Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Table 15. GHG emissions and sectoral indicators

Table 15. GHG emissions and sectoral indicators

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

Total GHG emissions



CO2 emissions

per Kwh

electricity



647

6 830



Road transport

CO2 emissions

per vehicle



Electricity use

per unit

of GDP



Industrial

output

per unit

of GDP



Annual average percentage change



Level million

tonnes CO2

equivalent

1999



United Kingdom

United States



Manufacturing CO2 Residential CO2

emissions

emissions

per unit

per unit

of industrial

of private

production

consumption



102



Table 15. GHG emissions and sectoral indicators (cont.)



1990-19991,2



–1.5

1.2



–4.7

0.2



1990-1998



–1.7

–5.3



–0.7

–2.3



1990-1999



–0.2

1.1



–0.7

0.8



–1.6

1.2



Total of above

OECD countries



14 257



0.5



–0.7



–3.1



–1.6



0.1



–0.3



0.1



OECD excluding US



7 428



0.0



–1.8



–2.0



–1.1



–0.6



0.0



–0.6



EU countries



4 048



–0.4



–2.4



–2.2



–2.0



–0.6



–0.2



–0.5



1. 1995-1999 for Czech Republic; 1991-1999 for Germany; 1992-1999 for Hungary and Slovakia; no data for Iceland.

2. 1991-1998 for Czech Republic; 1995-1999 for Slovakia.

Source: GHG National submissions to UNFCCC, national sources and UNFCCC; carbon dioxide data, IEA; industrial production, private consumption, OECD.



OECD Economic Surveys: Ireland



© OECD 2003



Sustaining growth: the structural policy dimensions



103



electricity sector due to the cost of pipeline connections to the United Kingdom

and limitations on the capacity of existing infrastructures. Emissions, however,

rose by 24 per cent between 1990 and 2000. Agriculture is responsible for over a

quarter of emissions, because of nitrous oxide and methane from fertiliser and

livestock, respectively. Overall, the reduction in the ratio of emissions to GDP was

outweighed by rapid economic growth (7¼ per cent against 2¾ per cent in the

area as a whole) and Ireland’s total GHG emissions rose during the 1990s at the

third highest rate in the OECD area (Table 15). With the policies in place by 2000,

official estimates suggested that emissions were set to rise to 37 per cent above

their 1990 level by 2010.

Policies

In November 2000, the government published a new National Climate

Change Strategy with the objective of bringing emissions into line with the

2008-12 target. The Strategy establishes indicative quantitative abatement targets

for broad economic sectors, with electricity generation accounting for the largest

cuts. It specified in broad terms the kind of instruments that would be used to

attain the targets in each sector, including carbon tax, emission trading, commandand-control regulations and voluntary agreements. Many of the key measures to

implement the Strategy have yet to be introduced and some continue to be

postponed. For example, the government announced in its 2003 budget that it

planned to introduce a carbon tax from the end of 2004. With permit trading

starting at the EU level, the tax could serve to capture part of the value of grandfathered permits.

According to government estimates, three-quarters of the emission reduction in the electricity sector is to come about through switching from coal to natural gas, with the expanded use of renewable energy, notably wind power,

contributing much of the remaining planned cuts. If electricity producers are to be

induced to switch from coal to gas on commercial grounds, this would require

either relatively high taxes on carbon or high permit prices (Table 16) – in the

absence of any compensation for air pollution externalities – due to the heavy

transport costs for gas in Ireland. Some oil plants have been replaced by gas ones,

as the government allocated transport rights for this use. New pipelines will

shortly be opened. However, the government also committed itself to not taxing

inputs into the electricity sector but rather to taxing its output. The government

acknowledged that the former would be more efficient but felt that such a tax

would have a disproportionate impact on the domestic production of peat and so

would affect the security of energy supply. Consequently, there is some doubt

about whether fuel switching will start until quota trading is introduced in the EU.

The expansion of wind power is part of the government’s commitment to meeting

its target for renewable energy as set by the EU. In order to meet this objective,



© OECD 2003



OECD Economic Surveys: Ireland



104



Table 16.



