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2 Estimation of Customer´s Expectation with Take-Off Delay

2 Estimation of Customer´s Expectation with Take-Off Delay

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Evaluation of Taxiing at a Large Airport Considering Customer Satisfaction


international airline users in April–June 2010 (irrespective of carrier) in questionnaire format on a web site after travel. All questions were fixed-choice. In all, 1753

replies were collected, from which 1074 datasets of international airline users who

departed from Narita International Airport were used in this study. Some questionnaire items are described below.

• Customer data of users

• Information on use, such as departing airport, arriving airport, carrier, and seat


• Questions on delay in taking-off and landing, etc.

One question on delay in taking-off and landing asks a user to “answer on

allowable departure delay in an international flight” by selecting one of seven

choices of “less than 5 min, less than 10 min, less than 15 min, less than 30 min,

less than 45 min, less than 60 min, and can not determine.” This study adopts users’

replies to this item as the expectation value tdexpt of customers on take-off delay: a

user is considered not dissatisfied if the delay is within the answered limit (degree of

satisfaction ¼ 0), although the customer is assumed to be dissatisfied with an excess

delay over the limit in monotonous increase.


Computation of Satisfaction Function of Each Aircraft

The satisfaction function of each aircraft is computed using the expectation values

of customers on take-off delay tdexpt defined in Sect. 4.2. Aircraft were classified

according to the destination airport. The degree of satisfaction was determined for

each class in this study. Specifically, the distribution of expectation value of

customers tdexpt according to the destination airport was computed based on the

questionnaire described in Sect. 4.2. The satisfaction function of aircraft was

computed according to the destination airport using Eq. (3) in Sect. 4.2. Regarding

“aircraft bound for a certain destination that exists in a service diagram as a

destination but does not exist in the choices of the questionnaire”, a satisfaction

function was computed in the following fashion: distribution of the expectation

value of customers c is computed according to flight time using the data given in

Sect. 4.2. As a result, the former fashion covers about 70 % of aircraft, while the

latter covers about 30 %.

The distribution of the expectation value tdexpt of a close flight time was applied.

a and b in Eq. (2) were set as À1 and À0.1, respectively here. Figure 4 presents

results of cross tabulation of the expectation values of customers according to

distribution airport. As a measure of the degree of satisfaction Std, when take-off

is more delayed by 10 min than a certain expectation (e.g., Std 20, 10ị ),

Std ẳ 0.632 (1 Std 0; the greater Std is, i.e., the smaller its absolute value

is, the higher the degree of satisfaction is). Figure 5 overviews variations of

satisfaction functions on take-off delay according to destination airport.


H. Daimaru et al.

Fig. 4 Cross tabulation of

expectation value of

passengers on take-off delay

according to destination















New York


Can not determine

< 60min.

< 45 min.

< 30 min.

< 15 min.

< 10 min.

< 5 min.

Fig. 5 Satisfaction

functions on take-offf delay

according to destination












50 [min.]


satisfaction function of aircraft











take-off delay



New York


Superposition of satisfaction functions that have different expectation parameters

can be seen.



The satisfaction function of aircraft with take-off delay Smix was applied in this

study to two types of service diagrams with congestion at a different level in Narita

Evaluation of Taxiing at a Large Airport Considering Customer Satisfaction


International Airport; a case crowded rather than normal (109 departing aircraft in

14:00–19:00, hereinafter designated as Diagram 1), and a very crowded case

(147 aircraft in the same conditions, hereinafter designated as Diagram 2). Diagram

1 corresponds to a situation in 2012, while Diagram 2 a situation in 2013 after

expansion of the airport.

Table 1 shows the maximum, third quartile, median, first quartile, minimum,

mean, and standard deviation of taxiing time and degree of satisfaction Smix in

service diagrams of two types. Figure 6 present scatter plot of taxiing time and the

degree of satisfaction with take-off delay Smix, covering partial data ranged from

minimum to 1st Quartile satisfaction. Size of circles represents flight time of


Table 1 Taxiing time and degree of satisfaction


3rd quartile


1st quartile



Standard deviation


Taxiing time (old evaluation index

in previous study [5])

Diagram no. 1

Diagram no. 2


















Degree of satisfaction for each

aircraft (Smix) (new evaluation index

in this study)

Diagram no. 1

Diagram no. 2




















Satisfaction with take-off delay




(b) low priority































(c) middle priority



(a) high priority





Taxiing time

Fig. 6 Scatter prot of taxiing time and satisfaction of take-off delay (only minimum to 1st Quartile

satisfaction data)


