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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2 The “Silent” Languages of Cultures

GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2 The “Silent” Languages of Cultures

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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2



Time as a Silent Language of Culture

• Monochronic

• People tend to do one thing at a time

• Typical of the United States, where meetings

are scheduled for an individual or group to

focus on a single issue for an allotted time

period.

• Polychronic

• People accomplish many different things at

once, though in no particular order

• More flexible about time and who uses it

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2



Space as a Silent Language of Culture

• Proxemics

• The study of how people use and value space.

• The ways space communicates varies across

cultures.

• How people use interpersonal space to

communicate

• Space is precious in Japan, so it is

respected and carefully planned.

• Americans, by contrast, tend to like as

much space as they can get.

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2



Tight and Loose Cultures

• Tight Cultures

• The goal in tight cultures, as suggested in the

Asian proverb, is to fit in with society’s

expectations and not stand out.

• Loose Cultures

• Social norms are mixed and less clear cut

• Conformity will vary a good deal

• Deviations from norms tend to be tolerated



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2



Hofstede’s Model and Value Differences



FIGURE 16.2 How Do Countries Compare on

Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of National Cultures?

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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GLOBAL CULTURES 16.2



Dimensions of National Cultures

• Power Distance

• the degree to which a society accepts unequal distribution

of power

• Uncertainty Avoidance

• the degree to which a society tolerates risk and uncertainty.

• Individualism-collectivism

• the degree to which a society emphasizes individuals

and their self-interests

• Masculinity-femininity

• the degree a society values assertiveness and materialism

versus feelings, relationships, and quality of life.

• Time orientation

• the degree to which a society emphasizes short-term

or long-term goals

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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