Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Mrs. Braddocks: The wife of Braddocks, she is Canadian

Mrs. Braddocks: The wife of Braddocks, she is Canadian

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY



M.A. THESIS



A STUDY ON THE FLOUTING OF MAXIMS

USED IN THE NOVEL “THE SUN ALSO RISES”

BY ERNEST HEMINGWAY

(NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ VI PHẠM CÁC PHƯƠNG CHÂM HỘI THOẠI TRONG

TIỂU THUYẾT “MẶT TRỜI VẪN MỌC” CỦA NHÀ VĂN ERNEST

HEMINGWAY)



NGUYỄN THANH HUYỀN



Field: English Language

Code: 60220201



Supervisor: DO KIM PHUONG. PhD



Hanoi, 2016



CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report

entitled: “A study on the flouting of maxims used in the novel “The sun

also rises” by Ernest Hemingway” submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of Master in English Language. Except where

the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due

acknowledgement in the text of the thesis.

Hanoi, 2016



Nguyen Thanh Huyen



Approved by

SUPERVISOR



DO KIM PHUONG. PhD

Date: October, 2016



i



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This thesis could not have been completed without the help and support

from a number of people.

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Do Kim

Phuong. PhD, my supervisor, who has patiently and constantly supported me

through the stages of the study, and whose stimulating ideas, expertise, and

suggestions have inspired me greatly through my growth as an academic

researcher.

A special word of thanks goes to all my lecturers at Hanoi Open University,

without whose support and encouragement it would never have been

possible for me to have this thesis accomplished.

Last but not least, I am greatly indebted to my family, my husband for the

sacrifice they have devoted to the fulfillment of this academic work.



Nguyen Thanh Huyen



ii



ABSTRACT



This study is made to analyze the flouting maxims used in the novel “The

sun also rises” by Ernest Hemingway. The research problems of the study

are the flouting of maxims. The study is further elaborated into: the flouting

of quality maxim, the flouting of quantity maxim, the flouting of relevance/

relation maxim, the flouting of manner maxim. The study is expected to be

beneficial to the world of literature. In addition, the author hopes the result

of the study will give additional information to the readers and can

contribute to the development of literary study particularly among students

who are interested in the literary study. It is a qualitative study focusing on

the flouting of maxims of the novel. Firstly, the data were gathered by

picking up the utterances within conversation which reveals the flouting of

maxims. Secondly, the author started to analyze the data in conducting the

analysis, the author used Grice’s classification which divides the maxims

into



four



categories,



namely



quality



maxim,



quantity



maxim,



relevance/relation maxim, and manner maxim. Finally, the author classified

the data into each category where they belong to and gave a little comment

on the case. As a result, the author found how the maxims were flouted and

then drew the inferences dealing with the case. From the results, it was

known that the flouting of maxims occur in all kinds of Grice’s maxims with

no exception, and it is done in various ways.



iii



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Frequency of occurrences of types of the flouting of



36



maxims

Figure 2. Percentages of types of the flouting of maxims



36



iv



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

Certificate of originality



i



Acknowledgements



ii



Abstract



iii



List of figures



iv



Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1.



Rationale for the research



1



1.2.



Aims of the research



3



1.3.



Objectives of the research



4



1.4.



Scope of the research



4



1.5.



Significance of the research



4



1.6.



Structural organization of the research



6



Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Conversation



7



2.2. Cooperative Principles



9



2.3. Conversational implicature



14



2.4. Flouting maxims



17



Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1.



Research-governing orientations



26



3.2.



Research methods



30



3.3.



Summary



34



Chapter 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1.



Findings



35



4.2.



Discussions



58



Chapter 5: CONCLUSION

5.1.



Recapitulation



61



5.2.



Limitation of the research



63



5.3.