H. Daimaru et al.

5 Discussion


Possible Taxiing Strategies

Regarding the simulation result described in Sect. 4.3, both median and mean of

taxiing time in Diagram 2 are about 3 min. longer than those of Diagram 1. However, the approximate upper half of aircraft in terms of satisfaction in both Diagram

1 and Diagram 2 do not feel dissatisfaction (i.e., Std ¼ 0), while a marked increase

of dissatisfaction is seen in lower 25 % of aircraft. Aircraft plotted in Fig. 6a shows

a marked increase of dissatisfaction compared to that of taxiing time, so that urgent

attention on these aircraft’s taxiing would be necessary. Furthermore, 3–4 h aircraft

are dominant in this group. On the other hand, aircraft plotted in Fig. 6b would have

low priority because they show less increase of dissatisfaction according to that of

taxiing time. Aircraft plotted in Fig. 6c are regarded as middle-priority targets to

improve. This is because sensitivity of their taxiing time to dissatisfaction is

between that of (a) and (c).

As discussed in the above, we obtained some priority strategies for further

improvement of aircraft taxiing by introducing CS as an evaluation index instead

of objective taxiing time. These priority strategies can be used for rules generations

of taxiing operations in simulation-based optimization described in Sect. 2.2.


Issue on Synthesis from the Viewpoint of CS

This study determined a mixed distribution of customer expectation based a certain

customer survey for analysing CS. However, customer’s expectation is not static in

nature, and it is formed and likely to be updated according to product/service

contents customer has experienced. This means that satisfaction functions also

may changes overtime. To address issue on synthesis driven by satisfaction function beyond just analysis, it is necessary to incorporate such dynamics of customer

expectation and satisfaction function as a result.

Among class problems of synthesis discussed in emergent synthesis approaches

[3, 12], Class II type problem (complete specification and incomplete environment)

is to cope with the dynamic properties of the unknown environment, while in Class

I type problem (complete specification and complete environment) the emergence

of the solution is not time related. In other words, Class II type problem is a

dynamic Class I type problem [12].

In the above context, Fig. 7 examines an approach to Class II problem of

synthesis driven by the viewpoint of CS. What this paper studied is evaluation of

CS based on customer expectation based on the solution for current transaction as

shown in the upper part of the figure. Update of customer expectation as a part of

environment change based on the solution for further transaction. Furthermore, for

example, it is expected to develop simulation-based optimization (or generation)

Evaluation of Taxiing at a Large Airport Considering Customer Satisfaction











Class I

Evaluation of CS based

on customer expectation

based on the solution

(for current transaction)





Learning &


Class II

Unknown environment


e.g.) Simulation-based

optimization in the previous

study [5]

Update of customer expectation

as a part of environment change

based on the solution (for further


Fig. 7 An approach to Class II problem of synthesis from the viewpoint of CS (Modified from

Ueda et al. [12])

that includes learning of- and adaptation to dynamic customer expectation as

environmental information.

6 Conclusion

This study was conducted to evaluate aircraft taxiing at a large-scale airport by

customer (i.e., passenger) satisfaction with take-off delay. The satisfaction function

of customers with delay and distribution of customers’ expectation value in each

aircraft were adopted, and the satisfaction function with a take-off delay of each

aircraft was computed. Furthermore, the application of satisfaction function to

service diagrams of two types in Narita International Airport demonstrated that

the estimated relation between two service diagrams varies with taxiing time and

the degree of satisfaction. As a result, we obtained some priority strategies for

further improvement of aircraft taxiing by introducing customer satisfaction instead

of taxiing time.

Our future research will be aimed at more dynamic and adaptive design of

coordination rules on aircraft taxiing by introducing update of customer’s expectations as an environment change.


H. Daimaru et al.


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Research of the Social New Transportation

Service on Electric Full Flat Floor Bus

Toshiki Nishiyama

Abstract Author has developed a prototype large sized “Electric Full Flat Floor

Bus” (ELFB). Taking the field test results into consideration as well, it is also

revealed that ELFB has the specifications to meet most of the existing bus service

requirements. Introducing the concept and technology of the integrated platform

that motors, inverters, batteries and controllers are installed under the ELFB’s floor

can lower the minimum height from ground to floor, construct a full flat cabin, and

improve the universal design performance. So it turned out that trial ride monitor

380 persons show high concern and a willingness to pay for introduction of the

service which reduces resistance of a change or movement.

