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Contribution Analysis and Break-Even Point (BEP) or Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis

# Contribution Analysis and Break-Even Point (BEP) or Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis

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458

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the components of fixed and variable costs; Break-even profit (BEP) and its algebraic,

Arithmetical presentations and its Expressions. Contribution Analysis ant its other uses.

FIXED COSTS AND VARIABLE COSTS

‘Break-even Point’ is that specific stage where the income just breaks even with expenditure, i.e. where income

just equals cost. It is, thus, the point of ‘No Profit No Loss’.

For the purpose of this analysis, the total cost is divided into the following two parts:

(i)Fixed Cost (FC)

(ii)Variable Cost (VC)

Fixed Cost is that part of the total cost which remains constant; that is, which does not vary with the

fluctuations in the volume of production. Even if the volume of production is high, low, or even ‘nil’, the fixed

cost is, necessarily and unavoidably, incurred and, at the same fixed level, e.g. rent and taxes, depreciation,

salary and wages (as also interest on capital, expense on research and development, advertisement, which

usually fluctuate, too, but not necessarily in the proportion of the volume change).

The interest component on term loans for plant and machinery, land and building, and depreciation thereon

(except on land), have to be incurred, whether there is full (to the capacity) production, or lesser production,

or even no production. Such is the case with the salary and wages paid to the members of the staff, who are

on the establishment of the unit. It has to be paid whether there is production at the level of 100 per cent of

the plant capacity or 50 per cent of the capacity, or even at the zero level. These costs are fixed and they are

incurred, definitely and necessarily, and hence are called ‘Fixed Costs’.

Variable Cost, on the other hand, is that part of the cost which varies in direct proportion to the volume of

production. For example, raw materials, consumable stores and spares, electricity charges for factory, fuel,

packing materials.

Let us assume that the bodies of 100 numbers of fountain pens consume 100 g of plastic granules. If we were

to produce 1,000 units, the raw material consumed would be 1,000 g or 1 kg. If we produce 500 numbers, the

raw material consumed will be 500 g or ½ kg. Similarly, if we decide not to produce pen bodies (say today), the

raw material consumed would be ‘nil’.

There, however, may be such costs, which are in the nature of being partly fixed and partly variable also.

Accordingly, such costs are referred to as semi-variable costs.

ALGEBRAIC PRESENTATION OF BREAK-EVEN-POINT

Let us now understand the concept algebraically.

At Break-even Point (BEP)

Total income = Total expenditure

or

Total sales (Revenue) = Total cost

or

Total sales (Revenue) = Fixed cost + Variable cost

or          Q × S = F + (Q × V)

where    Q = Total sales quantity

S = Unit selling price

F = Fixed cost, and

V = Unit variable cost

Thus,    QS = F + QV

or   F = QS – QV

or    F = Q (S – V)

CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND BREAK-EVEN POINT (BEP) OR COST-VOLUME-PROFIT (CVP) ANALYSIS

459

or at BEP

Q (S – V) = F

or    Q =

F

S−V

F

or

Q=

C

where C stands for Contribution. Contribution here represents the selling price per unit (less) variable cost per

unit. That is, S – V is also known as the Contribution.

Thus, the difference between the selling price per unit and the variable cost per unit first goes to meet the fixed

cost. When the fixed cost is fully met, out of the contribution so generated, we are deemed to have reached the

BEP. Further, the sale of the unit(s) hereafter, and only hereafter, constitutes the profit. Not earlier; because,

it entirely goes to meet the fixed cost. Some people tend to confuse ‘Contribution’ with ‘Profit’, and land up in

trouble, after starting the unit.

Example 1:

A person approached a banker with a proposal for a loan of ` 2 lakh to purchase a car to ply it as a taxi. He was

visibly over-excited about the proposal, as it had appeared to him to be so fantastically profitable.

He went on to say:

‘Look, one litre of petrol today costs ` 40, and presuming that in one litre petrol, the brand new car gives

20  km., the cost comes to ` 2 per km. But I would charge ` 4 per km. Thus, I would earn a profit of ` 2 per km.

In other words, a profit of ` 2 on every investment of ` 2. A cent per cent profit indeed! How wonderful! Isn’t

‘No, sorry. It is not so’, the banker told him politely, knowing fully well that this statement will definitely

upset him.

