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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

HUMAN NEEDS 13.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs



Figure 13.1 What Are the Opportunities for

Need Satisfaction in Maslow’s Hierarchy?

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Alderfer’s ERG Theory



• Existence Needs

• are desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs

are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.



• Relatedness Needs

• are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.

• Growth Needs

• are desires for continued psychological growth and development.



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



McClelland’s Acquired Needs



• Three acquired needs that vary in strength among people

• Need for achievement is the desire to do something better, solve problems, or

master complex tasks.



• Need for power is the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other

people.



• Need for affiliation is the desire to establish and maintain good relations with

people.



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



McClelland’s Acquired Needs



• Three acquired needs that vary in strength among people

• Need for achievement

• Work preferences of high achievers:

• Individual responsibilities

• Challenging but achievable goals

• Performance feedback

• Need for power – two types of power

• Personal power – for personal gratification

• Social power – to help people and groups achieve goals

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Herzberg Two-Factor Theory



Figure 13.2 What Are the Motivational Implications of Job Content and Job Context in Herzberg’s Two-Factor

Theory?



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Core Characteristics Model



• Job design

• Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and groups

• Job enrichment

• Adds opportunities for satisfying higher-order



needs to a job by adding opportunities for planning and controlling work



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Core Characteristics Model

Skill Variety



the degree to which a job requires a variety of activities to carry out the work and involves the use of the individual’s

different skills and talents



Task Identity



the degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, one that involves doing a job

from beginning to end with a visible outcome



Task Significance



the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people elsewhere in the organization or

in the external environment



Autonomy



the degree to which the job gives the individual freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and in choosing

procedures for carrying it out



Feedback from the



the degree to which work activities required by the job result in the individual obtaining direct and clear information on his



job itself



or her performance



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Core Characteristics Model



Figure 13.3 How Do Core Characteristics Influence Motivation Through Job Design?



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Study Guide for Takeaway 13.1

Rapid Review:







Motivation involves the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work; a highly motivated person can be

expected to work hard.







Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs moves from lower-order physiological, safety, and social needs up to higher-order

ego and self-actualization needs.









Alderfer’s ERG theory identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs.







Herzberg’s two-factor theory identifies satisfier factors in job content as influences on job satisfaction; hygiene factors in

job context are viewed as influences on job dissatisfaction.







The core characteristics model of job design focuses on skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and

feedback.



McClelland’s acquired needs theory identifies the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power, all of which may

influence what a person desires from work.



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Study Guide for Takeaway 13.1

Questions for Discussion:



1.

2.

3.



Was Maslow right in suggesting we each have tendencies toward selfactualization?

Is high need for achievement always good for managers?

Why can’t job enrichment work for everyone?



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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HUMAN NEEDS 13.1



Be Sure You Can…for Takeaway 13.1



• describe work practices that can satisfy higher-order needs in Maslow’s hierarchy.

• contrast Maslow’s hierarchy with ERG theory.

• explain needs for achievement, affiliation, and power in McClelland’s theory.

• differentiate the needs for personal and social power.

• describe work preferences for a person with a high need for achievement.

• describe differences in hygiene and satisfier factors in Herzberg’s theory.

• explain how a person’s growth needs and job skills might affect his or her responses

to job enrichment.



Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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