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6 The need for innovative approaches to handle data generated: the case of smart cameras

6 The need for innovative approaches to handle data generated: the case of smart cameras

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Apps for smart buildings: a case study on building security


Recently, new hardware products are reaching the market, combining different

sensing technologies (eg, motion sensors) with image processing techniques

embedded on the hardware that are capable of identifying events of certain significance. These products are able to provide notifications at specific times when human

intervention is required, in order to infer possible critical events. They also offer the

ability to record while the motion sensor is detecting movement in the viewport of

the camera. This means the home can capture any activity the moment it is happening,

rather than trawl through hours of footage.

Some newer products such as the NETATMO smart camera5 introduce more

advanced image processing techniques for doing face extraction. The owner is able

to tag faces, attach names, and characterize them as family or friends. The camera is

capable of recognizing individual family members and send immediate notifications

depending on the characterization of the people. This is a step forward from sending

alerts (with video feed) when a motion is detected, and reduces the number of false

positive alerts generated by the camera.

The main challenge for such new products is the homeowner’s ability to access the

video feeds remotely. The storage of the video (especially if it is at high quality) requires significant storage capacity. Furthermore, if the storage is kept locally (ie,

within the building premises) then the Internet connectivity might cause long delays

for accessing the video feeds remotely (eg, ADSL is not the ideal solution for this usage scenario). If there is a need for a 24/7 monitoring service, the critical point is

whether the number of alerts that require the owners (remote) intervention can be

restricted. Essentially these two features lead to a new contract-based service model

that resides on the cloud.

As products for smart homes generate large volumes of sensor data, this creates the

need to provide mechanisms that will assist the user in handling large volumes. Interestingly, for many start-ups, the ability to capture data, and analyze and sell the findings offers a potential monetization model.

Young companies such as CANARY6 and WITHINGS7 offer a monthly fee for using cloud-based resources to store video feeds up to 30 days and storing alarms and

notifications to specific time instances (also known as bookmarks). This approach

leads to extremely competitive monthly fees.


Smart home products: a fragmented landscape

As smart home technology has advanced, traditional home security products are

increasingly being ported over analog to digital controls that offer expanded functionality and improved wireless connectivity, including integration with mobile technologies (Tankard, 2015). Numerous hardware products are already available in the

market, which can be used to set up a smart building environment with emphasis on








Start-Up Creation

securing the property. Unfortunately, the smart home market is a fragmented sector

with a multitude of devices and services, many operating in their own bubble of protocols and software interfaces. As the smart home becomes a standard for residences

across the world, these devices and services will not only need to work together, but

will be incentivized by providing a cooperative interface.

Once again, the drawback of having a broad range of devices that are not able to

form a common communication network and offer integrated services becomes an

opportunity for new products. SMARTTHINGS8 is a typical example of a home automation system that creates an ecosystem of products by supporting and combining

different wireless networking technologies. The company via its hardware controller,

the SmartThings Hub, offers users smart ways to control their home by combining

products from different hardware manufacturers. They are positioned in such a way

that they profit from both end customers as well as other platform users. Platform users

pay the promoter for listing and the promoter also gets a share whenever a product is

sold to the end customer on the platform. The company delivers a platform that helps

unlock the synergy possibilities that were previously hidden (Forbes, 2014).

Like SmartThings, other companies such as Revolv, Nexia Home Intelligence, and

Vera Control also offer a monitoring and controlling hub that allows users to control

their connected devices from a single point. These companies offer users the ability to

set simple triggers and actions that work with many types of sensors and devices.

These triggers can be activated manually, randomly, or on a schedule.


Motion detectors

The most common sensors for securing buildings are motion sensors, also known as

occupancy or vacancy sensors. For 30 years, occupancy sensors relied primarily on

passive infrared (PIR) technology to infer the presence of people by detection motion.

Other technologies include ultrasonic or a combined multisensing technology for

increased accuracy. They can be positioned at walls, mounted on the ceiling or placed

at a wall switch for both indoor and outdoor use.

A recent technological development for boosting the accuracy of occupancy sensors is the use of image processing. Unlike conventional PIR motion sensors used

to infer occupancy, image processing occupancy sensors uses sequential image subtraction techniques for extracting and analyzing motion-dependent occupancy content.

