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2 Identity Fraud and Theft

2 Identity Fraud and Theft

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The Bureau of Justice Statistics (www.bjs.gov) classifies Identity theft as follows:

Misuse of an existing account such as a credit card

or online account:

86% of incidents

Unauthorized use of personal information to open a new account:

4% of incidents

Misuse of personal information for fraudulent purposes such

as getting medical care, housing, a job, or other benefits:

3% of incidents

Multiple types of theft:

7% of incidents



In 2015, the U.S. switched to EMV, an open-standard set of specifications for

smart card payments and acceptance devices which is designed to reduce in-person

fraud and the profitability of counterfeit card operations. Fraudsters have reacted by

moving away from existing card fraud to focus on new account fraud. This drove a

113% increase in incidence of new account fraud, which now accounts for 20% of all

fraud losses.



38.3 Attitudes About Privacy

Americans’ Attitudes About Privacy, Security, And Surveillance, a 2015 report by

Pew Research Center (www.pewinternet.org) reported the following attitudes among

U.S. adults:

• Ninety-three percent (93%) of adults say that being in control of who can get

information about them is important.

• Ninety percent (90%) say that controlling what information is collected about them is

important.

• Americans say they do not wish to be observed without their approval; 88% say it is

important that they not have someone watch or listen to them without their

permission.

• Eighty-five percent (85%) of adults say that not being disturbed at home is important.

• The following percentages of adults say they are not confident that records of their

activity maintained by various online entities will remain private and secure:

- Online advertisers who place ads on the websites they visit:

75%

- Social media sites they use:

69%

- Search engine providers:

66%

- Online video sites they use:

66%

• Adult Internet users think that various online entities should not save records or

archives of their activity:

- Online advertisers who place ads on the websites they visit:

50%

- Social media sites they use:

40%

- Search engine providers:

40%

- Online video sites they use:

44%

• Just 6% of adults say they are ‘very confident’ that government agencies can keep

their records private and secure, while another 25% say they are ‘somewhat

confident.’



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 227 •



_________________________________________________________________



“The majority of Americans believe it is important

that they be able to maintain privacy and

confidentiality in commonplace activities of their

lives. Most strikingly, these views are especially

pronounced when it comes to knowing what

information about them is being collected and

who is doing the collecting. These feelings also

extend to their wishes that they be able to

maintain privacy in their homes, at work, during

social gatherings, at times when they want to be

alone and when they are moving around in

public.”

Pew Research Center, 5/20/15

_________________________________________________________________



38.4 Online Privacy

Since 2010, TRUSTe (www.truste.com) has published a Consumer Privacy

Index study. The following are findings from the 2015 report:

• Ninety-two percent (92%) of U.S. Internet users worry about their privacy online.

Forty-two percent (42%) are more worried than they were one year ago.

• Fifty-five percent (55%) of U.S. Internet users trust businesses with their personal

information; 45% do not have this trust. This is a three-year low for this metric.

• Twenty-two percent (22%) of U.S. Internet users do not trust anyone to protect their

online privacy.

• Top causes of concern among U.S. Internet users about their online privacy are as

follows:

- Companies collecting and sharing personal

information with other companies:

36%

- Security threats to online data:

36%

- Government online surveillance:

28%

- Companies tracking web-surfing behavior:

22%

- Social media sites sharing details with advertisers:

19%

• Ninety-one percent (91%) of U.S. Internet users avoid doing business with

companies they do not believe protect their online privacy.

