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4 Four Factors´ Framework (FFF) of Happy System Design

# 4 Four Factors´ Framework (FFF) of Happy System Design

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308

S. Kurihara and T. Maeno

Fig. 1 “FFF” image

keyword [concept x] with the “Four Factors of Happiness” which will now be

referred to as “FFF” in order to develop new ideas (see Fig. 1). As a result, we were

able to extract ideas (“Ideas of Happiness”) that included the “Four Factors of

Happiness”. Next, we used the Pugh Concept Selection in order to narrow down the

ideas extracted from FFF.

3.5

Pugh Concept Selection

We used the Pugh Concept Selection method in order to narrow down the ideas that

emerged above.

Pugh Concept Selection is a method of concept selection that ranks the non

quantitative values of concepts through comparisons with other alternatives in order

to find the most probably option.

The concepts are arranged into a matrix and one of them is selected to be the

baseline. The other items are compared in a pairwise fashion against the baseline,

using ỵ if it is better than the baseline, “À” if it is worse than the baseline, and

“S” if it is the same as the baseline. The results are then recorded in the matrix. Our

research used the demands of the stakeholder as the baseline and performed

comparisons using the Pugh Concept Selection method to choose the best ideas.

Probable ideas that emerged from the Pugh Concept Selection were as follows:

“A town that support each other’s dreams”, “A town that learns from each other”,

“A town where cooking duties are arranged on a rotation basis”, “A town that

System Design of Happy Town Using Four Factors of Happiness

309

accepts all types of people”, “A town that respects personal space”, “A town with a

common space”.

3.6

Extraction of Criteria

We performed an extraction of criteria for the six ideas that emerged from the Pugh

Concept Selection and grouped the results using an affinity diagram. The results

were as follows: “Freedom”, “Unique Space”, “Intercommunication is possible”,

“Everyone gathers”, “Active”. We held a discussion about these five items and the

idea that emerged was “LRT (Light Rail Transit: The next generation street car

system)”.

3.7

Value Graph

We used value graphs in order to rank the values of the ideas extracted from Pugh

Concept Selection method.

3.8

Affinity Diagrams and Insights

We used affinity diagrams to group the highest values of the concepts extracted

from the previous value graph.

The sense of value that emerged as a result of using affinity diagrams to organize

the highest values of the value graphs was “I want to have unusual experiences, so

that I can know who I really am. However, I do not want to be dragged into any

trouble. Having said that, I still have needs and I long for others. The “Insight”

gained from that is “The limits of individuals”.

3.9

Ideas from Insights

We had a discussion about the “Insight” gained from the previous section, “The

limits of individuals”, and an idea called “Sharing Village” emerged.

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4 Result of Designing Happy Town

4.1

Outline

Here are a list of ideas that have emerged up to this point.

1. Ideas that emerged from FFF: “A town that support each other’s dreams”, “A

town that learns from each other”, “A town where cooking duties are arranged

on a rotation basis”, “A town that accepts all types of people”, “A town that

respects personal space”, “A town with a common space”.

2. The idea that emerged from the extraction of criteria was the LRT (Light Rail

Transit: The next generation street car system)

3. The idea extracted from the “Insight” was “Sharing Village”.

We gathered these ideas in order to create a prototype.

4.2

Prototyping

A prototype is “An early model of a product that is built in order to receive feedback

on its requirements in an early stage before the final product is completed” [10]. Prototypes also offer others the opportunity to understand the product’s functions and

value, and the opportunity to evaluate the product to confirm and gain new insights

about it’s functions in order to determine whether there is a demand for the product

in this world.

We created a prototype with lego Block (see Fig. 2) in order to understand the

suitability of a “Happy Town” and conducted interviews with the participants.

4.3

Questionnaire and Observations

We divided the participants into seven groups according to their age group:

10–19 years old, 20–29 years old, 30–39 years old, 40–49 years old, 50–59 years

old, 60–69 years old, 70 years old or older. We selected an equal number of men

and women, 14 participants in total. We showed the prototype to the participants

and explained each of the elements of the idea.

We conducted the questionnaire after briefing the participants about the

prototype.

The contents of the questionnaire are as follows. Section 1 was on the front page

of the questionnaire. It consisted of boxes that they would check off regarding their

sex, marital status, whether they had children or not, the age of the children, and

whether or not they lived together. In Sect. 2, we provided them with 7 statements in

regards to “Happy Town” and asked them to rate their answers as (1) if they agree,

System Design of Happy Town Using Four Factors of Happiness

311

Fig. 2 The Lego block, which used for prototype

(3) neutral, or (5) if they disagree. Choices (2) and (4) were in the middle of (1) and

(3) and (3) and (5) respectively. The 7 statements were as follows: “The people

living in this town are happy”, “I want to try living in this town”, “I am satisfied

with the town that I live in”, “I want to try having a different lifestyle”, “I would

live here if I were by myself”, “I would live here if I were together with my family

or somebody else”, “It has a good influence on children”.