This new approach detects human presence at an increased range while reducing false

positives and negatives produced by conventional sensors.


Door open/close sensors

Detection sensors for door and window entry are also among the first warning mechanisms introduced in building security. They offer a straightforward method for

securing the perimeter of the building. Most available products can detect an open



Apps for smart buildings: a case study on building security


door or window based on a magnetic sensor, while some are using a tilt sensor or a

contact plunger. In most wired security systems, magnetic sensors are considered a

standard for monitoring the status of several doors and windows throughout the


The most common type of a door sensor connection (magnetic) is via a wire. As

wires significantly increase the installation costs, the new wave of smart door sensors

is switching to wireless technologies. Currently, the 802.15.4 wireless medium is the

most common choice for connecting door sensors located in different places within the

building, in a network. The low-power requirements of the particular networking technologies allow battery-operated sensors to last longer, thus removing the need for

wires. A wireless door sensor can be easily installed and nonintrusively take up the

role of building security.

Some products attempt to use the door sensor as a point for providing multisensing

capabilities. As an example consider the Door/Window sensor by PHILIO9 that includes

temperature, illumination, and motion sensors.

19.7.3 Presence sensors

The presence sensor lets you receive updates about a person or pet coming and going.

It also works for objects, such as cars. It enables the security system to detect people

and pets approaching a specified area of the building (eg, front door) and trigger

different actions (eg, automatically lock/unlock doors). They can also be placed in

children’s backpacks and provide notifications when they arrive home from school.

An alternative to carrying a small presence sensor is to use the smartphone as a presence sensor. This approach utilizes the GeoFencing technology available for almost all

smartphone operating systems that relies on the 802.11 Wi-Fi and the GPS module of

the phone. Essentially it provides a coarse-grained detection of users when they are

approaching or leaving the building.


Conclusions and future trends

In the recent past, many smart home products have entered the market, from connected toothbrushes to appliances and HVAC. A leading segment of the smart

home market is that of home security; consumers report that home security is among

their top priorities when selecting the next product to acquire. Personal and family

security is a key driver in smart home adoption for the majority of the consumers

(Icontrol, 2015). The vast majority of consumers agree that security is one of the

most important reasons to purchase a smart home system. This justifies the fact

that smart cameras and smart locks are among the most popular devices. Still, it is

evident there is a chasm between the early adopters and mainstream consumers

before products achieve mass adoption.




Start-Up Creation

At the same time, current smart home products and services create a complex

network of components that hugely complicates issues for information security. Cyber

threats are realized at several levels: targeting hardware devices, they can be carried out

over the communication medium or even the smartphone remote controlling application. Many cases have demonstrated the significant security risks involved with this

nascent technology (Proofpoint, 2014). It is evident that overcoming these challenges

and addressing the consumer concerns is crucial for developing successful smart home



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curve based zero knowledge proofs and their applicability on resource constrained devices.

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Apps for smart buildings: a case study on building security


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‘Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.’


ACTA. See Anti-Counterfeiting Trade

Agreement (ACTA)

