India,

revealed five encyrtids, among which Rhopus

nigroclavatus (Ashmead) was dominant. Overall,

the parasitisation percentage ranged from 5.09 to

39.39 %. Emergence of parasitoids per host was

more from adults (17.8 %). The parasitoids were

more active from the last week of July to the end of

August but weakened during September due to a

decline in the B. rehi population. The other minor

parasitoids recovered were Adelencyrtus coxalis

Hayat, Mahencyrtus assamensis Singh and

Agarwal and Anagyrus gracilis (Hayat 1970).



19.9



Chemical Control



Several insecticides belonging to organophosphates - parathion (Santhanaraman 1952),

carbophenothion (Basu and Banerjee 1965),



parathion-methyl and demeton (Anantanarayanan

and Abraham 1957), malathion (Wahed 1959;

Alam 1965), demeton-S-methyl (Alam 1965;

Mallikarjunaa Rao 1987), diazinon, phosphamidon, fenthion and fenitrothion (Alam 1965;

Alam et al. 1979; Radja 1985; Lakshmanan et al.

1991), dicrotophos (Alam et al. 1979), dimethoate (Radja 1985; Gopalan et al. 1987d; Radja

1985), monocrotophos (Mallikarjunaa Rao

1987), Chlorpyriphos and isofenphos as seed

treatment (Rajamani et al. 1987) and phorate as

furrow treatment (Rajamani et al. 1987) were

recommended for the control of B. rehi. The

organocarbamate insecticides found effective

included fenobucarb (Radja 1985), carbofuran

and carbosulfan as seed treatments (Rajamani

et al. 1987) and carbaryl as an ovicide (Gopalan

et al. 1987d).



References

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Risk Analysis (PRA) of Rice (both Production and

Storage Level) in Bangladesh. Government of the

People’s Republic of Bangladesh Ministry of

Agriculture quarantine services strengthening programme department of Agriculture Extension,

Dhaka-1215, 119 p

Alam MZ (1965) Insect pests of rice in East Pakistan and

their control. Agric Inf Ser 3:643–655

Alam MZ, Bhuiyan SR (1964) Studies on the biology of

rice mealybug, Ripersia oryzae Green in East Pakistan.

In: Alam MZ, Ahmed A, Alam S, Islam Md AA (eds)

Review of research, division of entomology, 1947–

1964. B. Press, Dacca, pp 121–122

Alam S, Karim ANMR (1981) Rice mealybug, Brevennia

rehi in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Zool 9(1):17–26

Alam MZ, Alam MS, Karim ANM (1979) Rice mealybug outbreak in Bangladesh. Int Rice Res Newslett

4(5):20

Anantanarayanan KP, Abraham EV (1957) The control of

the rice mealybug, Ripersia oryzae GV in the Tanjore

delta of the Madras State. Madras Agric J 45:47–53

Ayyar TVR (1939) The rice mealybug in South India.

J Mysore Agric Exp Union 17:179–188

Backialakshmi T (1994) Varietal resistance to and damage

potential of rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi (Lindinger)

(Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera). MSc(Ag.) thesis, AC &

RI, Killikulam

Banerjee SN (1956) On the incidence of paddy pest in

West Bengal. Proc Zool Soc Calcutta 9(2):65–83

Basu AC, Banerjee SN (1965) The control of Ripersia

oryzae Green, a mealybug of paddy plant in West

Bengal. J Econ Entomol 58:621–623



244

Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea:

Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic

importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 p

Ben-Dov Y (2008) The rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi

(Lindinger, 1943): new synonyms, and new distribution records (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae).

Bull Soc Entomol Fr 113(1):85–88

Ben-Dov Y (2012) ScaleNet. World Wide Web electronic

publication, 5 September 2012

CABI (2003) Crop protection Compendium. CAB

International, Wallingford, www.cabi.org/cpc

Cherian MC, Krishnaswamy PN, Ramachandran S,

Sundaram CV (1935) The soorai disease of paddy.

Madras Agric J 23:397–400

CIE (1979) Distribution maps of plant pests, No. 401.