In the first question of Sect. 3, we asked them, “What kind of town concept

would you like to live in?” and offered 4 choices. They were as follows: “A town

that pursues functionality”, “A town that pursues economic abundance”, “A town

that pursues happiness”, and “Other”. They were able to enter their own answer in

the “Other” section. Question 2 asked them, “What would make you want to live

there?” and provided them with space to write their own answers. Participants who

answered (1) and agreed to the previous statement, “I want to live in this town”

were excepted from this question.

In question 3, they were given a statement, “If you add (remove) this, then the

town will be better” and were asked to fill in their own answers either in the “It is

better if you add this” or in the “It is better if you remove this” section. In question

4, they were asked to fill in their own answers in response to the statement, “I liked

At the back of the questionnaire, we asked them questions in regards to the eight

ideas. For example, Idea A was “A town that support each other’s dreams”

(By supporting others, they will in turn receive support. The methods for support

are diverse.). We gave them two statements in response to Idea A and asked them to

rate their answers as (1) if they agree, (3) neutral, or (5) if they disagree. Choices

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S. Kurihara and T. Maeno

(2) and (4) were in the middle of (1) and (3) and (3) and (5) respectively. The

statements were as follows: “The people living in this town are happy”, “I want to

try living in this town”. The remaining questions for the other seven ideas were

conducted in a similar manner.

5 Conclusions

64.2 % of the participants answered, “This town is happier than the town that I live

in”. It is clear from the result that urban development systems that include the “Four

Factors of Happiness” are effective.

There are still challenges up ahead. Other results include, “I think it will have a

good influence on children, but if I think about my self and society then moving

becomes difficult”. It is necessary to consider solutions for problems that prevent

people from changing their current situation.

In addition, we found from our interviews that a big majority of the participants

are interested in agriculture, 50 % of the participants suggested including community farming. It will be necessary to consider the possibility of including community

farming.

Receiving answers such as “This town looks happy” does not mean that this

research is completed. It is ideal if they could physically live in the town and

experience happiness. Urban development has focused too much on money for so

long and it is time to shift the focus to things that lead to happiness. If not, then the

future of Japan is at stake. Many people have realized that Japan’s expanding

economy has already come to a halt. It is time to change our sense of values and

make Japan into a world where children are hopeful about the future.

This research is only an introduction to human happiness and peace.

We hope that the knowledge gained from this research can be used not only to

shoulder Japan’s future, but also the future of the entire world through real life

applications and further research.

References

1. Takeo Yamasaki (2000) An introduction to urban development policies. Japanese Institute of

Local Government, Tokyo, P5

2. Tetsunosuke Hisashige (2010) The pitfalls of community development. Kodansha Gendai,

Tokyo

3. OECD website, OECD better life index country reports. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://

www.oecd.org/newsroom/BLI2013-Country-Notes.pdf

4. Akira Tamura (1987) The idea behind urban development. Iwanami, Tokyo

5. Satoshi Honda, Darko Radvic, Takashi Maeno et al (2014) Mn’M Workbook 3, Future urban

intensities, measuring the non-measurable, (Maeno: factor analysis of well-being and its

application to community design). Tac Co., Ltd, Tokyo

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6. Nettle D (2005) Happiness, the science behind your smile. Oxford University Press, Oxford

7. Kahneman D et al (2006) Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion.

Science 312(5782):1908–1910

8. Kosuke Ishii, Olivier de Weck, Shinichiro Haruyama, Takashi Maeno, Sun K. Kim, Whitfield

Fowler (2009) Active learning project sequence: capstone experience for multi-disciplinary

system design and management education. In: Proceedings of the international conference on

engineering design (ICED’09), August 2009, Stanford, CA, USA, pp 57–68

9. Naohiko Kohtake, Takashi Maeno, Hidekazu Nishimura and Yoshiaki Ohkami (2010) Graduate education for multi-disciplinary system design and management, developing leaders of

large-scale complex system design and management, synthesiology, English edition, Ibaraki,

vol 3, No 2, pp 124–139

10. Project Management Institute (2008) Guide to the project management body of knowledge.

Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, P109

Part V

System Design and Management

Evaluation of the Productivity Improvement

by Information Presentation in Surveillance

Service

Mitsunari Uozumi, Kouichi Yamada, Shuto Murai, Hajime Asama,

and Kaoru Takakusaki

Abstract System surveillance is a function required for continuous operation of a

system which consists of various apparatus and networks. Many service providers

try to raise their productivity. Their methods are to show some information to a

operator after alarm occurs. As another method of the rationalization, a surveillance

system shows some information to the operator in the waiting time. We have built

the simulated environment of surveillance and compared 12 subjects. Operators are

working efficiently most in the type which displays the information. It is an

effective method of a productivity improvement to display the information on

waiting time.

