Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
3 Households, Income, and Expenditures

3 Households, Income, and Expenditures

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang









Entertainment:

Personal care:

Other:



3.6%

1.4%

16.8%



60.4 Buying Power

The Selig Center for Economic Growth at the University of Georgia

(www.selig.uga.edu) estimates African-American buying power as follows:













1990:

2000:

2009:

2014:

2015:



Buying Power



Pct. of Consumer Spending



$ 318 billion

$ 590 billion

$ 910 billion

$1.14 trillion

$1.20 trillion



7.4%

8.2%

8.5%

8.7%

8.8%



African Americans controlled more disposable personal income than any other

U.S. minority group until 2006, when it was equaled by Hispanic-American buying

power in the United States. Hispanics actually surpassed Blacks as the nation’s largest

minority group seven years before, based on population counts. But in term s of

spending power, 2007 marked the first year that Hispanics’ buying power led that of

Blacks.

The following are the largest African-American consumer markets:

• New York:

$91 billion

• Texas:

$72 billion

• Georgia:

$66 billion

• California:

$64 billion

• Florida:

$63 billion

• Maryland:

$57 billion

• Illinois:

$46 billion

• North Carolina:

$44 billion

• Virginia:

$42 billion

• New Jersey:

$36 billion

This ranking is largely based on overall populations, not on ethnic concentration.

Only Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia do not rank among the top 10 markets for

all consumers.

The largest percentage of buying power marketshare is as follows:

• District of Columbia:

29%

• Mississippi:

24%

• Maryland:

22%

• Georgia:

21%

• Louisiana:

20%

• South Carolina:

18%

• Alabama:

18%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 341 •











Delaware:

North Carolina:

Virginia:



15%

14%

13%



According to the Selig Center, African Americans spend more than non-Black

households on electricity, phone services, children’s clothing, and footwear. They also

spend a significantly higher proportion on groceries, housing, natural gas, women’s and

girls clothing, and gasoline. Blacks and non-Blacks spend about the sam e proportion

for housekeeping supplies, furniture, floor coverings, appliances, men’s and boys’

clothing, medical supplies, TVs, reading materials, education, tobacco products, and life

insurance. Compared to non-Blacks, Blacks spend much less of their money on eating

out, alcoholic beverages, household operations, vehicle purchases, health care,

entertainment, and pensions.



60.5 Population Centers

According to the 2010 Census, the following metropolitan areas have the highest

African-American population:

• New York, NY:

3.36 million

• Atlanta, GA:

1.71 million

• Chicago, IL:

1.65 million

• Washington, DC:

1.44 million

• Philadelphia, PA:

1.24 million

• Miami, FL:

1.17 million

• Houston/Galveston, TX:

1.03 million

• Detroit, MI:

980,451

• Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX:

961,871

• Los Angeles, CA:

907,618

• Baltimore, MD:

778,879

• Memphis, TN:

601,043

• Virginia Beach, VA:

522,409

• St. Louis, MO:

516,446

• Charlotte, NC:

421,105

• Cleveland, OH:

416,528

• New Orleans, LA:

397,095

• Richmond, VA:

375,427

• San Francisco, CA:

363,905

• Orlando, FL:

344,820

• Boston, MA:

331,292

• Tampa, FL:

329,334

• Riverside, CA:

322,405

• Birmingham, AL:

318,373

• Jacksonville, FL:

292,881



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 342 •



60.6 Use Of Media

A 2015 study by Nielsen and Essence reported time spent with media among

African-Americans and the general population as follows:

African-Americans











Television:

Magazines:

Radio:



General Population



201.7 hours/month

52%

12 hours/week



141.3 hours/month

22%

6 hours/week



_________________________________________________________________



“According to a survey by Nielsen and Essence,

African-Americans consume more content than

other groups on all fronts, through various

mainstream and niche media outlets and

platforms. In a consumer marketplace cluttered

with options, African-Americans choose the

best-fit media outlets for news gathering and

entertainment purposes, reporting

above-average consumption across each

platform.”