• Seventy-seven percent (77%) of U.S. Internet users have moderated their online

activity in the past year due to privacy concerns. The following are actions taken:



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 228 •















- Have not clicked on an online ad:

57%

- Withheld personal information:

51%

- Have not downloaded an app product:

35%

- Stopped an online transaction:

25%

- Deleted an online account:

9%

Seventy-eight percent (78%) of U.S. Internet users believe they are primarily

responsible for protecting their privacy online. The following are steps taken to

protect privacy in the past year:

- Deleted cookies:

63%

- Changed privacy settings:

44%

- Turned off location tracking:

25%

- Read privacy policies:

23%

- Opted out of behavioral ads:

10%

U.S. Internet users want the following actions implemented as measures to lower

concerns about online privacy:

- Companies being more transparent about how

they are collecting and using data:

37%

- More active enforcement of measures to

protect privacy online:

37%

- Identify clearer ways to hold companies accountable

for protecting privacy online:

34%

- Passing legislation:

27%

- Governments being more transparent about how

they are collecting and using data:

22%

- Online privacy best practices taught in schools:

20%

U.S. Internet users say the following actions by Internet companies would increase

trust related to use of their personal information:

- Give clear procedures for removing

personal information:

47%

- Ask for permission before using cookies:

31%

- Offer notice and ways to opt out of targeted ads:

31%

- Give information on how personal information is used: 30%

- Easy opportunities to stop being contacted by

third parties:

30%

- Privacy policies in easy to understand language:

21%



38.5 Mobile Privacy

The 2015 U.S. Mobile App Report, by comScore (www.comscore.com) reported

smartphone user who are comfortable with apps accessing their location as follows:









Very comfortable:

Somewhat comfortable:

Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable:



13%

29%

28%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 229 •









Somewhat uncomfortable:

Very uncomfortable:



19%

12%



In a November 2015 survey by Skyhook Wireless (www.skyhookwireless.com),

adult app users said they have turned on location services for the following app

categories:

• Weather:

65%

• Social networks:

38%

• Travel:

23%

• Photo and video:

18%

• News:

16%

_________________________________________________________________



“Privacy and security are critical to mobile

users, most of whom have some understanding

of how revealing their mobile data – including

location – can be to advertisers, publishers,

governments and other Internet users. And for

many, that means not using location services at

all, potentially diminishing their mobile

experiences.”

eMarketer, 11/25/15

_________________________________________________________________



38.6 Whom Do Consumers Trust?

The Harris Poll (www.theharrispoll.com) asked adults how much trust they have

in various entities handling their personally identified information (such as credit card

information, contact information, and so forth) in a properly confidential and secure

manner. Responses were as follows:



















Health providers (e.g. doctors and hospitals):

Major online retailers (e.g. Amazon, eBay):

Banks and brokerage companies:

Small and/or independent online retailers:

State and local governments:

Search and portal sites (e.g. Google, Yahoo!):

Federal government:

Social networking sites (like Facebook or MySpace):



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 230 •



Trust



Don’t Trust



79%

74%

68%

55%

52%

49%

48%

28%



21%

26%

32%

45%

48%

51%

52%

72%



By age, adults trust the following entities handling their personal identification:

18-to-34 35-to-44 45-to-54





















Health providers (e.g. doctors and hospitals):

Major online retailers (e.g. Amazon, eBay):

Banks and brokerage companies:

Small and/or independent online retailers:

State and local governments:

Search and portal sites (e.g. Google, Yahoo!):

Federal government:

Social networking sites (like Facebook or MySpace):



























Adults said they view the following as a threat to their privacy:

Cyber-criminals:

88%

Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook, Google+):

70%

People with wearable, camera-equipped devices:

63%

The federal government:

60%

People with camera-equipped phones:

59%

State and local governments:

56%

Search and portal sites (e.g. Google, Yahoo!):

53%

Banks and brokerage companies:

43%

Small and/or independent online retailers:

42%

Major online retailers (e.g. Amazon, eBay):

35%

Health providers (e.g. doctors and hospitals):

31%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 231 •



78%

74%

70%

55%

61%

55%

58%

42%



78%

72%

65%

58%

52%

54%

51%

34%



76%

74%

63%

58%

49%

50%

48%

27%



55+



82%

76%

71%

53%

46%

41%

39%

14%



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