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Figure 1.1: The relative importance of each service quality dimension
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materials. It does not mean to ignore tangibles and only be focus on
reliability, service providers have to do both. But provider’s first and best
efforts are better spent making service reliability.
Assurance is the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability
to convey trust and confidence. This dimension can also be connected to the
functional quality. According to Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1990),
assurance is about competence, courtesy, credibility and security. Gronroos
(1993) describes those factors separately:
Firstly, Courtesy is about politeness, respect, consideration, friendliness
of contact personnel (including receptionist, telephone operators and so on).
Secondly, Competence is connected to the knowledge and skills of
contact, operational support personnel (and also research capability) that are
needed for delivering the service.
Thirdly, Credibility involves factors such as trustworthiness, believability
and honesty. It means to the level the company has the customers’ best
interest at heart. Factors that affect the credibility are the company name,
reputation, personal characteristics and the degree to which the hard sell is
connected to interactions with customers.
Lastly, Security means freedom from danger, risk or doubt. Factors
included are physical safety, financial security and confidentiality. In the
viewpoint of customers, service providers are expected to be the experts of
the service they are delivering. If a service provider is highly skilled, but they
cannot make the customers see that, the customers’ confidence in that
provider will be lower. And their assessment of that provider’s service quality
will have the same trend.
Tangibles refer to the appearance of physical facilities, equipment,
personnel and communication materials. That means it deals with all that is
physically visible and touchable. Even though this is the least important
dimension, appearance matters, service providers still want to make sure
that their employees appearance, uniforms, equipment and work areas onsite (closets, service, offices, etc.) look good. The danger is for providers who
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can make everything look sharp and then fall short on reliability or
Grönroos (2007) mention that service quality can be divided into two
parts, functional quality and technical quality. Tangibles can be connected to
the functional quality (Grönroos, 2007).
According to Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1990), empathy is about
easy access, good communication and understanding the customers.
Grönroos (1983) describes those factors separately:
Easy access is connected to the approachability which means for
example: the operating hours and the location of the facilities are
convenient, the waiting times are short and also easy access by telephone,
Good communication is about keeping the customers informed in a
language they can understand and also listen to the customers. The company
may have to training the staff or adjust the recruitment policy to adapt to the
Understanding the customers is about making an effort to understand
the customers which involves learning about specific requirements, providing
individual attention and recognizing also the regular customers.
Responsiveness means the willingness and readiness to help customers
and provide prompt service. It also means to respond quickly, promptly,
rapidly, immediately or instantly. This is the second important factor when
customers think about the service quality. This dimension can be connected
to the technical quality because the features are about how the service is
delivered. After reviewing relevant literature, a theoretical framework has
been established within which the actual study on the customer service at
Shinhan Viet Nam – BacNinh branch will be carried out. The service provided
by Shinhanis assessed against the dimensions of service quality: reliability,
assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness.
1.3. The importance of customer service to commercial bank
1.3.1 Service quality
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Service quality involves a comparison of expectations with performance.
According to Lewis and Booms, service quality is a measure of how well a
delivered service matches the customers’ expectations. Parasuraman and
Berry (1985) viewed quality as “the degree and direction of discrepancy
between customers’ service perception and expectations”.
Generally, the customer is requesting a service at the service interface
where the service encounter is being realized, and then the service is being
provided by the provider and at the same time delivered to or consumers’
needs while remaining economically competitive at the same time. This
means that satisfying customers’ needs is very important for the enterprises
1.3.2 Customer satisfaction
In recent years, most of enterprises have understood the importance of
customer satisfaction. It is necessary to define what customer satisfaction is.
According to Richard L. Oliver (1996) – “Satisfaction is a customer’s
fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the
product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption related
fulfillment”. While Philip Kotler claims that – “Satisfaction is a person’s
feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s
perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his experience.”
Customer satisfaction is defined as “customer satisfaction, or
dissatisfaction, is the feeling of a customer has about the extent to which
their experiences with an organization have met their needs”. It can be
understood that satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and
expectations. If the performance falls short of expectation, the customer is
dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is
satisfied. And if the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is
In today’s competitive environment, every business is trying to attract
the customers by assuring highest degree of satisfaction. Satisfied customers
are the main determinants of success or failure of an organization’s business.
1.3.3 Levels of customer satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is the key to building the clientele of any business.
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The more you satisfy your customers, the more your business can grow.
According to Brian Tracy, one of America’s leading authorities on the
development of the human potential, customer service can be identified to
four levels which are achieved by providing corresponding levels of customer
service. The higher the level you achieve, the more customer loyalty you will
build and the greater your success will be.
188.8.131.52 Level one - Meet customer expectations
At level one, a business meets its customers’ expectations. This is the
minimum requirement to simply stay in business in order to survive. At this
level, customers have no complaints about your products or services. They
are satisfied for the moments. But they are not loyal. If a competitor
demonstrates that it can and will do more than merely meet their
expectations, your customers will very quickly not use your products or
service anymore. They will become your ex-customers.
