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7 Trends in Retirement and Semi-Retirement

7 Trends in Retirement and Semi-Retirement

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84.8 Market Resources

AARP, 601 E Street NW, Washington DC 20049. (888) 687-2277. (www.aarp.org)

Center for Retirement Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue,

Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. (617) 552-1677. (http://crr.bc.edu)

Employee Benefit Research Institute, 1100 13 th Street NW, Suite 878, Washington, DC

20005. (202) 659-0670. (www.ebri.org)

Growing Older in America: The Health and Retirement Study, University of Michigan

Institute for Social Research. (http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/)

The Journal of Retirement, 225 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10003.

(800) 437-9997. (www.iijournals.com/toc/jor/current)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 464 •



85

SINGLE CONSUMERS



85.1 Overview

According to the U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov), there are 105 million

unmarried people over age 18 in the U.S., representing about 45% of the adult

population. Fifty-three percent (53%) of unmarried adults were women; 47% were men.

Among unmarried adults, 62% had never been married, 24% are divorced, and

14% are widowed.

America’s Families and Living Arrangements, by the Census Bureau, reports the

percentage of people ages 25-to-29 that have never married as follows:

Female

• 1960:

11%

• 1980:

21%

• 2000:

39%

• 2015:

54%

Male

• 1960:

• 1980:

• 2000:

• 2015:



21%

33%

52%

68%



_________________________________________________________________



“Never-married single people ages 25-to-34 now

outnumber the married crowd by 46%, a stark

reversal from just a decade ago when couples

held a 20-point edge in that age group.”

Advertising Age

_________________________________________________________________



Driven by several factors, the trend toward delaying marriage has emerged over

several decades. Financial burdens, such as large college loan debt, have made it

more difficult for those in their 20s to reach independence, f orcing some to move back

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 465 •



in with their parents. Also, an increasing number of young adults are preoccupied with

their careers, and there are increasing numbers of cohabiting couples.

While almost a quarter of single-person households are made up of young

people under the age of 35 who have never been married, many are financially

independent singles.



85.2 Single-Person Households

The Current Population Survey, by the Census Bureau, reported 42.1 million

non-family households, representing 33.8% of all U.S. households, at year-end 2015.

There were 34.9 million single-person households, or 28.0% of all U.S. households.

The following are the demographics of single-person households:

Generation

• Millennials:

20%

• Generation X:

19%

• Baby Boomers:

30%

• Seniors:

49%

Race/Ethnicity

• African-American:

• Asian-American:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



35%

18%

30%

17%



85.3 Cohabitation

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the estimated number of unmarried

couples living together is as follows:

• Opposite-sex couples:

7.5 million

• Same-sex couples:

620,000

• Total:

8.1 million

Couples who choose cohabitation over marriage cite several advantages to the

arrangement. Studies show that never-married couples with the intention of living

together permanently are just as likely to stay together as married couples.

“The question,” says Andrew J. Cherlin, Ph.D., a professor of sociology at Johns

Hopkins University, “is not why fewer people are getting married, but why are so many

still getting married?”



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 466 •



_________________________________________________________________



“It’s a mistake to think of all unmarried people

as single. Lots are living with partners.”

Prof. Andrew J. Cherlin, Ph.D.

Johns Hopkins University

The New York Times

_________________________________________________________________



A trend that is increasing among singles is that of “committed unmarrieds,” so

dubbed by one sociologist. More than five million such couples cohabit in the U.S.,

nearly eight times the number in 1970, according to Time. The family dynamic of

committed unmarried with children is also on the rise. Households such as these

challenge the perceptions of family, and the greater majority of marketers don’t even

identify the market.



85.4 Spending Power

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov), singles spend

$2.2 trillion annually, which is 35% of all consumer spending.

The average single-household income is approximately $1,400 greater than the

average income of two-person households divided by two; the average one-person

household has over $1,300 in discretionary income.

Despite their spending clout, singles are seldom targeted by advertisers.

_________________________________________________________________



“Some marketers are taking notice: More ads are

featuring singles and some companies are reaching

out to them. But for the most part marketers are

only slowly adjusting to the new normal.”

Advertising Age

_________________________________________________________________



A study from Packaged Facts (www.packagedfacts.com) points out that singles

are more receptive to ad pitches than the general population.