CAB International, Wallingford

David BV, Ananthakrishnan TN (2004) General and

applied entomology. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing,

New Delhi, 1184 p

Ghode MK, Mishra RP (1988) Outbreak of rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) during Kharif 1987 in

Orissa. Plant Prot Bull (Faridabad) 40(1):35

Gopalan M, Radja NC, Balasubramanian G (1987a)

Effect of different planting dates and irrigation regimes

on the incidence of rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi

(Lindinger). Madras Agric J 74(4–5):225–227

Gopalan M, Radja NC, Balasubramanian G (1987b)

Screening rice varieties for resistance to mealybug.

Int Rice Res Newslett 12(4):18

Gopalan M, Radja NC, Balasubramanian G (1987c)

Biochemical changes in rice plants infested with

mealybug. Int Rice Res Newslett 12(4):45

Gopalan M, Raja NC, Balasubramanian G (1987d)

Ovicidal activity of insecticides on eggs of Brevennia

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Hayat M (1970) Studies on the genera of the family

of Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidioidea)

recorded from India. Entomophaga 15(4):387–399

Heinrichs EA (1983) Status of screening for resistance to

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bug. Paper presented at the International Rice Research

Conference, 18–22 April 1983 at IRRI, Manila,

Philippines

Jayarani S (1992) Genetic evaluation for mealybug,

Brevennia

rehi

(Lindinger)

(Hemiptera:

Pseudococcidae) resistance in rice varieties. MSc

(Ag.) thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,

Coimbatore

Jayarani S, Velusamy R (1994) Resistance to rice mealybug in white backed planthopper resistant rice varieties. Int Rice Res Newslett 19(2):13

Lakshmanan P, Velusamy R (1991) Resistance to sheath

rot (ShR) of breeding lines derived from Oryza officinalis. Int Rice Res Newslett 16(6):8–9

Lakshmanan P, Manokaran T, Mohan S (1988) Role of

mealybugs on sheath rot disease manifestation in rice

plants. Trop Pest Manage 34(3):356–357



G. Katti

Lakshmanan P, Kumar SM, Indira K, Velusamy R (1991)

Loss of rice grain yield and seedling vigour due to

sheath rot and mealybug interaction. Int Rice Res

Newslett 16(6):2

Lefroy MH (1908) Notes on Indian scale insects. Indian

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Improv Stn 20:61–66

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Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) (Pseudococcidae:

Hemiptera). MSc (Ag.) thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural

University, Coimbatore

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Kerala. Int Rice Res Newslett 1(2):14–15

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predators of rice mealybug, Ripersia oryzae Green

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Curr Sci 37:354–355

Miller DR (1975) A revision of the genus Heterococcus

Ferris with a diagnosis of Brevennia Goux (Homoptera:

Cooidea: Pseudococcidae). Tech Bull US Dept Agric

1497:1–61

Miller DR, McKenzie HL (1970) Review of the mealybug

genus Heterococcus (Homoptera: Coccoidea:

Pseudococcidae) with the description of a new

species. Ann Entomol Soc Am 63:438–453

Nalini T, Manickavasagam S, Yadav RS (2011) Field incidence of rice mealybug Brevennia rehi (Lindinger)

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its gregarious parasitoid Rhopus nigroclavatus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera:

Encyrtidae). Plant Arch 11(2):809–812

Narayan R, Ram SV (1985) Observations on the outbreak

of rice mealybug during 1982 in Bihar. Plant Prot

Bull, India 37(1):45

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International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, 89 p

Pradhan SB (1981) Rice mealybug and its alternate host

plants. Int Rice Res Newslett 6(4):11–12

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natural enemies of rice mealybug, Ripersia oryzae

Green

(Hemiptera:

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8:111–112

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(Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera). MSc thesis, Tamil

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parasitoid record on the rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi

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Plant Prot Bull 4:83–100

Satpathi CR, Mukhopadhyay AK, Katti G, Pasalu IC

(2005) Integrated management of upland rice insects



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in West Bengal. (National Agricultural Technology