Keywords Electric Low and Full Flat Floor Bus (ELFB) • Universal design

• Ecological design • Integrated platform • Public transportation services

1 Introduction

The application of electric car technology to public transportation is a short cut to

the spread of electric cars. Above all, with the application of the technology to a big

size city bus it is possible to protect the environment to give new service to

passengers, and to make the quality of an electric bus gain wide publicity. An

electric low and full flat floor bus is a vehicle which has made it possible to lower a

floor, to get rid of exhaust gas, and to prevent noises by using electric car technology. Therefore, it is significant to carry out research on the application of electric

car technology to a big size city bus. This research has revealed what citizens and

bus companies in Japan think of the application of the electric car technology to a

big size bus.

T. Nishiyama (*)

Faculty of Urban Life Studies, Tokyo City University, Tokyo, Japan

e-mail: nishibus@tcu.ac.jp

© Springer Japan 2016

T. Maeno et al. (eds.), Serviceology for Designing the Future,

DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-55861-3_6



T. Nishiyama

2 Back Ground of This Research


The Development of a Grand-Up Type of Electric Car

with Basic Auto Parts Concentrated Under a Floor

We have developed an electric car based on the “Integrated Platform” called

“KAZ” and “Eliica” with basic auto parts, for example a lithium ion battery, a

tandem wheel suspension system, concentrated under a floor. And a motor is kept in

each of eight wheels (Figs. 1, 2, and 3). As a result, an electric car has more room

and passengers can enjoy roominess. A previous sport car which can do more than

300 km an hour can accommodate only two passengers because of a big size engine.

But “Eliica” can accommodate four passengers. Mere alteration of the form or size

of an electric car makes it easier to apply the technology to buses, trucks, and so

on. We have certified that a grand-up type of electric car rides better than an electric

car now in use. We have tried to make the maximum speed of “Eliica” 400 km an

hour. At present “Eliica” can do 370 km an hour. The quality of “Eliica” is very

high speed and very high level of function of acceleration.

Fig. 1 Concept of

integrated platform by Keio


Fig. 2 “KAZ” (Based on

integrated platform)

Research of the Social New Transportation Service on Electric Full Flat. . .


Fig. 3 “Eliica” (Based on

integrated platform, next

generation of “KAZ”)


More Interest in the Next Generation’s City Buses

Designed Universally and Ecologically

Nowadays Japan is facing an aging society. We predict that people aged over

65 years will account for 25 % of the population of Japan by 2025. The number

of physically-challenged people is increasing. In this aging society we are more and

more interested in city buses. But recently buses have been facing serious problems

about exhaust gas, noises and so on. But Electric Low and Full Flat Floor Buses are

highly appreciated in accessibility and low emission. To solve these problems, we

have developed an electric city bus. It is a means of transportation designed

universally and ecologically. There is a growing need for a big size electric city

bus which can accommodate more passengers [1–3].


Greater Interest in Big Size City Buses Useful

for Promoting the Spread of Electric Motor Buses

in Japan

Japanese people are getting more and more interested in the development of

emission-low vehicles to cut down on carbon dioxide. Nowadays, Japanese municipalities are adopting a policy about assuming a part of the rent for a parking lot,

which is paid by a driver of an emission-low car and are trying to spread emissionlow vehicles all over Japan. Under the present condition of Japan, people are not

very interested in an electric car because of its low efficiency involved in going up a

slope. But electric cars are gaining wide publicity because a lithium ion battery can

be charged more efficiently now. In spite of its publicity, electric cars have not

come into wide use because it costs more to produce a lithium ion battery. But we

have proved the high speed and the high acceleration of “Eliica”. So, Japanese


T. Nishiyama

municipalities and various bus companies are showing greater interest in applying

“Eliica” technology to city buses. Scientific societies are showing interest in

“Eliica” technology, too. As a trigger for popularizing electric cars, applying the

quality of a grand-up type of electric car to a big-sized city bus is worth noticing.

3 Development of Electric Low and Full Flat Floor Bus

(ELFB) and the Purpose of this Research


R&D’s Core Technology

The Electric Vehicle Laboratory of Keio University has been working on the

development of EVs for years. The laboratory’s basic concept is to build a dedicated platform for EVs from scratch, instead of the conversion type that involves

retrofitting an engine with a motor. This innovative design technology, called

integrated platform, stores all equipments required for operating a vehicle, such

as batteries, motors (in-wheel motors), and inverters, beneath the vehicle floor. The

application of this technology makes it possible to concurrently achieve expansion

of usable cabin space in EVs, extension of the mileage on a single charge by using

in-wheel motors, and a greater number of lithium-ion batteries, as well as improvement in universal design performance, which has a brisk demand (Fig. 1). Based on

the assumption of using the above concept, the Electric Vehicle Laboratory of Keio

University has developed a prototype ELFB (The Trial Electric Low and Full Flat

Floor Bus) (Figs. 4, 5, and 6).

Fig. 4 The front-view of


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