Adaptive control of home environments

(ACHE), 7e8

Adoption chain risk, 23e24

Aeration, 262e263

Agent apps, 457

Air pollution issues, indoor environments

classification, 302e303

indoor air pollutants, 303e305

treatment methods, 305e306

Air treatment biotechnologies

bioreactor performance, 312e316. See also


bioreactors, types. See Bioreactors

concept basics and principles, 306e308,


Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), 351

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

(ACTA), 118e119

App programming

building automation to smart buildings,


creating apps, 457e458, 460e461

app development environments, 462

evolutionary delivery, 458e460, 458f,


front-end and back-end app

development, 460

ubiquitous sensor platforms and Internet

of Things, 461, 461t

cyber-security threat, 470e471

motivating app start-ups, 451, 452f

secure data exchange and storage,


smart cameras, 474e475

smart home products

door open/close sensors, 476e477

motion detectors, 476

presence sensor, 477


smart locks, 471e473

types of

agent apps, 457

ambient devices, 456

cloud apps, 455

dashboard apps, 455e456

general building system anatomy,

453e454, 453f

native apps, 454e455

visual analytics, 457

web apps, 455

wired legacy systems, 466e467

Wireless 802.11, 467

Wireless 802.15.4, 467e469

Wireless 802.15.6, 469e470, 470t

Artificial lights, 376

Artificial NNs (ANNs), 406

ASTMC1784, 195

A10 system, 466

AUGUST Smart Lock, 472

Autoregressive integrated moving average

(ARIMA) model, 406


BACnet, 467

Bayh-Dole act, 1980, 2

Berne Convention, 115, 117

Big data analytics, 397e398

with cloud computing, 402

value, 401

variety, 400

velocity, 401

volume, 400

Bioaerosols, 304

Bio-based plastics, 329, 339

cellulose, 333


Bio-based plastics (Continued)

ecological advantages and resource

efficiency, 330e331, 330t

facade mock-up, 342e343, 342fe343f

feedstock, 329e330

fire tests, 334e336, 335f

function integration, 342, 342f

heat resistance and possibilities,


improving behavior to fire, 333e334, 334f,


molded components, 340

opaque components, 340, 341f

polylactide (PLA), 332e333

properties, 339

recycling and disposal, 331

requirements, 332

technical and design aspects, 331e332

transparent and translucent components,

340, 340fe341f

weather resistance, 337

artificial and natural weathering,

338e339, 338t, 339f

water absorption, 339

Bio-polymers, 339. See also Bio-based


function integration, 342, 342f

molded components, 340

opaque components, 340, 341f

transparent and translucent components,

340, 340fe341f

Bioreactors, 313

carbon dioxide production, 313

elimination capacity (EC), 312e313


gaseous phase composition, 315

gas flow rate, 315e316

light, 316

microorganisms, type, 314

nutrient solution composition, 315

plants, type, 314

temperature, 316

water content, 314e315

loading rate (LR), 312

pressure drop, 313

removal efficiency (RE), 312


conventional bioreactors, 308e309

hybrid modules, 312


membrane bioreactors, 310e311

plant bioreactors, 309e310

Biotechnology, 6e7

Bootstrap, 57

Building automation system (BAS), 428

Building materials, 133

Building retrofit

application example, 361, 367e369

case study, 361e363, 362f

coupling NSGA-II, 364e365, 364f

energy-efficiency measures, 363, 363t

evaluation objectives, 365e367

energy-efficiency measures

multicriteria analysis, 350e352

optimization, 352e353

multiobjective optimization

natural optimization algorithms,


optimization problem, 354

optimization solution techniques,


weighted-sum function vs.

