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13 Old Alchemical Symbols Used in Astronomy, Chemistry, and Biology

13 Old Alchemical Symbols Used in Astronomy, Chemistry, and Biology

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6.14



International Geological Time Scale

Table 6-13 International Geological Time Scale

Era

CENOZOIC



Period

QUATERNARY



Epoch



Age



Holocene



Versilien



Pleistocene



Tyrrhenian

Sicilian



NEOGENE



Pliocene

Miocene



PALEOGENE



Oligocene



Eocene



Paleocene



MESOZOIC



CRETACEOUS



Senonian



Middle

Neocomian



JURASSIC



Malm



Ma

0.01

0.05

0.5



Calabrian



1.8



Piacenzian



3.6



Zanclean



5.3



Messinian



7.1



Tortonian



11.2



Serravallian



14.8



Langhian



16.4



Burdigalian



20.5



Aquitanian



23.8



Chattian



28.5



Rupelian

(Stampian)



33.7



Priabonian



37.0



Bartonian



41.3



Lutetian



49.0



Ypresian



54.8



Thanetian



57.9



Selandian



61.0



Danian-Montian



65.0



Maastrichtian



71.3



Campanian



83.5



Santonian



85.8



Conician



89



Turonian



93.5



Cenomanian



99



Albian



112



Aptian



121



Barremian



127



Hauterivian



132



Valanginian



137



Berriasian



144



Tithonian



151



(Portlandian)

Kimmeridgian



154



Oxfordian



159



Table 6-13 (continued) International Geological Time Scale

Era

MESOZOIC

(continued)



Period

JURASSIC

(continued)



Epoch

Dogger



Lias



TRIASSIC



Bajocian



176



Aalenian



180



Toarcian



190

195

202



Hettangian



206



Rhaetian



Rhaetian



210



Keuper



Norian



221



Carnian



227



Ladinian



234



Anisian



242



Spathian



245



Nammalian



246



Scythian



Griesbachian



248



Thuringian



Tatarian



248



UfimianKazanian



252



Saxonian



CARBONIFEROUS



164

169



Sinemurian



Bundsanstein



PERMIAN



Callovian

Bathonian



Ma



Pliensbachian



Mushelkalk



PALEOZOIC



Age



Kungurian



256



Artinkian



260



Autunian



Sakmarian



269



Asselian



282



Pennsylvanian



Gzelian



290



(Stephanian)



Mississippian



DEVONIAN



Kasimovian



296



Moscovian

Bashkirian

(Westphalian)



303

311



Serpukhovian

(Namurian)



323



Viean



327



Tournaisian



342



Late



Famennian



354



Frasnian



364



Middle



Givetian



370



Eifelian

(Couvinian)



380



Wenlockian



423



Llandoverian



428



Early



Table 6-13 (continued) International Geological Time Scale

Era

PALEOZOIC



Period

ORDOVICIAN



Epoch

Late



(continu^>

Middle

Early

CAMBRIAN



Postdamian



Acadian

Georgian

PRECAMBRIAN

(ANTEPHANEROZOIC)



ALGONKIAN

(PROTEROZOIC)



Vendian



Sinian

Riphean



ARCHEAN



Age



Ma



Ashgillian



443



Caradocian



449



Llandeilian



458



Llanvirnian



464



Arenigian



470



Tremadocian



485



Dolgeilian



490



Maentwrogian



500



Menevian



530



Solvan



536



Lenian



554



Atdabanian



560



Tommotian



570



Poundian

Wnnnkani™

Wonokanian



580

son

590



Mortensnesian



600



Smalfjordian



610



Sturtian



800



Karatau



1050



Yurmatin



1350



Burzyan



1650



Animikean



2200



Huronian



2450



Laurentian



Randian



2800



Swazian



3500



Keewatinien



Isuan



3800



Hadean



Imbrian



3850



Nectarian



3950



Cryptic



4560



6.15 Old Symbols Used in the British System

In some of the oldest British textbooks used in pharmacy, it is possible to find old

notations for British units of weights and capacity (apothecaries' units). Symbols were

usually used for writing the quantities of units of the apothecaries' system on prescriptions.

Occasionally abbreviations were used. These old symbols were taken directly from ancient

times (e.g. the Middle Ages), when alchemy and cabalistic beliefs were one discipline. Some

of these symbols used capital letters from the Cyrillic alphabet.



Table 6-14 Obsolete symbols for British apothecaries' units

Old symbol Unit, name

^ap

scruple apoth.

^ I9 j

1

scruple apoth.

