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2 Locally Sourced Food Products

2 Locally Sourced Food Products

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In an October 2015 Harris Poll (www.theharrispoll.com), 50% of adults said it is

important when they are purchasing in a grocery that food is locally grown or sourced.

Those that believe local sourcing is important are as follows:

Gender

• Female:

53%

• Male:

47%

Age

• 18-to-35:

• 36-to-50:

• 51-to-69:

• 70 and older:



54%

49%

47%

53%



Household

• Children:

• No children:



56%

47%



_________________________________________________________________



“When it comes to perusing the grocery store,

there’s a plethora of different factors that can

lead to picking one item over another. One

factor that’s been getting its fair share of media

attention and in-store callouts is ‘local.’ ”

Harris Poll, 12/8/15

_________________________________________________________________



In a survey by the National Restaurant Association (www.restaurant.org), 64% of

adults said locally sourced menu items are important when choosing a full-service

restaurant (FSR). For comparison, 43% said organic or environmentally friendly food

was important. In choosing a quick-service restaurant (QSR), locally sourced and

organic menu items were cited as an important consideration by 63% and 45% of

adults, respectfully. By gender and age, those placing a priority on locally sourced, and

for comparison, organic menu items are as follows:

Locally Sourced

FSR

QSR



Gender

• Men:

• Women:



59%

69%



60%

65%



Organic/Environmentally Friendly

FSR

QSR



38%

47%



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40%

50%



Age

• 18-to-34:

• 35-to-44:

• 45-to-54:

• 55-to-64:

• 65 and older:



58%

68%

63%

67%

68%



58%

67%

63%

64%

65%



46%

37%

44%

44%

41%



48%

40%

46%

45%

43%



Opinions vary as to what constitutes ‘local’ food products. In a survey by The

Hartman Group (www.hartman-group.com), consumers defined ‘local product’ as

follows:

• Within 100 miles:

50%

• Within my state:

37%

• Within a region:

4%

• In the United States:

4%

In a survey by A.T. Kearney (www.atkearney.com), the following percentages of

adults said they are willing to pay more for local foods:

• Single urban households:

95%

• Young couples w/o kids:

78%

• Affluent families:

71%

• Senior citizens:

68%

• Middle income families:

67%

• Low income families:

57%

A.T. Kearney found that grocery shoppers largely embrace local food options

because they believe it helps local economies (66%), delivers a broader and better

assortment of products (60%), and provides healthier alternatives (45%). Some

shoppers say they buy local food to improve the carbon footprint (19%) and to help

increase natural or organic production (19%).

When asked about the availability of local food at their preferred supermarket,

65% say their supermarket offers at least some kind of locally sourced food. Almost

30% of grocery shoppers say they consider purchasing food elsewhere if their preferred

store does not carry local foods. Only 5% indicate they shop for local foods at big-box

retailers, 15% at national supermarkets. Overwhelmingly, respondents say their main

source for local food is the local farmers market and farm stores.



30.3 Buy Local Initiatives

Most states have programs that encourage residents to buy local. The following

is a selection of programs:

• Alabama:

www.fma.alabama.gov/buy_fresh.htm

• Alaska:

www.buyalaska.com

• Arizona:

http://localfirstaz.com



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Colorado:

Hawaii:

New York:

Utah:

Virginia:

Wisconsin:



www.coloradolocalfirst.com

http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/add/md/buy-local-it-matters/

www.ny.gov/programs/buy-ny

www.localfirst.org

www.buylocalvirginia.org

http://datcp.wi.gov/Business/Buy_Local_Buy_Wisconsin/



Similarly, some cities have launched initiatives to encourage residents to shop at

locally owned businesses. The following are some example programs:

• Buffalo, NY:

www.thepartnership.org/buylocal

• Gainesville, FL:

www.gainesvillechamber.com/member-services/buylocal/

• Pasadena, CA:

http://cityofpasadena.net/Pasadena_First/

• Philadelphia, PA:

www.sbnphiladelphia.org/initiatives/

• Portland, ME:

www.portlandbuylocal.org

• Portsmouth, VA:

www.portsmouthva.gov/buy-local.aspx

• Scarborough, ME:

www.buylocalscarborough.org

• Steamboat Springs, CO: www.steamboat-chamber.com/info/buy.local.asp



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31

CONSUMER CONFIDENCE



31.1 Overview

In general, the more confident people feel about the economy and their job and

income, the less likely they are to avoid making purchases. When confidence is

trending down, consumers are likely to slow their spending, thus the rate of economic

growth slows. Conversely, when consumer confidence is trending up, the economy

typically grows with increases in consumer spending.