Center for Media Research, 2/23/15

_________________________________________________________________



According to the Internet & American Life Project by Pew Research Center

(www.pewinternet.org), 78% of African-American adults used the Internet in 2015.

Use of social networks in 2015 was as follows (sources: Pew Research Center

and Advertising Age):













Facebook:

Instagram:

LinkedIn:

Twitter:

Pinterest:



African-Americans



General Population



67%

38%

28%

27%

12%



71%

26%

28%

23%

28%



60.7 Market Resources

Black Consumers and Brand Loyalty - U.S., Mintel, December 2015.

(http://store.mintel.com/black-consumers-and-brand-loyalty-us-december-2015)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 343 •



Black Consumers’ Lifestyles and Entertainment - U.S., Mintel, April 2015.

(http://store.mintel.com/black-consumers-lifestyles-and-entertainment-us-april-2015)

Black Millennials - U.S., Mintel, February 2015.

(http://store.mintel.com/black-millennials-us-february-2015)

The Multicultural Economy, The Selig Center for Economic Growth at the University of

Georgia. (www.terry.uga.edu/selig/buying_power.html)

The State of the News Media: African American, Pew Project for Excellence in

Journalism, 2015. (www.journalism.org/2015/04/29/african-american-media-fact-sheet/)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 344 •



61

ARAB-AMERICAN CONSUMERS



61.1 Overview

Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants

from the Arabic-speaking countries of southwestern Asia and North Africa that have

settled in the United States since the 1880s. T heir Arab heritage reflects a culture that

is thousands of years old and includes 23 Arab countries as diverse as Egypt, Lebanon,

Morocco, Yemen, Tunisia, and Palestine.

The U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov) considers anyone who reported

being Algerian, Bahraini, Egyptian, Emirati, Iraqi, Jordanian, Kuwaiti, Lebanese, Libyan,

Moroccan, Omani, Palestinian, Qatari, Saudi Arabian, Syrian, Tunisian, and Yemeni to

be of Arab ancestry.

While the majority of the population of the Arab World is composed of people of

the Muslim faith, 63% of Arab Americans are Christian. Twenty-four percent (24%) of

Arab Americans are Muslim; 13% are of other faiths or claim no religious affiliation.

According to the Arab American Institute (www.aaiusa.org), 89% of Arab

Americans over age 25 have obtained at least a high school diploma. More than 45%

have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 28% of Americans at large, and 18%

of Arab Americans have a post-graduate degree, which is nearly twice the average

(10%) of non-Arab Americans.

Similar to the national average, about 60% of Arab-American adults are in the

labor force; 5% are unemployed. Seventy-three percent (73%) percent of working Arab

Americans are employed in managerial, professional, sales, or administrative fields.

Twelve percent (12%) are government employees.



61.2 Profile

Census 2010 reported 1.52 million Arab Americans, a 27% increase from

Census 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, the Arab-American population grew 38%,

according to the Census Bureau.

By Arab ancestry, Census 2010 reported populations and num ber of households

as follows:











Lebanese:

Egyptian:

Syrian:

Palestinian:



Population



Households



485,917

179,853

147,426

83,241



181,127

60,137

56,040

25,679



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 345 •













Moroccan:

Iraqi:

Jordanian:

Yemeni:



74,908

73,896

60,056

29,358



23,365

22,979

18,134

6,812



Zogby Poll International (www.zogby.com) reported that there are 3.5 million

Americans of ancestry belonging to one of the 23 United Nations member countries of

the Arab World, although they don’t necessarily self-report as Arabs.

Between 2005 and year-end 2015, 131,010 immigrant refugees from Iraq and

Syria were accepted into the U.S., according to the United States Citizenship and

Immigration Services (www.uscis.gov).