Project) NATP RRPS-22. Monograph No. 1. BCKVV,

Kalyani, p 46

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11(4):35

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Proceedings of the First International Rice Breeding

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245

Williams DJ (1970) The mealybugs (Homoptera,

Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) of sugarcane, rice and

sorghum. Bull Entomol Res 60:109–188

Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of southern Asia. The

Natural History Museum/Southdene SDN. BHD,

London/Kuala Lumpur, 896 p

Williams DJ, Radunz LAJ, Brookes HM (1981) The rice

mealybug Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) now recorded

from Australia and Papua New Guinea (Hemiptera:

Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). J Aust Entomol Soc 20:46



20



Wheat

Srinivasa Babu Kurra, Jeyakumar Ponnuraj,

and Shyam Prasad Gogineni



20.1



Species



Mealybugs are injurious to wheat (Triticum vulgare) in Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, Tibet, California,

Armenia, India etc (Table 20.1).

The mealybug species which occur in the

cotton–wheat cropping system in north India

are solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis

(Tinsley),

pink

hibiscus

mealybug

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) and striped

mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Jat et al.

2010). Among these, Ph. solenopsis is the most

predominant species. The occurrence of mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus was observed on

wheat–mustard cropping areas in Punjab, India,

and the incidence declined by end of December,

probably due to low temperature (Monga 2007).

Phenacoccus parvus Morrison is among the

plants grown close to infested Lantana camara in

Queensland (Swarbrick and Donaldson 1991).

Phenacoccus hordei (Lindeman) has been

reported from Britain. It is a root-feeding species

that occurs throughout Europe and its hosts



S.B. Kurra (*) • S.P. Gogineni

ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research,

Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India

e-mail: bkurra@hotmail.com

J. Ponnuraj

ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research,

Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India



include several important crops, such as alfalfa,

barley, clover, rye and wheat (Malumphy 2011).

The Haanchen barley mealybug, Trionymus

haancheni McKenzie, has been detected in wheat

in large areas of Idaho (http://www.agri.state.id.us/

Categories/PlantsInsects/RegulatedAndInvasive

Insects/Documents/Haanchen%20 Barley11.pdf)

(Fig. 20.1).

In India, the wheat crop of 10–30 days old was

found attacked by the mealybug M. hirsutus

(Monga 2007). The 10 ha of wheat crop in village

Jodhkan, district Sirsa (Haryana), has been found

infested with mealybugs. In district Fatehabad,

the infestation of the mealybug was observed on

wheat around which cotton stalks infested with

mealybugs are kept (Monga 2007). The mealybug was seen on wheat but was not proliferating

as it could not establish on the wheat crop. It was

seen migrating through stubbles and heaps of

cotton stalks, and even developmental stages of

the mealybug were seen on wheat during

December, at two places, namely, Sahidanwali

(Abohar) and Katiawali (Malot) of Ferozepur

district in Punjab state, India.



20.2



Management



To manage this pest, the following pest management strategy was advocated in north zone, covering the state of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan

in India.



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_20



247



S.B. Kurra et al.



248

Table 20.1 List of mealybugs recorded on wheat

Mealybug Species

Euripersia amnicola (Borchsenius)

Euripersia tomalinii (Newstead)

Heterococcus tritici (Kiritshenko)

Peliococcus turanicus (Kritshenko)

Phenacoccus evelinae (Tereznikova)

Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley)

Phenacoccus tergrigaorianae (Borchsenius)

Planococcoides lindingeri (Bodenheiemr)

Rhizoecus tritici (Borchsenius)

Trionymus haancheni (McKenzie)



Country

Ukraine

Palaearctic region

Ukraine

Palaearctic region

Hungary, Italy

India

Armenia

Egypt, Israel

Ukraine

Idaho, California



Tibetococcus triticola (Tang)

Trionymus ascripticius (Williams)

Trionymus utahensis (Cockerell)



Tibet

Australia

California



Reference

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Jat et al. (2010)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

(http://www.agri.state.id.us/Categories/

PlantsInsects/RegulatedAndInvasiveInsects/

Documents/Haanchen%20Barley11.pdf)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)



50 EC (500 ml), quinalphos 25 EC (800 ml),

acephate 75 SP (800 g), chlorpyriphos 20 EC

(2000 ml), per hectare in 125–150 l of water with

manually operated knapsack sprayer or 75 l with

the shoulder- and tractor-mounted sprayers for

the control of mealybugs is advocated in India.