The banker further explained ‘The ` 2 that you are deeming to be profit, is not really profit. It is only

contribution, instead. First, it has to go to meet the fixed cost, which you have not at all taken into account.

Then, the quantum of contribution, if left after meeting the fixed cost in full, will only qualify to be computed

as profit, and not any earlier’.

‘To understand the concept of ‘fixed cost’ and ‘contribution’ more clearly, let us visualize the fixed cost as the

depth and volume of a ditch. The contribution per unit has to be first dumped in this ditch. When the ditch is

full to the brim, then alone it will mean that the fixed cost is fully met’.

‘The very next unit contribution will constitute profit. The more you will operate your taxi hereafter; the

quantum of your profit will continue to increase, proportionately’. ‘Now, let us see what would be the quantum

of fixed cost in your case. That is, even when you do not ply the taxi a single km, this is the cost that you will

have to incur, on an annual basis.

‘Let us, for example, presume the following fixed costs:

`

(i)Interest on term loan, say, for ` 2 lakh at 12 per cent per annum.

24,000

(ii)Depreciation on the car as per the Straight linear method at 10 per cent.

20,000

(iii)Rent for a garage at ` 100 per month.

1,200

(iv)Salary to the Driver at ` 10,000 per annum.

10,000

(v)Registration and Insurance charges

4,000

(vi)Servicing charges and minor repairs

800

Total fixed costs

60,000

‘Thus, if you ply the taxi for 30,000 km only, you just break even, i.e.. you arrive at the ‘no loss no gain’ position.

If you do not get sufficient business to ply even 30,000 km, and you get business for doing only 15,000  km,

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FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

instead, you incur a loss of ` 30,000 (i.e. ` 60,000 – ` 30,000). If you are, however, able to push the business

upto 32,000 km. you earn a profit of a mere ` 4,000 only (` 64,000 less ` 60,000).

‘Then, if you want to earn a minimum profit of ` 20,000 per year, you must book the business of minimum

40,000 km. Also, if you find that you would not be able to book the business for so much, this proposal of yours

would be a losing one, or at least, not so profitable.

‘In that case, I am sure, you would like to reconsider the proposal. If, for example, you prefer to purchase

an old car, instead of the new one, say, for ` 25,000, the fixed cost may go down substantially and you may be

able to break even much earlier, i.e. at a much lower level of operation’.

Let us work out an example.

Example 2:

A company, engaged in the manufacture of pens, sells the pens at ` 20 per unit. The variable cost per unit comes

to ` 12 and the fixed cost is computed at ` 10,000. Calculate the BEP in terms of:

(i)Number of units to be sold, and

(ii)Total value of sales.

Solution

(i)BEP =

F

10, 000 10, 000

=

=

S − V 20 − 12

8

(S – V = Contribution)

(ii)Total value of sale = 1250 units × ` 20 = 25,000

ARITHMETICAL PRESENTATION OF BEP

S is the selling price per unit

V is the variable cost per unit

F is the fixed cost

Thus, the BEP is reached either at the sale level of 1,250 units, or when the volume of sales (in terms of

value) reaches ` 25,000 (125 × ` 20 = ` 25,000).

Let us now try to understand the concept by means of a simple arithmetical calculation, as has been computed

hereunder:

F CProfit/(Loss)

(Fixed Cost)

(Contribution)

If only one unit would have been produced

– 10,000

+

8

=

9992

and sold, the result will be F – (S – V) or F – C

If 100 units are sold

– 10,000

+

800

=

9,200 loss

If 1,000 units are sold

– 10,000

+

8,000

=

2,000 loss

If 1,250 units are sold

– 10,000

+ 10,000

=

– + ‘Nil’ No profit

or loss

BEP No profit

or loss

If 1,500 units are sold

– 10,000

+ 12,000

=

+

2,000 Profit

If 2,500 units are sold

– 10,000

+ 20,000

=

+

10,000 Profit

The aforesaid concept can as well be presented in the form of a diagram appearing in Fig. 22.1.