Keywords Surveillance service • Service engineering • Human interface

1 Introduction

System surveillance is a function required for continuous operation of a system

which consists of various apparatus and networks. These system components break

and deteriorate with age or when tasks that are carried out are beyond its capacity.

Surveillance system detects these abnormalities and the surveillance operator

performs predetermined disposal for returning to normal (Fig. 1).

The entrepreneur who provides service may maintain a system at low cost. So it

is not rare to contract out surveillance to a service provider. The entrepreneur who

offers surveillance as a service has the equipment which performs the service

M. Uozumi (*) • K. Yamada • S. Murai

MITSUBISHI ELECTORIC Corp., 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura 247-8501, Japan

e-mail: uozumi.mitsunari@ab.mitsubishielectric.co.jp

H. Asama

Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

K. Takakusaki

Department of Physiology, Division of Neural Function, Asahikawa Medical College,

Asahikawa, Japan

T. Maeno et al. (eds.), Serviceology for Designing the Future,

DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-55861-3_22

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M. Uozumi et al.

Probe

Manuals

The system under surveillance

Operator

Work order

Escalation of

incidents

Log

Fig. 1 System surveillance

effectively and trains operators who handle the system and carry out the surveillance 24/7 [1].

The entrepreneur of supervisory service is advancing rationalization of surveillance business. They increase their productivity and offer a competitive charge

[2, 3]. Their methods are to show some information to operators after alarm occurs.

This information helps the operator to dispose problem [4].

As another methods of the rationalization, it can be considered that a surveillance system shows some information to operators in there waiting time. Tamura

et al. have reported that activeness positively affects cognitive performance

[5]. Bechara et al. have reported that emotion can affect the decision-making [6].

In the surveillance operation, it can be considered that the productivity can be

changed by controlling the state at the operator receives an alarm. Using the

information shown, the disposal time of operators are shortened by doing active

work [7].

The simulated environment of surveillance has been built and the results of

12 subjects are evaluated.

2 Surveillance Operation Model

An operator’s work consists of the following three states.

• The operator waits for the alarm

• The operator recognizes the alarm

• The operator disposes of the alarm

An operator changes these states in order (Fig. 2).

In the waiting state, an operator waits for a change of display in the screen.

In the recognizing state, an operator notices a change of display in the screen and

starts to dispose of the alarm.

Evaluation of the Productivity Improvement by Information Presentation in. . .

319

Fig. 2 Surveillance

operator model

In the disposing state, an operator deals with the alarm according to the instructions stated in the manual and completes the disposal.

3 Experiments with Simulated Environment

3.1

Simulated Environment

The simulated environment of the surveillance system using a computer has been

built.

A subject waits for a change of alarm by viewing a computer screen (Fig. 3).

Alarms are generated randomly and the generating interval average is 25 s. The

generated alarm will enable the display of a message on the screen which the

subject is looking at. In each test, the subject disposes 20 alarms.

3.2

User Interface

There are three kinds of screens that are shown to the subject on waiting state and

are as follows:

Passive case test uses passive waiting screen (A).

Directed case test uses directed waiting screen (B).

Active case test uses active waiting screen (C).

• Passive waiting screen (A):

No additional information is shown on this screen until an alarm is generated.

The generated alarm is displayed on the upper row of the screen. After the

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M. Uozumi et al.

Fig. 3 Simulated environment

display of an alarm is recognized, a subject will click the button on the screen for

disposal. Figure 4 shows an example of the screen being displayed before an

alarm will be generated.

• Directed waiting screen (B):

Explanation of the operation method is shown as the information on this

screen until an alarm is generated. The generated alarm is displayed on the

upper row of the screen. After the display of an alarm is recognized, a subject

will click the button on the screen for disposal. Figure 5 shows an example of the

screen being displayed before an alarm will be generated.

• Active waiting screen (C):

A list for surveillance is always shown in the lower part of the screen. While

waiting for an alarm, a subject can scroll this list or can sort a list by items, such

as apparatus ID or hours of use. After the display of an alarm is recognized, a

subject will click the button on the screen for disposal. Figure 6 shows an

example of the screen being displayed before an alarm will be generated.

This list contains hours of use, reliability, probability sign, etc. But these items

have no correlativity in this simulated environment.

In a real system, the probability of occurrence of an alarm being influenced by

these items is little. In this test, the subject disposes 20 alarms and they are not

influenced by these items. But the subject is interesting in this list.

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