multiobjective approach, 354e356

Built environment

air pollution, 425

areas of practice, 418e419, 419f

defined, 418

Enevo ONe, 423

issues, 420e421

life cycle, 418, 419f

Minneapolis Interactive Macro Mood

Installation (MIMMI), 424e425

Oxford Flood Network, 422e423

Placemeter, 423e424

potential applications, 419e420

radio frequency identification (RFID) tags,


Samsung, 421e422

Business model canvas (BMC), 27t, 28,


Business Model Generation, 45e46

Business planning, 21e25

business model, developing and articulating

lean canvas approach, 26e30, 27t, 29t

engineers approach, 26

primary challenges, 24e25

financing challenges, 24

intellectual property management, 25

sizing markets challenges, 24e25


research and development (R&D), 21

scaling, 30e33

market scaling, 31e32, 31f

premature scaling, 33

process and team scaling,


technological business environments,

uncertainties and risks typical

of, 21

template, 33e35

employees, key points for, 34e35

investors, 34


Cellulose, 132

Chloroplasts, 246e248

Chui, 442

Click-through-rates (CTRs), 438e439

Closed-circuit TV (CCTV), 474

Cloud apps, 455

Cloud computing technologies

advantages, 398

IaaS, 401

PaaS, 402

SaaS, 402

Civil engineering, 4e5

Coinnovation risk, 23e24

Comfy, 378

Commercial debt agreements, 59

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), 376

Complementary data, 79e80

Conventional bioreactors, 308e309, 308f

Convertible debt financing

introduction, 64

issues, 65e66

pros and cons, 64e65

Cool-Coverings FP7 project, 6

Copyrights, 110e111, 114e115

Cork, 132

Crowdfunding, 3e4, 57, 66e68

donations, 66e67

equity crowdfunding, 68

future trends, 70

issues, 69e70

lending, 67e68

prepurchase, 67

pros and cons, 68e69

rewards, 67

Customer development model (CDM), 43



Dashboard apps, 455e456

Debt financing, 58e60

introduction, 58

issues, 59e60

pros and cons, 58e59

Degassing, 263e264

Delaware, 58

Design/scale-up parameters, 261e265

aeration and mixing, 262e263

construction materials and reactor

geometry, 263

control elements, 264e265

gas exchange and degassing, 263e264

light supply and illumination strategy,


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),


Donations, 66e67

Dynamic insulation material (DIM),

142f, 143e144


Electrical engineering, 4e5

Elimination et choice translating reality

(ELECTRE) method, 351

Encapsulation efficiency, 189

Encapsulation ratio, 189

Energy-efficiency measures (EEMs), 349

Energy regeneration system (ERS), 399

Energy service companies (ESCOs), 349

Enevo ONe, 423

Enlighted, 442

Entrepreneurial creativity

behavior and roles, 92e93

Branson, Richard, 101e102

defined, 89e90

empirical elements, 102

global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM),


Kaufman model, 97e98

measuring and defining concept,


minimalist model, 97e98, 102f

Office of Commercial and Economic

Development (OCED), 89e91

risk, 95e96

Ryan, Tony, 100e101

The Scotsman, 98e100


EPBD-recast, 353

Equity crowdfunding, 68

Equity financing

introduction, 60e61

issues, 62e64

pros and cons, 61e62

EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020,


Eukaryotic microalgae, 246e248

European Installation Bus (EIB), 466

European Patent Office (EPO), 109e110

European Technical Approval (ETA),


Eutectics, 184e185

Expanded polystyrene, 131

Extruded polystyrene, 132


Faỗade integrated photobioreactors

designs, 238e243

future realization, 272e278, 273te274t,


microalgae, 244e250, 245f, 279e289,

280fe284f, 285te286t, 287f

eukaryotic microalgae, 246e248

hydrogen, 249

lipid composition, 249

nucleus/mitochondria and chloroplasts,


photosynthesis, 246, 247fe248f

photosynthetically active radiation,


prokaryotic microalgae, 246

microalgae industry, 238

microalgal biofuels, advantages and

disadvantages of, 239te242t

photobioreactor, 250e265

advantages, 252

in building, 265e269, 266fe271f

constructed from, 252

design and scale-up parameters,


fermenter tank photobioreactors,

258e260, 259f

integrated photobioreactor designs,


microalgae cultivation, 251f, 252

microalgae process, outdoors steps of,

252e254, 253f


panel-type photobioreactors, 254e256,


tubular-type photobioreactors, 256, 257f

Facade mock-up, 342e343, 342fe343f

Fermenter tank photobioreactors, 258e260,


Financing challenges, 24

Fine particles, 304


Gaseous compounds, 303e304

Gas exchange, 263e264

Gas insulation material (GIM), 139e140,


Gas release method, 161e162

GEM. See Global entrepreneurship monitor


Global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM),


Government venture capital (GVC), 60e61

GVC. See Government venture capital (GVC)


Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS), 404

Hague Agreement, 119

Harmonization, 120

Heat distortion temperature (HDT), 336

Heat flow meter apparatus (HFMA), 195

Hollow silica nanosphere (HSNS), 129

details, 163, 163f

results, 164e166, 164fe165f

Homebus systems, 466

HSNS. See Hollow silica nanosphere


Hybrid modules, 312

Hydrogen, 249


IAQ. See Indoor air quality (IAQ)