As can be seen in Fig. 22.1 below, at the Stages 1 and 2, the black dots represent the quantum of contribution

(sales revenue less variable cost) generated (this has gone to fill only a portion of the ditch of the fixed costs).

Accordingly, the white portion represents the quantum of loss still remaining, which indicates the portion of

the fixed costs still lying uncovered.

CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND BREAK-EVEN POINT (BEP) OR COST-VOLUME-PROFIT (CVP) ANALYSIS

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

461

Fig. 22.1  BEP Presentations

Further, it is only at the Stage 3 that the entire ditch of the fixed costs has been completely filled up. This

goes to indicate that at this point, the entire fixed costs have been recovered in full, and, accordingly this is the

point where the company is neither making any loss, nor any gain or profit. This is the point of ‘No Profit-No

Loss’, which as we all know, has rightly been termed as the ‘Break-Even Point’. From this stage onwards, any

and every quantum of the ‘Contribution’ will go to make, and add on and on, to the quantum of profit of the

company, but not earlier.

VARIOUS EXPRESSIONS OF BEP

BEP can well be expressed in various ways. For example, in terms of:

(i)Volume of production

(ii)Sales revenue

(iii)Plant capacity

(iv)Selling price

(vi)Profit projection

(vii)Selling efforts

(viii)Sales incentive plans

(ix)Product pricing decision

Let us take an example where the installed capacity of a plant is 25,000 units per year.

Example 3:

Fixed cost       = ` 30,000 per year

Selling price = ` 10 per unit

Variable cost = ` 7 per unit

(i)BEP in terms of Volume of Production will be:

F

30, 000

30,000

or

or

= 10,000

S−V

3

10 − 7

(ii)In terms of Sales Revenue, BEP will be:

10,000 × ` 10 (Selling Price) = ` 1 lakh

(iii)In terms of Plant Capacity percentage:

(Given: At the level of production at 25,000 units, the plant capacity utilisation is 100 per cent)

∴  At the level of production of 1 unit, the plant capacity utilisation will be

100

25, 000

∴  At the level of production at 10,000 units, the plant capacity utilisation will be

100 × 10, 000

25, 000

That is to say that the BEP is reached at 40 per cent of the plant capacity. As the zone of profit starts

only after reaching the break-even point, we may as well say that there is still some scope for profit to the

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FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

extent of 60 per cent of the installed capacity remaining unutilized [Total plant capacity – BEP (in terms

of capacity)].

Margin of Safety

If the BEP is reached at an earlier level (say, at 30 per cent) of the installed capacity, the additional scope of

profit becomes greater (70 per cent). If the BEP is reached at much higher level (say, at 70 per cent), the scope

for profit diminishes (i.e. 30 per cent). Thus, we may fairly conclude that lower the BEP, greater is the ‘Margin

of Safety’. That is, even if the sales (and the resultant production) were to go lower and lower, the units at lower

BEP would not run the risk of incurring losses till that point. Also, even if the production and sales were very

low, the chances of the unit incurring losses will be smaller. Reverse will be the case if the BEP were to be at

higher level, i.e. in terms of plant installed capacity.

Example 4:

To bring home the idea of ‘Margin of Safety’ more clearly, let us take the case of two companies A and B, with

different margins of safety as under:

Company A

Company B

Total installed capacity

1,00,000

60,000

Break-even sales

50,000

50,000

Break-even point is reached at per cent capacity

50%

83.33%

Margin of safety, therefore, is

50%

16.67%

Thus, company A is in a better position, or we can say, in a safer position, because even at 60 per cent level

of production and sales, company A will earn some profit, but company B will incur heavy losses. In fact, the

process of incurring losses in the case of company B will set in, the moment the production and sales go below

the level of 83.33 per cent, whereas in the case of company A, this eventuality will arise much later, i.e.., when

the production and sales drop below 50 per cent, and not earlier.

(iv) Selling Price

Break-even point (BEP) can also serve as a tool to fix the minimum acceptable selling price at a particular level

of sales (and production). Let us Consider Example 2.

(a)If the company decides to produce and sell 15,000 units,

F + QV

= Price (at the BEP)

No. of units

30, 000 + (15, 000 × 7) 30, 000 + 1, 05, 000 1, 35, 000

=`9

=

=

15, 000

15, 000

15, 000

(b)If the level of sales (and production) is 20,000, the minimum acceptable selling price would be ` 8.50

only.