It is advised to rotate the insecticides of different

groups in two consecutive sprays. In case of

severe infestation, the sprays at 5–7-days interval

are to be repeated.

Fig. 20.1 Wheat leaf damaged by the mealybug



20.2.1 Cultural



References



• Alternate host plants growing on field bunds,

water channels and wastelands in the area are

to be uprooted and destroyed during the off

season of cotton.

• The uprooted infested plants in cotton fields/

water channels should be thrown to far-off

areas to check further spread of mealybugs.



Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the

mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera:

Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on

geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 p

Jat MC, Babu KS, Sharma AK (2010) Mealybug – an

important pest in cotton-wheat cropping system.

Wheat Barley Newslett 3(2):6

Malumphy C (2011) Barley mealybug Phenacoccus

hordei (Lindeman) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), new

to Britain, with an updated key to native Phenacoccus

species. Entomol Gaz 62(3):165–171

Monga D (2007) Mealybug infestation in Wheat in

Haryana. Posted on www.ncipm.org.in/mealybugs/

MealybugHaryana.doc

Swarbrick JT, Donaldson JF (1991) Host range studies

with the lantana mealybug (Phenacoccus parvus

Morrison). Plant Prot Q 6(2):68–69



20.2.2 Chemical Measures

The use of the following insecticides, carbaryl 50

WP (1 kg), thiodicarb 75 WP (250 g), profenophos



21



Barley

M. Mani



21.1



Species



The Haanchen barley mealybug (Trionymus

haancheni McKenzie) was first detected in

Northern California as a pest of cv. Haanchen

barley in the 1950s. At that time, the mealybug

developed large populations on part of 15,000

acres of barley in California, causing damage and

hampering harvesting operations due to the

sticky honeydew (Osborn 1951). It has recently

been detected in the Northern Plains and Pacific

Northwest barley production areas (Alvarez

2004). Seriousness of T. haancheni was reported

in Idaho, Montana, and Alberta. The mealybug

outbreak in Idaho in 2003 caused millions of dollars in damage to barley. This insect has been

detected in wheat, but it primarily damages barley. Haanchen mealybug infestations in irrigated

barley have been widespread throughout many

northern Montana counties in 2007. Crawlers can

also be transported to other plants by wind, people, or animals. Crawlers develop through several successive nymphal instars that resemble

small adults, each of which have legs and so can

actively move, until the mature adult stage is

reached and the cycle repeats. The number of

generations in Idaho is still unknown, but all

instars can be found at a single time on a plant

M. Mani (*)

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

Bangalore 560089, India

e-mail: mmani1949@yahoo.co.in



host. Coupled with a short generation time, the

ability to reproduce asexually can allow mealybug infestations to increase quickly to damaging

levels (Fig. 21.1).



21.2



Damage



These damage symptoms are caused by mealybugs injecting toxic saliva into the plant. Both

nymphs and adults feed with sucking mouthparts

and reduce the amount of chlorophyll in the

leaves, causing extensive yellowing and browning of foliage, reduced vigor, and root damage.

Heavy infestations in commercial fields eventually kill the plants. Early signs of Haanchen

mealybug infestation include cottony-like wax

secretions at the plant base, often accompanied

by extensive honeydew deposits and black sooty

mold. Abundant, sticky honeydew was the first

sign of mealybug infestation when detected. The

mealybug excretes honeydew, affecting grain

quality and also harvesting operations. The

Haanchen mealybug is apparently able to survive

winter, where it is protected by soil and plant

material. Mild winter conditions in southeast

Idaho during the past few years perhaps explain

increased population densities. One could also

speculate that outbreaks are related to the elimination of mealybug parasitoids after the application of insecticides directed against other barley

pests such as cereal leaf beetle, cutworms, and



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_21



249



M. Mani



250



Fig. 21.1 Barley mealybug and mealybug damage in the barley field



aphids (http://www.agri.state.id.us/Categories/

PlantsInsects/RegulatedAndInvasiveInsects/

Documents/Haanchen%20Barley11.pdf).