61.3 Buying Power

The Census Bureau reported the median household income for Arab households

in 2010 at $56,433, about $4,500 higher than the median household income of $52,029

for all households in the United States. Lebanese households had the hig hest median

income ($67,264), while Iraqi and Yemeni households had lower median incomes

($32,075 and $34,667, respectively).



61.4 Population Centers

The following states have the highest Arab-American populations:

• California:

272,485

• Michigan:

191,607

• New York:

149,627

• Florida:

100,627

• Texas:

91,568

• New Jersey:

85,956

• Illinois:

85,465

• Ohio:

65,813

• Massachusetts:

65,150

• Pennsylvania:

60,870

Ninety-four percent (94%) of Arab Americans live in metropolitan areas. Los

Angeles, Detroit, New York City, Chicago, and Washington, DC, are the top five

metropolitan areas of Arab-American concentration.

Among cities with 100,000 or more in population, the following have the highest

percentages of Arabs:

• Sterling Heights, MI:

3.69%

• Jersey City, NJ:

2.81%

• Warren, MI:

2.51%

• Allentown, PA:

2.45%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 346 •

















Burbank, CA:

Glendale, CA:

Livonia, MI:

Arlington, VA:

Paterson, NJ:

Daly City, CA:



2.39%

2.07%

1.94%

1.77%

1.77%

1.69%



The 2010 Census reported an Arab-American population of 5.0% in Bayonne,

New Jersey, a city of 63,000.



61.5 Market Resources

Arab American Institute, 1600 K Street NW , Suite 601, Washington, DC 20006.

(202) 429-9210. (www.aaiusa.org)

Arab Households in the United States: 2006-2010 , American Community Survey Briefs,

U.S. Census Bureau, May 2013. (www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr10-20.pdf)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 347 •



62

ASIAN-AMERICAN CONSUMERS



62.1 Overview

The U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov) refers to Asian Americans as

persons having ancestry from any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast

Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. This includes people who indicate their race(s) as

Asian or report entries such as Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnam ese, Korean,

Japanese, and other Asian.



62.2 Profile

Census 2010 counted 14.7 million people, or 4.8% of the total U.S. population,

of Asian-only ancestry. An additional 2.6 million people reported their ethnicity as Asian

as well as one or more other ethnicity. Combined, 17.3 million Asian Americans were

counted, representing 5.6% of the population.

The Asian-American population at mid-year 2016 was 17.5 million, or 5.4% of

the total U.S. population.

The relative youth and affluence of the Asian-American community is attractive

to marketers. With a median age of 32, the Asian-American population is five years

younger than the overall U.S. median age.

The Asian population includes many groups, who differ in language, culture, and

length of residence in the United States. Some of the Asian groups, such as the

Chinese and Japanese, have been in the U.S. for several generations. Other groups,

such as the Hmong, Vietnamese, Laotians, and Cambodians, are comparatively recent

immigrants. The following were the largest Asian groups counted in the 2010 U.S.

census (including those with one or more other race):

• Chinese:

4.0 million

• Asian Indian:

3.8 million

• Filipino:

3.4 million

• Vietnamese:

1.7 million

• Korean:

1.7 million

• Japanese:

1.3 million

• Pakistani:

409,000

• Cambodian:

277,000

• Hmong:

260,000

• Thai:

238,000



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 348 •









Laotian:

Bangladeshi:



232,000

147,000



The Asian population in the U.S. is distributed by age as follows (source: U.S.

Census Bureau):

• Under 15 years:

19.2%

• Under 21 years:

27.0%

• Over 21 years:

73.0%

• 55 years and over:

17.6%

• 65 years and over:

8.9%

_________________________________________________________________



“On October 3, 1965, Pres. Lyndon Johnson

signed the Immigration and Nationality Act into

law, sweeping away a system that favored white

Europeans over other races. One of its main

consequences was the beginning of mass

immigration to America from Asia. By most

indicators, these incomers have done better than

any other ethnic minority group. Indeed, they

have long been described as the model minority:

prosperous, well-educated and quiescent.”