30, 000 + (20, 000 × 7) 30, 000 + 1, 40, 000 1, 70, 000

= ` 8.50

=

=

20, 000

20, 000

20, 000

But, remember. The price so fixed is at the break-even point.

If we want to fix the selling price so as to result in a gross profit of say, ` 50,000 per year, at the level of

production of 20,000 units, the price should be fixed at ` 11, computed as following:

F + QV + Profit

= Price

No. of units

30, 000 + (15, 000 × 7) + 50, 000 30, 000 + 1, 40, 000 + 50, 0000

=

20, 000

20, 000

2, 20, 000

= ` 11

20, 000

CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND BREAK-EVEN POINT (BEP) OR COST-VOLUME-PROFIT (CVP) ANALYSIS

463

But then, if we cannot increase the price due to competitive market beyond say, ` 10, and we also wish to

retain our annual profit at ` 50,000 per annum, we may as well do so by increasing our production and sales:

F + QV + P (Profit)

= No. of units

Price per unit

Let the number of units be X

30, 000 + ( V × X ) + 50, 000

=X

10

30, 000 + 7 X + 50, 000

or

=X

10

or

10X = 30,000 + 7X + 50,000

or

3X = 30,000 + 50,000

\

80, 000

or

X=

= 26,667 units

3

(i.e. 26,666.6 units converted into the next integer or whole number)

But the installed capacity is only 25,000 units. Therefore, either the company will have to remain satisfied

with a profit of ` 45,000 (instead of ` 50,000) or will try to reduce the variable cost or fixed cost at the planning

and project stage itself. But then, the production at a level, which is higher than the installed capacity by say,

5 per cent to 7 per cent or even up to 10 per cent, is generally considered rather normal.

Example 5:

A small scale unit in Meerut, manufacturing nuts and bolts, had installed the plants and machinery worth

` 2 lakh purchased from Ludhiana. Most of the processes of production were automatic. But the minimum price

at the break Contribution even point itself was ` 50 per unit. But the other manufacturers of Ludhiana were

able to sell the nuts and bolts of the same size and specifications even at Meerut at a much lower unit price

of ` 40. It was, in fact, possible for the Ludhiana manufacturers to do so only because they had not installed

expensive automatic machines but the much cheaper hand-operated ones. Thus, the fixed cost was of a much

lower order. Therefore, the BEP was reached much earlier, leaving a wide range of the margin of safety. As the

Meerut unit had not done the BEP analysis at the project formulation stage itself, it had to pay a very heavy

price for this. This unit had to close down and sell away the machines, etc., at a throw away price. At the end,

it ended up with a net loss of ` 2 lakh.

As there are many variables in the study and computation of BEP, e.g. FC, VC, Selling Price, Plant Capacity,

Quantum of Profit, Volume of Sales and Production, we may vary one variable and then witness the changes

that take place in respect of the other variables, as also the end results.

We may even programme the computer suitably and get the results quickly, by varying one variable after

the other. Such a study could serve as a very valuable managerial tool for taking vital decisions in the matters

of pricing policy, launching a project, deciding about the level of production, among other things.

BEP also helps us to decide whether a particular component of a product, or a particular processing in the chain

of production process, could be got done from outside (on a job-work basis) or it should also be manufactured

in-house, by the firm itself.

This is popularly known as ‘Make or Buy’ decision.

(vi) Profit Projection

Contribution analysis is an important tool to project the quantum of profits at different levels of activity.

Consider the following data:

(a)No. of units sold, say,

:

100

Sales @ ` 10 each

:

`1,000

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FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

Variable costs at ` 6 each

Contribution per unit ` 4 (10 – 6)

Fixed costs say,

:

:

:

`600

`400

`300

Profit

:

`100

(b)If the company increases sales by 20 per cent, the profit would be as under:

No. of units sold

Sales

Variable costs

Contribution

Fixed costs

:

120

:

`1,200

:

`720

:

`480

:

`300

Profit

:

`180

It would, thus, be observed that an increase in the turnover by just 20 per cent, has resulted in an increase

in profit by as much as 80 per cent.