21.3



Management



The concealed feeding habit of T. haancheni, and

the fact that the eggs are protected inside the cottony ovisacs, would further complicate management attempts and limit the insecticide use in

barley because insects sheltered under leaf

sheaths or ovisacs would be protected from contact sprays.

The most basic elements of an integrated pest

management program are lacking for this pest.

Currently, no insecticides are registered for use

against this mealybug on barley. However, insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin with a surfactant

(Activator 80) applied at the tillering stage of barley reduced mealybug populations by 60 % when

compared with an untreated control. Mealybug

control in other crops typically targets the small,

highly mobile crawler stage because it tends to be

more vulnerable than the later, larger life stages.

Applications often are timed for the week after

egg laying begins so as to kill the nymphs

before they develop to the egg-laying adult stage.

Foliar-applied contact insecticides that also have

fumigant action (so that the chemical penetrates

to insects behind leaf sheaths), or systemic



insecticides, perhaps might provide some control.

Repeated applications are needed to reduce infestation levels.

Tillage may be a viable alternative for reducing

populations of Haanchen mealybugs. Seed treatments, which include Cruiser 5 FS (0.5 oz/cwt) or

Gaucho 480 F (0.75–1.0), may offer proactive

control of Haanchen mealybug in future spring

plantings. Proactive seed treatments should be

used for insects only if you have had a history of

yield loss from a particular insect. Either tillage or

seed treatments should be viewed as proactive

options producers may consider for future plantings against Haanchen mealybug. (http://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Haanchen_Mealybug).

Biological control with parasitoids and predators has been the most effective and long- lasting

management option. Two parasites were recorded

on Haanchen mealybugs at Idaho. The more

dominant and numerous parasite was a Rhopus

spp. Few predators were observed in Idaho during the outbreak of the mealybugs.



References

Alvarez JM (2004) Trionymus haancheni McKenzie: a

new pest of barley in Idaho. Online. Plant Health Prog.

doi: 10.1094/PHP-2004-0315-01-HM

Osborn F (1951) Insect pest survey. Calif Dep Agrice Mon

Bull 40:150–155



22



Groundnut

G. Harish and M.V. Nataraja



22.1



Mealybug Species



Mealybugs are injurious to groundnut found in

many countries (Nandagopal and Prasad 2004).

The species of mealybugs that are known to

infest groundnut in different countries are listed

in Table 22.1.



22.2



Damage



The damage symptoms produced by groundnut

plants due to infestation of mealybugs vary

depending on the mealybug species, part of plant

which it attacks, and stage of the crop. The damage symptoms for each mealybug species attacking groundnut are given below (Fig. 22.1a–f).



22.2.1 Dysmicoccus brevipes

(Cockerell)

Dysmicoccus brevipes is commonly called as

pineapple mealybug and is found on the roots of

the groundnut. It lives in colonies underground,

and few may be seen on foliage. If found on foliage, they can be seen infesting the under surface of

the leaves (base and on either side veins). Under

G. Harish (*) • M.V. Nataraja

Directorate of Groundnut Research,

Junagadh, Gujarat, India

e-mail: hari4065@gmail.com



favorable environmental conditions, the plants

were found infested by mealybugs at alarming

population levels of 2–3 nymphs per nodule. They

feed on nodules and cut off the nutrient supply to

plants (Singh et al. 1986). In Taiwan, D. brevipes

was discovered to infest on the basal part and roots

of some groundnuts in a field near a pineapple

plantation. The infested plants showed leaf yellowing and wilting, and marked growth retardation (Huang et al. 2002). All stages of mealybug

were feeding on roots up to a depth of 22 cm. A

symbiotic relationship was observed between

mealybug and ant, Monomorium spp., which are

found in huge numbers attending mealybugs at

infestation sites (Rajagopal et al. 1982). Das and

Ray (1988) reported that this mealybug can cause

yield loss up to 25 % in groundnut.