Suggestions for further research



63



REFERENCES



64



APPENDIXES



67



Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Rationale

Conversation is very important in communication. In daily communication,

various style of conversation occurs and is used for many purposes. It is

used for socializing, expressing feeling, sharing knowledge and ideas,

maintaining good relationships with others, and others related to human

interactions in life. Levinson (1983:284) defined conversation as the

familiar kind of talk in which two or more participants freely alternate in

speaking, which generally occur outside specific institutional settings like

religious services, law courts, classrooms, and the like. In understanding

the messages conveyed in the daily conversation, it is needed that we learn

and study about one of an idea in pragmatics which called conversational

implicature. Levinson (1983:101) described conversational implicatures as

“a non-conventional implicature based on an addressee’s assumption that

the speaker is following the conversational maxims or at least the

cooperative principle”.

In producing a good conversation, participants need to understand each

others’ meaning of the utterance. That is why the participants tend to

follow the cooperative principle and the conversational maxim by giving

enough, true, related, and arranged utterance which is assumed as explicit

information. On the other hand, conversational implicature tends to flout

the conversational maxim. Grice (1975) categorized the cooperative

principle of conversation and elaborates it in four sub-principles: (1)

maxim of quantity, (2) maxim of quality, (3) maxim of relation, and (4)

1



maxim of manner. Yule (1996: 37) says that it is important to recognize

these maxims as unstated assumptions we have in conversation. Efforts to

understand the meaning assumed from the flouted conversational maxim

in the conversation implicature has been doing by many participants of

conversation. When people have conversation, there is a risk that one

could misunderstand the others. Thus, Grice (1975), proposes a principle

called “Cooperative Principle” in conversation. This principle has to be

followed so that people could have a smooth conversation. To fulfill this

principle, Grice states four maxims to be followed. However, from some

investigations, the flouting of maxims could create humorous effects in

certain situation such as novels.

In a novel, many utterances have different meanings. Furthermore, as

novel’s lovers, we might to know what the conversational purpose is.

Conversation in the novel does not always follow Grice’s principle

including conversational maxims. In a conversation, utterances or

sentences that flouted maxims can be found. Understanding the meaning

of a conversation is needed by a viewer in order to avoid

misunderstanding. In Ernest Hemingway’s The sun also rises the

flouting maxims also happen. The sun also rises has many utterances or

sentences that flouted maxims. The case of flouting maxims in the novel

is represented by the data, which are classified into four categories. The

data collected show that the flouting of those maxims occurs in all kinds

of Grice’s maxims with no exception. The following example is taken in

“The Sun Also Rises” (Page 5)

Jake: Don’t you like Paris?

2



Georgette: No.

Jake: Why don’t you go somewhere else?

Georgette: Isn’t anywhere else.

Georgette flouts the maxim of quality by uttering thing, which is untrue,

namely that there is nowhere else but Paris. Of course, it is blatantly false

for in fact there are so many other places in the world besides Paris. Jake

must assume that Georgette is being cooperative. In order to preserve the

assumption of cooperation, Jake then, will have to infer a particular reason

(for example, she cannot go to other places) why she makes an apparently

untrue remark. The implicature in above is essentially that there is

something, which has been forcing her to stay in Paris. She has no choice

at all about where she can live in accordance with her wants. She has to

stay there no matter what. Although she is eager to move to any other

places, she cannot do it anyway.

This phenomenon is quite interesting to be explored. It is significant to the

development of science on Pragmatics since it can be used as a way of

solving problems appearing in dealing with the conversational maxims.

Considering those statements, in this study the author would like to

attempt to analyze such a phenomenon found in a literary work. Here I

carry out a research entitled “A study on the flouting of maxims used in

the novel “The sun also rises” by Ernest Hemingway.

1.2. Aims of the research

The aims of the study are to analyze the flouting of maxims used by the

characters taken in “The sun also rises” novel written by Ernest

Hemingway. Besides, this study also brings the answers from the research

3



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Mrs. Braddocks: The wife of Braddocks, she is Canadian

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×