(vii) Selling Efforts

Contribution analysis can also help the management in identifying the directions in which the selling efforts

should be augmented.

Consider the following data in regard to the two products manufactured by a concern.

Product A

Product B

Selling price

` 10

` 15

Variable costs

` 4

` 10

Contribution

` 6

`5

Fixed costs (per unit)

` 5

` 3.50

Profit

` 1

` 1.50

Profit as a percentage of selling price

10%

10%

P/V ratio

60%

33.3%

(i.e., Contribution ÷ Selling Price)

Thus, we may observe that without any contribution analysis, the tendency would usually have been to push

up the sales of product B, which gives a higher rupee profit per unit and the same percentage in relation to

turnover. However, the management will not be deceived into augmenting the sales of product B, but would

direct its efforts to sell product A much more, instead, as it generates a higher contribution percentage to cover

fixed costs. The rate at which contribution is generated by Product A (at 60 per cent) is almost twice as large

as is the case in respect of Product B (at 33.3 per cent).

(viii) Sales Incentive Plan

In the above example, consider the impact of sales incentive linked to the selling price and contribution.

Sales turnover

Contribution generated

Incentive at 1% of sales

Contribution (%)

Salesman X

Product A – 30 Units

Salesman Y

Product B – 20 Units

` 300

` 180

` 3.00

` 1.80

` 300

` 100

` 3.00

` 1.00

Thus, we see that if the objective is to generate maximum contribution, the incentive must as well be linked

to contribution, and not to the sales turnover.

CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND BREAK-EVEN POINT (BEP) OR COST-VOLUME-PROFIT (CVP) ANALYSIS

465

(ix) Product Pricing Decisions

Since the variable costs of a product are directly identifiable with the specific product, and would not be incurred

without the receipt of supply order, these decisions constitute the floor price, below which no businessman

would be willing to go. The contribution analysis thus, helps in arriving at the pricing decisions and enables

the management to sell even below the ‘full costs’ (or total costs) by compensating it, with the higher volume of

sales. Consider the following data where two companies are competing for the sale of the same product:

Fixed costs

Variable costs

Full cost

Company A

4.00

6.00

10.00

Company B

2.00

8.00

10.00

The contribution would vary, depending upon the price quoted. Take the following price range:

Contribution

At selling price ` 10

At selling price ` 9

At selling price ` 8

At selling price ` 7

Company A

` 4.00

` 3.00

` 2.00

` 1.00

Company B

` 2.00

` 1.00

Nil

(Loss)

Thus, both the companies can afford to sell at ` 10 and ` 9, because the sales at these levels still generate

some contribution for each of them. However, at ` 10, the Company B must effect twice as much sale to generate

the same volume of profit as is generated by Company A. At the selling price of ` 7, Company B is priced out of

competition, in that its contribution becomes negative. If Company B accepts the order at ` 7, it will place itself

into liquidation by incurring cash losses. The higher the sales, the higher would be its quantum of losses, too.

Under the given circumstances, Company A will stand to gain some amount, at least, if the selling price is

fixed at a reasonably higher level than the variable cost, say, at ` 6.50 or ` 6.25 or so. But such a statement

may be true only when the following conditions have been fulfilled:

(a)Fixed costs have already been realized, in full, earlier; and

(b)No other product has to be manufactured by the company, and thus, the balance installed capacity of

the plant and machinery may go unutilized.

SOME OTHER USES OF CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

Contribution analysis helps the management in taking decisions which may lead to improvements in the profit

structure. In more specific terms, the analysis may help in answering some of the following questions:

(i)How should the product-mix change to increase the profitability?

(ii)What is the most profitable product line?

(iii)Which one of the products, in each product line, is most profitable?

(iv)How much should the sales volume increase, so as to offset the cost of additional capital expenditure?

(v)What additional volume of sales is necessary to justify the opening of a new sales office, or appointment

(vi)What savings in direct cost/material cost will justify buying another machine?

(vii)How should product-mix change, and/or sales increase, to offset a wage increase?

(viii)How should the products be priced for optimum profit – even below the ‘full cost’?

(ix)How much should the price be increased to compensate for the cost increase?

(x)At what additional level of sales could a given return on capital be expected?