22.2.2 Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)

Ferrisia virgata is commonly known as striped

mealybug and is found attacking groundnut

(Ahmed and Hasan 2009). The mealybug was

also found associated with pods, pegs, green

succulent stems, and branches at the transitional

zone of stems, roots, and on abaxial surfaces

of lower leaves. The nymphs and adult females

suck sap from underground pods, pegs, stems,

and branches and underside of the lower leaves,

causing enormous damage to groundnut crops

(Anonymous 2003; Ahmed and Hasan 2009).



© Springer India 2016

M. Mani, C. Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural

and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_22



251



252



G. Harish and M.V. Nataraja



Table 22.1 List of mealybugs reported on groundnut in different countries

Species

Dysmicoccus arachidis sp.n.

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell)



Dysmicoccus lepelleyi (Betrem)

Dysmicoccus mallis De Lotto

Ferrisia consobrina Williams and

Watson

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)



Formicoccus polysperes sp.n.

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)



Paracoccus marginatus William and

Granara de Willink

Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley



Planococcus bendovi sp.n.

Planococcus furcisetosus Mamet

Planococcus japonicus Cox

Planococcus lilacinus Cockerell

Planococcus mali Ezzat and McConnell

Planococcus minor Maskell

Pseudococcus calceolariae Maskell



Pseudococcus spp.



Region/Country

India

Many countries



Taiwan

India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,

Tripura)

Indonesia

Uganda

Australian, Ethiopian, Neotropical

and Pacific region

Asia, Africa, Australia and Pacific

Islands, North, South and Central

America, Bangladesh

India (Gujarat)

India

Caribbean, Africa, South East Asia,

Northern Australia

India (Andhra Pradesh)

Ghana

India (Tamil Nadu)

Central America, Caribbean,

Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, Brazil,

and China

India (Gujarat)

India



China

Asia, Africa

Planococcus mali Ezzat and

McConnell



India

Mauritius



Africa, South and Central America,

and Australia



22.2.3 Maconellicoccus hirsutus

(Green)

Maconellicoccus hirsutus is commonly known as

pink hibiscus mealybug and reported on groundnut from Florida along with other host plants

(Hoy et al. 2011). In groundnut, mealybug



Reference

Williams (2004)

Lepage (1938), Hosny (1940),

Williams (1985), Williams and

Watson (1988), Williams and

Granara de Willink (1992),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Huang et al. (2002)

Rajagopal et al.(1982), Singh

et al. (1986), Das and Ray (1988)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Anonymous (1975), Williams

(2004)

Anonymous (2003)

Williams (2004)

Chang and Miller (1996), Hoy

et al. (2011), Williams (1996)

Rao and Srinivasan (1987)

Cham et al.(2011)

Selvaraju and Sakthivel (2011)

Lysandrou et al. (2012)



Unpublished

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Ben-Dov (1994)

Hill (1975), Cox (1989),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Williams (2004)

Ben-Dov (1994),

Williams (2004)

D’Emmerez de Charmony and

Gebert (1921), Williams (1985),

Ben-Dov (1994)

Hill (1975, 1983)



colonies are often found feeding on underground

plant parts like the taproot, pegs, and pods, resulting in reduced growth and development of pods.

Mealybugs pierce and suck sap from the plant tissue, resulting in stunted plant growth. In Australia,

heavy mealybug infestation was observed in

poorly drained areas, resulting in the collapse of



22



Groundnut



Fig. 22.1 (a) Roots infested with mealybugs, (b)

Mealybugs feeding on leaves, (c) Mealybugs on either

sides of vein, (d) Pegs and pods infested with mealybugs,



253



(e) Mealybugs feeding on stem, (f) Eggs inside the protective pouch (ovisac)



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