Moreover, finding another company sell the similar products with a
good customer service is not difficult in the current competitive
environment. If someone comes into your store expecting to purchase
something, the staff must provide good services and expertise to help in the
purchase in a reasonable amount of time, or the customer will get frustrated
and leave. If enterprises fail to meet their expectations, perhaps only one
time, they will leave and find someone else who will promise to offer them a
better service. Knowing what the customer expects is the first and possibly
most critical step in delivering good quality service. Being wrong about what
customers want can mean losing a client when another company gives the
right demand. Being wrong can also mean expending money, time and other
resources on things that do not count to the customers. Being wrong can
even mean not surviving in a fiercely competitive market. Therefore, at this
level, customers easily come to your company but they also easily go.
184.108.40.206 Level two-Exceed customer expectations
The higher level of customer satisfaction is exceeding customer
expectations. It means that surprising your customers, going beyond what
they expected. Fast, friendly service, followed up by a phone call to make
sure everything is alright, might you put into this category. Once your
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customers understand your company’s customer service standards, they will
understand that your company has gone above and beyond its standard
Good customer service can set your company aside from competitors.
The second level is where you start to build customer loyalty. When service
happens faster than expected, or is better than expected, customers leave
your store pleased and are much more likely to return. They may even be
willing to pay a little bit higher prices. They second level of customer service
moves you beyond survival, building a measure of customer loyalty and
giving you an edge over your competitors. It can also increase your
profitability. Customers who experience the kind of service that exceeds their
expectations are often willing to pay for it, enabling the supplier to raise and
thus improve profit margins.
220.127.116.11 Level three- Delight the customers
This level is where you show customers that you really care about them.
Putting you in touch with the spirit of what the clients want to accomplish is
the key of the value and principle of “customer delight”.
Customers who are serviced at this level are truly delighted. Not only
have the customers’ basic needs been met, or even exceeded, but also they
have truly been touched on an emotional level. And once customers have
enjoyed this experience, it will be very difficult for a competitor to attract
them. When you delight your customers, you are on the way to create a have
discovered a formula that goes beyond products and services. Their business
is providing delight to their customers by understanding their specific
personal interests, anticipating their needs, exceeding their expectations,
and making every moment and aspect of the relationship a pleasant.
To delight your customers is to show that how you care about them. It
will bring a smile to their face. The greater your services delight your
customers, the greater your services delight your customers, the greater
success you will enjoy in your business.
18.104.22.168 Level four- Amaze the customers
“Amaze your customers” is the fourth level of customer service. It is
what will push your business into an expert level. Expending the effort to
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amaze customers can propel your business to new heights. By amazing them,
you give customers a compelling reason to patronize your business and
recommend it to their friends. It requires you, not just to meet or exceed
your customers’ expectations, not to simply delight them, but to truly amaze
them. The highest level of customer service is when you develop the habit of
amazing your customers: when you do something for them that is so
extraordinary, they want to run around and tell everybody they know. When
you are able to accomplish this on a regular basis, you will be in a position to
dominate the marketplace and achieve remarkable rates of revenue growth
1.3.4Relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction
“Service quality is the most important factor which impacts of customer
satisfaction.” (Cronin and Taylor, (1992); Yavas et al, (1997); Ahmad and
Kamal, (2002)). If the service provider gives customers the high quality
products to satisfy their demands, the enterprise initially makes customer
Therefore, service quality and customer satisfaction are closely
correlated with each other (positive relationship), in which service quality is
what is created first and then impacts on the satisfaction of customers. In the
study of the relationship between these two factors, Spreng and Mackoy also
show that service quality is the premise of customer satisfaction.
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Needs being met
Needs not being met
Figure 1.2 Relationship between service and customer satisfaction(Spreng
and Mackoy, 1996)
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2.1 Research question
1. How does of customer service influence customer satisfaction at
Shinhan bank- BacNinh branch?
2. How can Shinhan bank improve customer service?
2.2 Research methodology
The study reviews associated literature to create framework for the
study. This study also uses questionnaire survey, interview and observation
to collect data for analyzing.
The data collected was analyzed using frequency tables and
percentages. Responses were analyzed with excel. Discussion of results were
made in relation to the research questions
2.3 Data analysis and discussion
In this part, analysis and discussion of the results from data collected
will be looked at . Raw data was analysed using SPSS, excel to arrive at
frequency tables and percentages.
2.3.1 Data analysis
How satisfied a customer is depends on the quality of service received
by the customer. Gap analys is model by Ziethamlet. al,.(1988) and Groonros
(2000) is often used to determine the quality of service.
The gap is often between the perception of customers and their
expectation, which will eventually determine whether they are dissatified,
satisfied or excited.
Those customers who are satisfied or excited have a very high
percentage of being retained and eventually will become loyal at the end.
The sample size was 90 however, 80 of the questionare were answered.
70 of which were customers and 10 were staff of Shinhan bank BacNinh
2.3.2 Responses from customers
Responses from customers are in two parts, the first part reveals the
perception that customers have about the services offered in the Shinhan
bank BacNinh and the second part deals with strategies that the bank has