Influence of a carbon tax on the costs of power generation

€ per tonne of carbon equivalent



Technology

0



Coal – existing plant

Coal plus flue gas desulphurisation

Oil – existing plant

Gas – existing plant

Gas – new combined cycle gas turbine

Gas – new open cycle gas turbine

Peat – existing

Peat – new

Hydro

Wind – new

Wind and gas open cycle gas turbine



0.0263

0.02981

0.0525

0.0537

0.0424

0.0633

0.0837

0.0493

0.0281

0.0415

0.0524



20



0.0307

0.03441

0.0566

0.0565

0.0443

0.0664

0.0926

0.0554

0.0281

0.0415

0.0539



73



0.0425

0.0465

0.0674

0.0638

0.0494

0.0745

0.1163

0.0718

0.0281

0.04151

0.0580



1. Least cost.

Source: Bergin et al. (2002) and OECD Secretariat computations.



the government obligated electricity companies to offer 15-year fixed price

contracts for wind power and then auctioned these contracts. Although the auction

method ensures that wind power is expanded at least cost, the premium

demanded over average electricity prices was 1.27 eurocents (36 per cent of the

average wholesale price of electricity80). If the renewable electricity replaces coalbased generating plants then the premium could be justified by reduced air pollution costs alone. On the other hand, if new pipelines lower the price of gas, so

making it the fuel of choice for new plants, then externalities, including those from

air pollution, would only outweigh the renewable premium if carbon prices were

above current projections of EU permit prices. The cost of the renewable premium

will be passed to the consumer as an additional levy.81

In addition, the Climate Change Strategy calls for cuts in emissions in a

range of sectors, including some where abatement costs are estimated to be much

higher than for renewable energy (Table 17): in industry, voluntary agreements form

the backbone of the programme, especially for the cement, fertiliser and semiconductor industries. In other industries the government suggests agreements

may cost up to € 931 per tonne of carbon. In agriculture, research will be undertaken to develop feeding regimes that reduce methane emission from livestock.

Farmers receiving payments under the CAP rural development plan and other

investment schemes will be required to implement best management practices

for fertiliser. In the transport sector, the major national emission saving action promised in the Strategy will be to raise transport fuel taxation. Such an increase would

be line with air pollution externalities (see below) and also reflect the higher carbon content of diesel fuel. The vehicle registration tax will be progressively raised

on larger cars.



© OECD 2003



Sustaining growth: the structural policy dimensions



Table 17.



105



Sectoral abatement costs under the Climate Strategy versus imports

of permits

GHG emissions saved

per year



Yearly cost



Yearly unit cost



Million tons of carbon

equivalent



€ million



€ per ton of carbon

equivalent



Energy supply

Transport

Buildings

Industry

Agriculture



1.54

0.73

0.25

0.55

0.66



44

102

37

2541

127

564



Total of above domestic actions



3.72



Waste

Sinks



0.45

0.21



Memorandum item:

Buying permits abroad



3.72



29

139

150

466

193



{ Costs attributed to waste and forestry policies

74



202



1. This is a Secretariat estimate based on the original marginal cost of € 931 per tonne of carbon (= Ir200/tonne of CO2)

reported in the strategy. A quadratic cost curve has been fixed to reflect the presence of low-cost options that are

then supplemented by increasingly costlier actions, up to € 931 per tonne of carbon.

2. Upper estimate reported in IEA (2002).

Source: Secretariat computation on the basis of values reported in the National Climate Change Strategy.



A notable absence from the Climate Change Strategy was any action to

reduce the use of peat in power generation. This fuel is even more carbonintensive than coal and accounts for 8 per cent of total electricity generation. A

new plant burning the fuel came on line in December 2000, aided by capital subsidies paid from the general budget and the EU Economic Infrastructure Operational Programme. Two further plants are to come into operation in 2004 and

in 2005, replacing plants that have reached the end of their life. As to the existing

plants, their excessive operating costs need subsidies that constitute the bulk

(85 per cent) of the extra tax (€ 46 million) charged on domestic electricity sales.

(CER, 2002). Even when putting a zero price on CO2 emissions, electricity generated by modern peat plants still cost more than that produced by coal, gas and

wind (Table 17). Continued use of peat deprives Ireland of a negative cost option for

lowering emissions and hence raises compliance costs in the rest of the economy.

Conclusions

The National Climate Change Strategy embodies a promising approach in

that it proposes the use of economic instruments such as carbon taxation and permit trading. It is therefore unfortunate that the Strategy ruled out the use of carbon taxation on fuel inputs in the electricity sector. More generally the

government feels that such taxation would endanger the use of peat as a fuel.

However, the introduction of the EU permit trading scheme will obviate the need



© OECD 2003



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Table 15. GHG emissions and sectoral indicators

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×