> i, ss

^ ii, jj

3 ap



3/2



2



scruple apoth. (semis)

scruple apoth.

drachm apoth.



3 i, j



1



drachm apoth.



j i, ss

3 ii, jj

^g a p

^y i9 j



3/2

2



drachm apoth. (semis)

drachm apoth.

ounce apoth.

ounce apoth.



$& i, ss

J ^ u> jj



3 2



1

^

2



gallon (from Latin Congius)



Cong.

O.

f ^gr

fj

yjk



ounce apoth. (semis)

ounce apoth.

pint (from Latin Octarius)



fluid

fluid



dram

ounce

minim or drop



6.16 Electromagnetic Spectrum

Table 6-15 Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic radiation



Ionizing

radiation 23



Wavelength

range



Wave

number

range



Gamma rays (y-rays)



100000 to

0.1 fm



X-rays



hard (HXR)



0.1 to 1.0 nm 10000 to

1000 urn" 1



12.40 to

1.24 keV



soft (SXR)



1.0 to 10 nm 1000 to

100 urn" 1



1240 to

124 eV



extreme

(EUV)



10 to 100 nm 100 to

5.556UnT 1



124 to

12.4 eV



vacuum

(VUV)



100 to

180 nm



100 to

55.56UnT 1



12.4 to

6.89 eV



far-UV

(FUV)



180 to

200 nm



55556 to

50000 cm" 1



6.89 to

6.2OeV



near-UV

(NUV)



200 to

380 nm



50000 to

26316 cm" 1



6.20 to

3.26 eV



Visible light (Vis)



380 to

780 nm



26316 to

12 821cm" 1



3.26 to

1.59 eV



Infra-red

(IR)



near (NIR)



0.78 to

2.5 urn



12821 to

4000 cm" 1



1.59 to

0.496 eV



medium

(MIR)



2.5 to 50 um 4000 to

200 cm" 1



0.496 to

0.025 eV



far (FIR)



50 to

1000 um



25 to

1.24 meV



Ultraviolet

(UV)



Nonionizing



1000 to

10 nm" 1



Energy

range



200 to

10 cm" 1



12.4 MeV to

12.4 keV



Microwaves (MW)



0.1 to 100 cm 10 to

0.01 cm" 1



1240 to

1.24 ueV



Radiowaves (RW)



1 to 1000 m



1240 to

1.24 neV



1 to

0.001 m" 1



23

In radioprotection, an electromagnetic radiation is defined as ionizing if its energy is above 12 eV,

i.e., if it is able to ionize both atoms and molecules constituting living matter.



6.17 Standard Paper Sizes (ISO and US)

ISO Standard Paper Sizes: ISO standard paper size is an international paper sizes

designation grouped into three series, denoted respectivelyby Aw, Bw, and Cw. Increasing

the number w by 1 halves the surface area of the sheet, i.e., for example, an A5 sheet is an

A4 sheet cut in half. By definition the preferred number series begin by the basic sheet

denoted: AO which is 841 mm x 1189 mm, and hence exhibits a surface area of one square

meter exactly and the ratio between the height (w) and width (w) of a sheet is always the

square root of two (i.e., y/l). The basic relationships between the AO and other Aw format is

given by the two equations listed in table. For example, the A4 sheet (i.e., the standard size

for business letters) exhibits a surface area of 1/16 square meter. The surface area of a Bw

sheet is the area of the Aw sheet multiplied by the square root of two. For instance, a B5

sheet exhibits a surface area y/l times that of an A5 sheet. Finally, the Cw size, intended

mostly for envelopes, has a surface area equal to the fourth root of two (i.e., \/l) times the

surface area of the Aw sheet.



Next Page

Table 6-16 ISO standard paper sizes: designation and formulae

ISO paper sheet

format



Width (wy m)



Height (/, m)



Surface area (S,

m2)



An



2-(H)



2(H)



2""



Bw



2*



2 (H)



2-"+*



Cw



2"H



2"W



2""^



S (AO) = 1 m 2 (E) (by definition); S (Aw) = 2S (Aw + 1); and

S (Aw) = w (Aw) x w {An) = Vlw2 (Aw) = 2" n x S (AO)

w (Aw) = \/2w(Aw) and /(Aw) = y/ll{An + 1) (rounded to the nearest mm)