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FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

SUMMARY

Break-Even Point is that specific stage where income just breaks even with expenditure, i.e. where

income just equals cost. It is thus the point of ‘No Profit No Loss’.

Fixed Cost is that part of the total cost which does not vary with the fluctuations in the volume of

production, whether it is high, low, or even ‘nil’, e.g., rent and taxes, depreciation, salary and wages (as

also interest on capital, expense on research and development, advertisement, which usually fluctuate,

too, but not necessarily in proportion of the volume change).

Variable Cost, on the other hand, is that part of the cost which varies, in direct proportion to the volume

of production. For example, raw materials, consumable stores and spares, electricity charges for factory,

fuel, packing materials.

Algebraic Presentation of BEP: Q =

F

F

or Q =

S−V

C

Contribution (C) represents the selling price per unit ‘S’ (less) variable cost per unit ‘V’.

That is, S – V is also known as Contribution.

BEP could well be expressed in various ways. For example, in terms of:

(i)Volume of Production, i.e. Q =

F

F

or Q=

S−V

C

(ii)Sales Revenue, i.e.      = (Number of Units) × (Selling Price per Unit)

(iii)Plant Capacity, i.e.       =

100 × Current level of production

Plant Capacity

Margin of Safety: If the BEP is reached at an earlier level (say, at 30 per cent) of the installed capacity, the

additional scope of profit becomes greater (70 per cent). If the BEP is reached at much higher level (say,

at 70 per cent) the scope for profit diminishes (i.e. 30 per cent). Thus, we may fairly conclude that lower

the BEP, greater is the ‘Margin of Safety’. That is, even if the sales (and the resultant production) were

to go lower and lower, the units at lower BEP would not run the risk of incurring losses till that point.

Further, even if the production and sales were very low, the chances of the unit incurring losses will be

smaller. Reverse will be the case if the BEP were to be at higher level, in terms of plant installed capacity.

(iv)(a) Selling Price: Minimum acceptable selling price at a particular level of sales (and production), i.e.

(F + VQ)

= Price (at the BEP)

Number or Units

(b) Further, to fix the selling price so as to result in a desired net profit per year, at a given level of

production:

(F + VQ + Profit)

= Selling Price

Number or Units

But, if we cannot increase the price, due to competitive market, and we also want to retain our annual

profit at the desired level, we may increase our production and sales by applying the formula:

(F + VQ + P)

= Number of Units to be produced and sold.

Price per Units

(v)

‘Make or Buy’ decision, i.e. whether a particular component of a product, or a particular processing,

in the chain of production process, could be arranged from outside (on job-work basis) or manufactured

(in-house), by the firm itself.

(vi)

Profit projection, i.e. the quantum of profits at different levels of activity.

(vii)

Selling efforts: Without contribution analysis, the tendency would usually be to push up the sales

of the product, which gives a higher rupee profit per unit and the same percentage in relation to

CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND BREAK-EVEN POINT (BEP) OR COST-VOLUME-PROFIT (CVP) ANALYSIS

467

turnover. However, the management will not be deceived into augmenting the sales of such product

but would direct efforts to sell the product, which generates higher contribution percentage to cover

the fixed costs. Thus, if the objective is to generate maximum contribution, the sales incentive must

be well linked to contribution, and not to the sales turnover.

(viii)Sales incentive plans

(ix)

Product pricing decision

As there are many variables in the study and computation of BEP, e.g. FC, VC, Selling Price, Plant

Capacity, Quantum of Profit, Volume of Sales and Production, etc., we may vary one variable and then

see the changes that take place in respect of the other variables, and watch the end-results. We may even

programme the computer suitably and get the results quickly, by varying one variable after the other.

Such a study could serve as a very valuable managerial tool for taking vital decisions in the matters of

pricing policy, launching a project, deciding about the level of production.

For some other uses of contribution analysis, please refer to page 429, Section 22.5.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

(a)What do you understand by the term ‘Break-Even Point’?

(b)Explain the terms ‘Fixed Cost’ and ‘Variable Cost’ by citing some suitable illustrative examples in each

case.

2. The terms ‘Contribution’ and ‘Profit’ can well be used interchangeably. Do you agree? Give reasons for your

answer by citing suitable illustrative examples.