The Economist, 10/3/15

_________________________________________________________________



62.3 Households, Income, and Expenditures

The Consumer Expenditure Survey 2014, published by the Census Bureau in

September 2015, reported on Asian-American households (HH), and all U.S.

households for comparison, as follows:

Asian-Am. HH



















Number of households:

Age of head of household (HH):

Head of HH (female/male):

People per HH:

Children under 18 per HH:

Adults 65+ per HH:

Housing (homeowner/renter):



5,627

44

48%/52%

2.8

0.7

0.3

48%/52%



All HH



127,006

50

52%/48%

2.5

0.6

0.4

63%/37%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 349 •



The median income of Asian-American households in 2014 was $88,517; the

median for all U.S. households was $66,877.

Distribution of expenditures was as follows:

• Food at home:

7.3%

• Food away from home:

6.1%

• Housing:

34.8%

• Apparel:

3.4%

• Transportation:

15.2%

• Entertainment:

3.9%

• Personal care:

1.1%

• Healthcare:

5.4%

• Other:

22.8%



62.4 Buying Power

The Selig Center for Economic Growth at the University of Georgia

(www.selig.uga.edu) estimates Asian-American buying power as follows:

Buying Power



Pct. of Consumer Spending



$116 billion

$269 billion

$509 billion

$696 billion

$775 billion



2.7%

3.7%

4.7%

5.3%

5.6%















1990:

2000:

2009:

2014:

2015:

























The following are the largest Asian-American consumer markets:

California:

$172 billion

New York:

$ 54 billion

Texas:

$ 34 billion

New Jersey:

$ 34 billion

Illinois:

$ 24 billion

Hawaii:

$ 23 billion

Washington:

$ 18 billion

Florida:

$ 17 billion

Virginia:

$ 17 billion

Massachusetts:

$ 14 billion



Compared to the overall consumer market, Asian-American spending is much

more focused geographically. The five and the 10 states with the largest Asian

consumer markets account for 59% and 75% of Asian buying power, respectively. By

contrast, the five and the 10 largest total consumer markets account for 39% and 56%

of U.S. buying power, respectively.

The 10 states with the largest shares of total Asian buying power are as follows:

• Hawaii:

46.5%

• California:

11.8%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 350 •





















New Jersey:

Washington:

Nevada:

New York:

Maryland:

Virginia:

Illinois:

Massachusetts:



8.3%

6.6%

6.5%

6.4%

5.1%

5.1%

4.8%

4.5%



According to the Selig Center, Asian-American households spend nearly 22%

more than the average U.S. household on homes, furniture, clothing, footwear, vehicle

purchases, public transportation, education, cash contributions, and pensions and

Social Security. They also spend more on food (groceries and dining out) and

insurance. Asian households spend less than average on utilities, healthcare, tobacco

products, entertainment, floor coverings, major appliances, personal care products and

services, housekeeping supplies, and alcoholic beverages.



62.5 Educational Attainment

Forty-nine percent (49%) of Asian-Americans have a bachelor’s degree,

compared with 28% of the general population. Whereas Asian-Americans make up

5.6% of the population of the United States, they make up more than 30% of the recent

American maths and physics Olympiad teams and Presidential Scholars, and 25% to

30% of National Merit Scholarships. Among those offered admission to New York’s

most selective public high schools, Stuyvesant High School and Bronx High School of

Science, 75% and 60%, respectively, are Asian. (The Asian population of New York

City is 13%.)

Current immigration is increasing the educational disparity between Asians and

other groups because recent immigrants are even more highly qualified than earlier

cohorts: 61% of recent immigrants from Asia have a bachelor’s degree, compared with

30% of recent non-Asian migrants.

_________________________________________________________________



“It is their educational outperformance that is

most remarkable.”

The Economist, 10/3/15

_________________________________________________________________



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 351 •



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

3 Households, Income, and Expenditures

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×