S(Bn) = y/2S(An) and S(Cw) =


Table 6-17 ISO Aw, Bw, awd Cn paper sheet formats

Aw series



Bn series



Cn series



4AO



1682x2378



-



-



2A0



1189x1682



-



AO



841 x 1189



BO



1000 x 1414



CO



917 x 1297



Al



594x841



Bl



707x1000



Cl



648x917



A2



420x594



B2



500x707



C2



458x648



A3



297x420



B3



353x500



C3



324x458



A4



210x297



B4



250x353



C4



229x324



A5



148x210



B5



176x250



C5



162x229



A6



105 x 148



B6



125 x 176



C6



114 x 162



-



-



A7



74 x 105



B7



88 x 125



C7



81 x 114



A8



52x74



B8



62x88



C8



57x81



A9



37x52



B9



44x62



C9



40x57



AlO



26x37



BlO



31x44



ClO



28x40



Table 6-18 US paper sizes

Standard designation



Dimensions



letter size



8.5 in x 11 in



legal size



8.5 in x 14 in



ledger size (Tabloid)

executive size



11 in x 17 in

7.25 in x 10.5 in



A paper



8.5 in x 11 in



B paper



11 in x 17 in



C paper



17 in x 22 in



D paper



22 in x 34 in



£ paper



34 in x 44 in



Previous Page



6.18 International Country Code Designations

Table 6-19 International country code designations (ISO, IANA, UN, and IOC)

Country name



ISO 2alpha



ISO 3-



IANA



alpha



Internet



UN



IOC



UN/ISO

numeric



Afghanistan



AF



AFG



.af



AFG



AFG



004



Albania



AL



ALB



.al



AL



ALB



008



DZ



ALG



012



ASA



016



AND



020



ANG



024



Algeria



DZ



DZA



.dz



American Samoa



AS



ASM



.as



Andorra



AD



AND



.ad



Angola



AO



AGO



.ao



Anguilla



AI



AIA



.ai



660



Antarctica



AQ



ATA



.aq



010



Antigua and Barbuda



AG



ATG



.ag



Argentina



AR



ARG



.ar



RA

ARM



Armenia



AM



ARM



.am



Aruba



AW



ABW



.aw



Ascension Island



AND



ANT



028



ARG



032



ARM



051



ARU



533



.ac



Australia



AU



AUS



.au



Austria



AT



AUT



.at



Azerbaijan



AZ



AZE



.az



AUS

AZ



AUS



036



AUT



040



AZE



031



Bahamas



BS



BHS



.bs



BS



BAH



044



Bahrain



BH



BHR



.bh



BRN



BRN



048



Bangladesh



BD



BGD



.bd



BD



BAN



050



BDS



BAR



052



Barbados



BB



BRB



.bb



Belarus



BY



BLR



.by



Belgium



BE



BEL



.be



B



BLR



112



BEL



056



Belize



BZ



BLZ



.bz



BIZ



084



Benin



BJ



BEN



.bj



BEN



204



Bermuda



BM



BMU



.bm



BER



060



Bhutan



BT



BTN



.bt



BHU



064



Bolivia

Bosnia and

Herzegovina



BO

BA



BOL

BIH



.bo

.ba



BOL

BIH



068

070



Botswana



BW



BWA



.bw



BOT



072



Bouvet Island



BV



BVT



.bv



Brazil



BR



BRA



.br



British Indian Ocean

Territory



IO



IOT



.io



Brunei Darussalam



BN



BRN



.bn



BRU



BRU



Bulgaria



BG



BGR



.bg



BG



BUL



100



Burkina Faso



BF



BFA



.bf



BUR



854



Burundi



BI



BDI



.bi



RU



BDI



108



Cambodia



KH



KHM



.kh



K



CAM



116



BOL

BIH



074

BR



BRA



076

086

096



Table 6-19 (continued) International country code designations (ISO, IANA, UN, and IOC)

Country name



ISO 2alpha



ISO 3alpha



IANA

Internet



UN



IOC



UN/ISO

numeric



Cameroon



CM



CMR



.cm



CAM



CMR



120



Canada



CA



CAN



.ca



CDN



CAN



124



Cape Verde



CV



CPV



.cv



CPV



132



Cayman Islands

Central African

Republic



KY

CF



CYM

CAF



.ky

.cf



RCA



CAY

CAF



136

140



Chad (Tchad)

Channel Islands

Chile

China

Christmas Island

Cocos (Keeling)

Islands



TD



TCD



.td



TCH



CHA



CL

CN

CX

CC



CHL

CHN

CXR

CCK



xl

xn

xx

xc



RCH

RC



CHI

CHN



148

830

152

156

162

166



Colombia

Comoros



CO

KM



COL

COM



xo

.km



CO



COL

COM



170

174



Congo (Republic of)