Illumination strategy, 261e262

Incubator, 80

Independent venture capital (IVC), 60e61

Indoor air pollutants, 303e305

Indoor air quality (IAQ), 6e7

airborne contaminants, 301

air pollution issues

classification, 302e303

indoor air pollutants, 303e305

treatment methods, 305e306


air treatment

bioreactor performance, 312e316

bioreactors, types, 308e312

concept basics and principles,


application, 317, 323

carbon dioxide level, reduction,


formaldehyde removal, 318e319

global performance relevance, 322

inorganic gaseous compound removal,


microorganism removal, 317e318

mixed volatile organic compound

removal, 320e321

particulate matter removal, 319e320

toluene removal, 319

using bioreactors, 316e317

smart-building concept, 301e302,


Industrial designs, 108e109

Industrial marketing research, 76e78

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), 401

Inorganic PCMs, 184

Integrated photobioreactor designs,


Intellectual property, 25

considerations, 121e124

forms of rights, 106e112

copyrights, 110e111

industrial designs, 108e109

patents and utility models, 109e110

trademarks, 107e108

trade secrets, 111e112

historical development, 112e115

copyrights, 114e115

patents, 113

trademarks, 113e114

Office for Harmonization in the Internal

Market (OHIM), 108

regulatory aspects, 115e121

European Union, 119e121

protection, international framework of,


Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual

Property Rights (TRIPS), 108

Intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs)

artificial intelligence (AI), 428

decision support systems (DSSs), 428


energy-DSS (e-DSS), 430

energy efficiency KPIs (e-KPIs), 430

integrated waste management system

(IWMS), 430e431

iWIDGET, 432

MEWSUB, 431e432

Neptune project, 429e430

Physical Internet (PI), 433

International Telecommunication Union

(ITU), 414

Internet of Things (IoT)

built environment

air pollution, 425

areas of practice, 418e419, 419f

defined, 418

Enevo ONe, 423

issues, 420e421

life cycle, 418, 419f

Minneapolis Interactive Macro

Mood Installation (MIMMI),


Oxford Flood Network,


Placemeter, 423e424

potential applications, 419e420

radio frequency identification (RFID)

tags, 426

Samsung, 421e422

characteristics, 415

comfort zone, 414

components, 416

defined, 413e414

design, 416e417

IDSSs. See Intelligent decision support

systems (IDSSs)

start-up’s, 439e445

technological trends, 417e418

trends and future, 433e439

IoT. See Internet of Things (IoT)

IVC. See Independent venture capital



Jumpstart Our Business Start-ups (JOBS),



Kickstarter, 4, 67

KNX, 467



Lean Canvas, 42e43

Lean start-up

business model idea, link to, 42e43

concepts of, 45e54

business plan, searching for, 51e52

customers, agile development together

with, 50e51

lean and global, 54e55

minimum viable products, 46e48, 46f

pivoting, 48e49

scaling, 52e54

defined, 41e42


big design or iterative design, 44

business planning/hypothesis testing,


customer feedback, 44

overview, 43

successful start-up, 39e41

planning and forecasting, 40

waterfall process, 40

Lending model, 67e68

LIFX, 471

Light control algorithms

artificial lights, 376


embedded rules, 383, 384t

fuzzy control algorithm, 383, 383t

lights control framework, 383e384, 385f

membership functions, 383, 384f

proposed controller for artificial lights,

382, 382f

fuzzy technology, 377

importance of light, 375e376

integration and implementation, 384e386

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria

Ospedali Riuniti in Ancona, 386e389,

387fe388f, 388te389t

input variables, 386

Saint George hospital, 389e390

lighting control market, 377e378

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria

Ospedali Riuniti in Ancona,

379e380, 379f

Comfy, 378

HP, 378

information and communication

technology (ICT), 378


Loccioni Group building, 380, 381f

Saint George hospital, 380

lighting requirements, 381e382,


wireless sensors, 376e377

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 376

Lighting-control hardware, 81

Lighting control market, 377e378

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria

Ospedali Riuniti in Ancona, 379e380,


Comfy, 378

HP, 378

information and communication

technology (ICT), 378

Loccioni Group building, 380, 381f

Saint George hospital, 380

Light supply, 261e262

Lipid composition, 249

Local Operating Network (LON), 467

LOCKITRON, 469e470


Machine-to-machine (M2M)

communication, 426e428

MapReduce, 404


case studies, 79e84

alpha, 80, 81f

beta, 81e82, 82f

business actors and customers,

relationships with, 83e84

innovation support actors, relationships

with, 82e83, 82f

conceptual framework

navigating, 76e78, 77t

science- and technology-based start-ups,


defined, 78e79

limitations, 85

managerial implications, 84e85

Market scaling, 31e32, 31f

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

(MIT), 2


glycol (MFPEG), 185

Membrane bioreactors, 310e311, 311f

Membrane foaming method, 160e161,


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