3. BEP can be used in many ways like in terms of:

(i)Volume of production

(ii)Sales revenue

(iii)Plant capacity

(iv)Minimum selling price

(vi)Profit projection

(vii)Product pricing decision

Explain these, by citing some suitable illustrative examples in each case.

4. What do you understand by the term ‘Margin of safety’? Explain, by citing some suitable illustrative examples.

5. Contribution analysis helps the management in taking a decision regarding enhancing the selling efforts of the

product say, X or Y? Do you agree? Support your specific view, by citing some suitable illustrative examples.

6. What types of problems/questions could be solved with the help of the Cost-Volume-Profit analysis?

7. What types of assumptions are made in regard to the Cost-Volume-Profit analysis?

8. Write down the formula used in the computation of:

(i)Break-even Quantity, and

(ii)Break-even Sales, in terms of rupees?

9. There are various limitations pertaining to the Cost-Volume-Profit (or Break-Even) analysis? Please discuss.

10. It hardly makes any prudent business sense to operate at the Break-Even Point’. Thus, the BEP analysis can

hardly serve any useful purpose in terms of any managerial decision. Do you agree? Give reasons for your

11. An international pharmaceutical company is selling its Product ‘A’ in India at a price of ` 100 per unit. It

has now received an order for the supply of 100 million units of this product from the Government of France.

But the price offered is just ` 20 per unit. The variable cost of the product, however, is ` 15 per unit, and the

fixed cost (though fully realized over the years by now) stands at hefty ` 100 million. The company is already

operating at 70 per cent of its installed capacity, whereby it is meeting all the current demands for the product

as of today. Should the company accept the offer, or decline it on the ground of a terribly low price? Give specific

and convincing recommendations to the company.

468

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE

PRACTISE PROBLEMS

1. A company engaged in the manufacture of soft toys sells these at ` 30 per unit. The Variable Cost per unit

comes to ` 18 and the Fixed Cost is computed at ` 15,000. Calculate the BEP in terms of:

(i)Number of units to be sold, and

(ii)Total value of sales

2. A company manufactures 12,000 units of pens, all of which get sold off fast enough at the selling price of ` 50

per unit.

The variable cost per unit is ` 30. Profit Before Interest and Tax (PBIT) is ` 40,000. Calculate the Fixed Cost.

3. Sunshine Instruments sells hospital equipments at a per unit price of ` 1,500 and its variable cost is ` 900.

The fixed cost is ` 3 lakh.

(i)Compute the Break-even Point (BEP) in terms of:

(a)Number of units to be sold, and

(b)Sales volume in terms of rupees.

(ii)What will be the BEP if the selling price goes down to ` 1,400 per unit, instead, presuming that there is

no change in the fixed cost?

(iii)What will be the BEP if the fixed cost goes down to ` 1,00,000, if the company would have planned to go

in for hand-operated machines, instead of the fully automatic ones?

4. Compute the Break-even Point (BEP) in terms of both the value and volumes of sales (that is, in terms of both

the number of units sold, and the total sales revenue generated), with the following data:

Selling price per unit

Variable Cost

Fixed Cost

`150

`90

`50,000

5. What will be the minimum acceptable price at which the company can afford to sell its specific product, under

the following circumstances:

Variable Cost

`10

Fixed Cost

`50,000

Level of production and sales, in terms of units, being different, given as follows:

(i)20,000

(ii)18,000

(iii)15,000

(iv)12,000

(v)10,000

6. The installed capacity of the plant of Aditya Chemicals is 50,000 units per year.

The other available data are as follows:

Fixed Cost

Selling Price

Variable Cost

=` 60,000 per year

=` 20 per unit

=` 14 per unit

Calculate the BEP in terms of installed capacity.

7. The relevant figures of the two companies A and B, are given as follows:

Company A

Company B

Total installed capacity

2,00,000

1,20,000

Break-even sales

1,00,000

1,00,000

(i)Calculate the Break-even point reached in terms of per cent (%) capacity, as also the margin of safety.

(ii)Which of the two companies, in your opinion, may be said to be better placed, in the competitive market

in India, which is known to be very cost-conscious?