CG



COG



xg



RCB



CGO



178



Congo

(The Democratic

Republic of)



CD



COD



xd



ZRE



COD



180



Cook Islands

Costa Rica



CK

CR



COK

CRI



xk

xr



CR



COK

CRI



184

188



Cote D'ivoire (Ivory

Coast)



CI



CIV



xi



CI



CIV



384



Croatia (Hrvatska)



HR



HRV



.hr



HR



CRO



191



Cuba



CU



CUB



xu



CU



CUB



192



Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominica

Dominican Republic

East Timor (Formerly

Portuguese Timor)



CY

CZ

DK

DJ

DM

DO

TP



CYP

CZE

DNK

DJI

DMA

DOM

TMP



.cy

xz

.dk

.dj

.dm

.do

.tp



CY

CZ

DK



DOM



CYP

CZE

DEN

DJI

DMA

DOM



196

203

208

262

212

214

626



Ecuador



EC



ECU



.ec



EC



ECU



218



Egypt

El Salvador

Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea



EG

SV

GQ

ER



EGY

SLV

GNQ

ERI



.eg

.sv

.gq

.er



ET

ES



EGY

ESA

GEQ

ERI



818

222

226

232



Estonia

Ethiopia

Faeroe Islands

Falkland Islands

(Malvinas)



EE

ET

FO

FK



EST

ETH

FRO

FLK



.ee

.et

.fo

.fk



EST

ETH



EST

ETH



233

231

234

238



Table 6-19 (continued) International country code designations (ISO, IANA, UN, and IOC)

Country name



ISO 2-



ISO 3-



IANA



alpha



alpha



Internet



UN



IOC



UN/ISO

numeric



Fiji



FJ



FJI



.f)



FJI



FIJ



242



Finland



FI



FIN



.fi



FIN



FIN



246



FRA



France



FR



FRA



.fr



F



France (metropolitan

excludes overseas



FX



FXX



.fx



F



250



French Guyana



GF



GUF



.gf



254



French Polynesia

French Southern

Territories



PF

TF



PYF

ATF



.pf

.tf



258

260



249



territories)



Gabon



GA



GAB



.ga



Gambia



GM



GMB



.gm



Georgia

Germany

(Deutschland)



GE

DE



GEO

DEU



.ge

.de



Ghana



GH



GHA



.gh



Gibraltar



GI



GIB



.gi



Greece



GR



GRC



.gr



Greenland



GL



GRL



.gl



Grenada



GD



GRD



.gd



Guadeloupe



GP



GLP



.gp



Guam



GU



GUM



.gu



Guatemala



GT



GTM



.gt



Guernsey

Guinea



GAB



GAB



266



GAM



270



GE

D



GEO

GER



268

276



GH



GHA



288

292



GR



GRE



300

304



GRN



308

312



GUM



316



GCA



GUA



320



RG



GUI



324



GBS



624



.gg

GN



GIN



.gn



Guinea-bissau



GW



GNB



.gw



Guyana



GY



GUY



.gy



GUY



GUY



328



Haiti



HT



HTI



.ht



RH



HAI



332



Heard Island and

Mcdonald Islands



HM



HMD



.hm



Honduras



HN



HND



.hn



Hong Kong



HK



HKG



.hk



HKG



344



Hungary



HU



HUN



.hu



H



HUN



348



Iceland



IS



ISL



.is



IS



ISL



352



India



IN



IND



.in



IND



IND



356



Indonesia



ID



IDN



.id



RI



INA



360



Iran (Islamic Republic

of Iran)



IR



IRN



.ir



IR



IRI



364



Iraq



IQ



IRQ



.iq



IRQ



IRQ



368



Ireland



IE



IRL



Je



IRL



IRL



Isle of Man



334

HON



.im



340



372

833



Israel



IL



ISR



.U



IL



ISR



376



Italy



IT



ITA



.it



I



ITA



380



Table 6-19 (continued) International country code designations (ISO, IANA, UN, and IOC)

Country name



ISO 2alpha



ISO 3-



IANA



alpha



Internet



UN



IOC



UN/ISO

numeric



Jamaica



JM



JAM



.jm



JA



JAM



388



Japan



JP



JPN



.jp



J



JPN



392



Jersey

Jordan (Hashemite

Kingdom of Jordan)



JO



JOR



.je

.jo



HKJ



JOR



400



Kazakhstan



KZ



KAZ



.kz



KZ



Kenya



KE



KEN



.ke



Kiribati



KI



KIR



.ki



Korea (Democratic

Peoples Republic of



KP



PRK



.kp



KAZ



398



KEN



404



PRK



408



296



Korea)