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 467 •



85.5 Singles Geodemographics

Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends (www.pewsocialtrends.org)

assesses the number of unmarried men and women ages 25-to-34 in metropolitan

areas as follows:



















































































Akron, OH:

Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY:

Albuquerque, NM:

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ:

Amarillo, TX:

Anchorage, AK:

Ann Arbor, MI:

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL:

Asheville, NC:

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA:

Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ:

Auburn-Opelika, AL:

Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC:

Austin-Round Rock, TX:

Bakersfield, CA:

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD:

Bangor, ME:

Barnstable Town, MA:

Baton Rouge, LA:

Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX:

Bellingham, WA:

Bend-Redmond, OR:

Binghamton, NY:

Birmingham-Hoover, AL:

Bismarck, ND:

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA:

Bloomington, IL:

Bloomington, IN:

Boise City, ID:

Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH:

Bremerton-Silverdale, WA:

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT:

Brownsville-Harlingen, TX:

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY:

Burlington, NC:

Burlington-South Burlington, VT:

Canton-Massillon, OH:

Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL:

Champaign-Urbana, IL:

Charleston, WV:



Men per 100 Women



Women per 100 Men



100

120

117

117

144

117

142

82

112

106

107

96

89

114

136

103

103

117

100

135

135

108

109

100

110

149

113

117

141

109

145

110

90

116

116

123

112

110

104

114



100

83

86

85

69

85

71

121

90

95

94

104

112

88

74

97

97

86

100

74

74

92

91

100

91

67

89

86

71

91

69

91

111

86

86

81

89

91

96

87



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 468 •





























































































Charleston-North Charleston, SC:

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC:

Chattanooga, TN-GA:

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI:

Chico, CA:

Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN:

Clarksville, TN-KY:

Cleveland-Elyria, OH:

Coeur d’Alene, ID:

College Station-Bryan, TX:

Colorado Springs, CO:

Columbia, MO:

Columbia, SC:

Columbus, OH:

Corpus Christi, TX:

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX:

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL:

Dayton, OH:

Decatur, AL:

Decatur, IL:

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL:

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO:

Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA:

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI:

Dover, DE:

East Stroudsburg, PA:

Eau Claire, WI:

El Centro, CA:

Elkhart-Goshen, IN:

El Paso, TX:

Erie, PA:

Eugene, OR:

Fayetteville, NC:

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO:

Flagstaff, AZ:

Florence, SC:

Fort Collins, CO:

Fort Wayne, IN:

Fresno, CA:

Gadsden, AL:

Gainesville, FL:

Gainesville, GA:

Glens Falls, NY:

Goldsboro, NC:



109

100

120

108

136

108

188

107

143

116

131

127

107

106

127

109

117

109

106

100

107

121

110

103

101

135

103

133

108

113

138

123

105

151

105

97

130

121

124

148

120

111

122

104



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 469 •



92

100

83

92

73

93

53

93

70

86

77

79

93

94

79

92

86

91

94

100

93

83

91

97

99

74

97

75

92

88

73

81

96

66

96

103

77

83

81

68

83

90

82

96





























































































Grand Junction, CO:

Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI:

Greensboro-High Point, NC:

Greenville, NC:

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC:

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, MS:

Hanford-Corcoran, CA:

Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA:

Harrisonburg, VA:

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT:

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC:

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC:

Homosassa Springs, FL:

Honolulu (urban), HI:

Houma-Thibodaux, LA:

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX:

Huntsville, AL:

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN:

Iowa City, IA:

Ithaca, NY:

Jackson, MI:

Jackson, MS:

Jackson, TN:

Jacksonville, FL:

Janesville-Beloit, WI:

Jefferson City, MO:

Johnstown, PA:

Joplin, MO:

Kalamazoo-Portage, MI:

Kankakee, IL:

Kansas City, MO-KS:

Knoxville, TN:

La Crosse-Onalaska, WI-MN:

Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN:

Lafayette, LA:

Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ:

Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL:

Lancaster, PA:

Lansing-East Lansing, MI:

Laredo, TX:

Las Cruces, NM:

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV:

Lawrence, KS:

Lebanon, PA:



144

106

97

89

110

127

236

126

119

119

142

103

102

141

110

111

130

112

129

140

153

85

103

103

123

127

128

139

108

94

101

126

170

124

99

147

117

98

117

93

145

118

118

118



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 470 •



69

94

103

113

91

79

42

80

84

84

70

97

98

71

91

90

77

89

78

71

65

117

97

97

81

78

78

72

93

106

99

80

59

81

101

68

85

102

85

108

69

85

85

85





























































































Lewiston-Auburn, ME:

Lima, OH:

Lincoln, NE:

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR:

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA:

Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN:

Lubbock, TX:

Lynchburg, VA:

Madera, CA:

Manchester-Nashua, NH:

Mansfield, OH:

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX:

Medford, OR:

Memphis, TN-MS-AR:

Merced, CA:

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL:

Michigan City-La Porte, IN:

Midland, TX:

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI:

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI:

Mobile, AL:

Modesto, CA:

Monroe, LA:

Monroe, MI:

Montgomery, AL:

Morgantown, WV:

Muncie, IN:

Muskegon, MI:

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC:

Napa, CA:

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL:

Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN:

New Haven-Milford, CT:

New Orleans-Metairie, LA:

New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA:

Niles-Benton Harbor, MI:

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL:

Norwich-New London, CT:

Ocala, FL:

Ocean City, NJ:

Odessa, TX:

Ogden-Clearfield, UT:

Oklahoma City, OK:

Olympia-Tumwater, WA:



81

101

128

96

119

115

126

106

83

138

215

111

96

93

125

109

184

133

104

116

93

120

110

123

95

146

125

111

96

118

125

100

98

102

109

171

119

108

125

108

111

131

122

129



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 471 •



124

99

78

104

84

87

79

94

121

72

46

90

105

108

80

92

54

75

96

86

108

83

91

81

106

69

80

90

104

85

80

100

102

98

92

59

84

93

80

93

90

76

82

78





























































































Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA:

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL:

Oshkosh-Neenah, WI:

Owensboro, KY:

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA:

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL:

Parkersburg-Vienna, WV:

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL:

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD:

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ:

Pittsburgh, PA:

Pittsfield, MA:

Portland-South Portland, ME:

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA:

Port St. Lucie, FL:

Prescott, AZ:

Providence-Warwick, RI-MA:

Provo-Orem, UT:

Pueblo, CO:

Punta Gorda, FL:

Racine, WI:

Raleigh, NC:

Reading, PA:

Redding, CA:

Reno, NV:

Richmond, VA:

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA:

Roanoke, VA:

Rochester, NY:

Rockford, IL:

Rocky Mount, NC:

Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA:

Saginaw, MI:

St. George, UT:

St. Joseph, MO-KS:

St. Louis, MO-IL:

Salinas, CA:

Salisbury, MD-DE:

Salt Lake City, UT:

San Angelo, TX:

San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX:

San Diego-Carlsbad, CA:

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA:

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA:



120

128

133

108

128

127

81

121

108

118

124

119

108

111

114

126

117

129

132

144

83

99

125

146

124

114

116

96

118

93

72

116

99

133

147

108

152

142

117

115

114

129

116

141



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 472 •



84

78

75

93

78

79

124

83

93

84

81

84

92

90

87

79

85

77

76

69

120

101

80

69

81

88

86

104

85

108

140

86

101

75

68

93

66

70

86

87

87

77

86

71





























































































San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA:

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA:

Santa Fe, NM:

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA:

Santa Rosa, CA:

Scranton-Wilkes Barre-Hazleton, PA:

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA:

Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL:

Sheboygan, WI:

Shreveport-Bossier City, LA:

Spartanburg, SC:

Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA:

Springfield, IL:

Springfield, MA:

Springfield, MO:

Springfield, OH:

State College, PA:

Stockton-Lodi, CA:

Syracuse, NY:

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL:

Toledo, OH:

Topeka, KS:

Trenton, NJ:

Tucson, AZ:

Tuscaloosa, AL:

Tyler, TX:

Utica-Rome, NY:

Vallejo-Fairfield, CA:

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC:

Visalia-Porterville, CA:

Waco, TX:

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV:

Wausau, WI:

Wenatchee, WA:

Wichita, KS:

Wichita Falls, TX:

Wilmington, NC:

Winston-Salem, NC:

Worcester, MA-CT:

Yakima, WA:

York-Hanover, PA:

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA:

Yuba City, CA:

Yuma, AZ:



154

143

110

136

115

107

121

104

145

105

99

130

109

90

134

99

155

110

115

109

125

118

124

121

107

118

120

129

108

98

98

107

107

90

124

171

129

109

128

107

125

108

110

164



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 473 •



65

70

91

74

87

93

83

96

69

95

101

77

92

111

75

101

65

91

87

92

80

85

81

82

93

85

83

77

92

102

102

94

94

111

81

59

78

91

78

94

80

92

91

61



85.6 Market Resources

Unmarried Equality, 7149 Rivol Road, West Hills, CA 91307. (347) 987-1068.

(www.unmarried.org)

Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends, 1615 L Street NW, Suite 700,

Washington, DC 20036. (202) 419-4300. (www.pewsocialtrends.org)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 474 •



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