Korea (South Korea)



KR



KOR



.kr



ROK



KOR



410



Kuwait



KW



KWT



.kw



KWT



KUW



414



Kyrgyzstan

Lao Peopled

Democratic Republic



KG

LA



KGZ

LAO



.kg

.Ia



KS

LAO



KGZ

LAO



417

418



Latvia



LV



LVA



.Iv



LV



LAT



428



Lebanon



LB



LBN



.Ib



RL



LIB



422



Lesotho



LS



LSO



.Is



LS



LES



426



Liberia



LR



LBR



.Ir



LB



LBR



430



Libya (Libyan Arab

Jamahirya)



LY



LBY



.Iy



LAR



LBA



434



Liechtenstein

(Furstentum

Liechtenstein)



LI



LIE



.Ii



FL



LIE



438



Lithuania



LT



LTU



.It



LT



LTU



440



L



LUX



Luxembourg



LU



LUX



.Iu



Macao



MO



MAC



.mo



442



Macedonia (Former

Yugoslav Republic of



MK



MKD



.mk



MK



MKD



807



MG



MDG



.md



RM



MAD



450



446



Macedonia)

Madagascar

Malawi



MW



MWI



.mw



MW



MAW



454



Malaysia



MY



MYS



.my



MAL



MAS



458



Maldives



MV



MDV



.mv



MDV



462



Mali



ML



MLI



.ml



RMM



MLI



466



Malta



MT



MLT



.mt



M



MLT



470



Marshall Islands



MH



MHL



.mh



584



Martinique



MQ



MTQ



.mq



474



Mauritania



MR



MRT



.mr



RIM



MTN



478



Mauritius



MU



MUS



.mu



MS



MRI



480



Mayotte



YT



MYT



.yt



Mexico



MX



MEX



.mx



MEX



MEX



484



175



Table 6-19 (continued) International country code designations (ISO, IANA, UN, and IOC)

Country name



ISO 2alpha



ISO 3alpha



IANA

Internet



Micronesia (Federated

States of Micronesia)



FM



FSM



.fm



Moldova



MD



MDA



.md



MD



MDA



498



Monaco



MC



MCO



.me



MC



MON



492



Mongolia



MN



MNG



.mn



MGL



MGL



496



Montserrat



MS



MSR



.ms



Morocco



MA



MAR



.ma



MA



MAR



504



Mozambique

(Mozambique)



MZ



MOZ



.mz



MOC



MOZ



508



Myanmar (Formerly

Burma)



MM



MMR



.mm



MYA



104



Namibia



NA



NAM



.na



Nauru



NR



NRU



.nr



Nepal



NP



NPL



.np



Netherlands



NL



NLD



.nl



Netherlands Antilles



AN



ANT



.an



UN



IOC

FSM



UN/ISO

numeric

583



500



NAM



NAM



516



NRU



520



NEP



NEP



524



NL



NED



528



NA



AHO



530



New Caledonia



NC



NCL



.nc



New Zealand



NZ



NZL



.nz



NZ



NZL



554



540



Nicaragua



NI



NIC



.ni



NIC



NCA



558



Niger



NE



NER



.ne



RN



NIG



562



Nigeria



NG



NGA



.ng



NGR



566



Niue



NU



NIU



.nu



570



Norfolk Island



NF



NFK



.nf



574



Northern Mariana

Islands



MP



MNP



.mp



580



Norway



NO



NOR



.no



Oman



OM



OMN



.om



NOR



578



OMA



512



Pakistan



PK



PAK



.pk



Palau



PW



PLW



.pw



PAK



586



PLW



Palestinian Territories



PS



PSE



.ps



585



PLE



275



Panama



PA



PAN



.pa



Papua New Guinea



PG



PNG



.pg



PA



PAN



591



PNG



PNG



Paraguay



PY



PRY



.py



598



PY



PAR



600



Peru



PE



PER



Philippines



PH



PHL



.pe



PE



PER



604



.ph



RP



PHI



Pitcairn



PN



PCN



.pn



Poland



PL



POL



.pi



PL



POL



616



Portugal



PT



PRT



.pt



P



POR



620



PUR



630



QA



QAT



634



Puerto Rico



PR



PRI



.pr



Qatar



QA



QAT



.qa



Reunion



RE



REU



.re



Romania



RO



ROU



.ro



N

PK



608

612



638

RO



ROM



642



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13 Old Alchemical Symbols Used in Astronomy, Chemistry, and Biology

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