There are several recognized measurements of consumer confidence. This

chapter provides a review of various assessments.



31.2 Consumer Comfort Index

The Consumer Comfort Index, which began in 1985, is announced weekly by

Bloomberg (www.bloomberg.com/consumer-comfort-index/).

The following three questions are used to calculate the index:

• Would you describe the state of the nation’s economy these days as excellent,

good, not so good, or poor?

• Would you describe the state of your own personal finances these days as

excellent, good, not so good, or poor?

• Considering the cost of things today and your own personal finances, would you say

now is an excellent time, a good time, a not so good time, or a poor time to buy the

things you want and need?

The index is derived from telephone interviews conducted by Langer Research

Associates (www.langerresearch.com). The margin of error is ±3 percentage points.



31.3 Consumer Confidence Index

The Consumer Confidence Index is calculated each month by The Conference

Board (www.conference-board.org) based on a survey of consumers’ opinions on

present conditions and future expectations of the economy. The Consumer Confidence

Index was started in 1967 and is benchmarked at a reference of 100 for 1985, a year

chosen because it was neither a peak nor a trough. Opinions on current conditions

make up 40% of the index, with expectations of future conditions comprising the

remaining 60%.



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Each month The Conference Board surveys 5,000 U.S. households. The survey

consists of five questions that ask respondents’ opinions about the f ollowing:

• Current business conditions

• Business conditions for the next six months

• Current employment conditions

• Employment conditions for the next six months

• Total family income for the next six months

Survey participants are asked to answer each question as ‘positive,’ ‘negative,’

or ‘neutral.’ The relative value is calculated for each question separately and compared

against each relative value from 1985. This comparison of the relative values results in

an index value for each question. The index values for all five questions are then

averaged together to form the Consumer Confidence Index. The data is calculated for

the United States as a whole and for each of the country’s nine census regions.

The results from the Consumer Confidence Survey are posted at

www.conference-board.org/data/consumerconfidence.cfm on the last Tuesday of each

month at 10:00 a.m. EST.



31.4 Consumer Sentiment Index

The Consumer Sentiment Index is one of the most recognized among several

consumer confidence measures. It was devised in the late 1940s by Prof. George

Katona at the University of Michigan. The index is calculated monthly based on 500

telephone household interviews conducted by the University of Michigan’s Institute for

Social Research (www.sca.isr.umich.edu/). Thomson Reuters publishes the Consumer

Sentiment Index.

The University of Michigan releases three related figures each month: the Index

of Consumer Sentiment (ICS, or MCSI), the Index of Current Economic Conditions

(ICC), and the Index of Consumer Expectations (ICE). The ICE is an official

component of the U.S. Index of Leading Economic Indicators.



31.5 Current Economic Conditions

The Current Economic Conditions report, commonly known as the Beige Book,

is published by the Federal Reserve Board eight times per year. Each Federal Reserve

Bank gathers anecdotal information on current economic conditions in its district

through reports from bank and branch directors and interviews with key business

contacts, economists, market experts, and other sources. The Beige Book summarizes

this information by district and sector.

The Current Economic Conditions reports are available online at

www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook/default.htm.



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31.6 Economic Confidence Index

The Gallup Organization (www.gallup.com) continuously monitors consumer

confidence with a two-question survey. The percentage of Americans classifying

economic conditions as positive, negative, and mixed is reported daily based on a

three-day rolling average of surveys of approximately 1,500 adults.

The poll, which guides the determination of Gallup’s Economic Confidence

Index, consists of the following questions:

• How would you rate economic conditions in this country today: as excellent, good,

only fair, or poor?

• Right now, do you think that economic conditions in the country as a whole are

getting better or getting worse?

Gallup reports on its website the Economic Confidence Index on a daily, weekly,

monthly, and quarterly basis. The data is posted at

www.gallup.com/Search/Default.aspx?s=&p=1&q=economic+confidence+index&b=Go.



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



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32

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION



32.1 Overview

Surveys by Service Management Group (SMG, www.smg.com) assess various

aspects of customer satisfaction at retail stores. The surveys query customers based

on their most recent retail visit and compare various factors that relate to customer

satisfaction.



32.2 Factors Contributing To High Customer Satisfaction

The following are findings from recent SMG surveys:

Corporate Headquarters Markets

SMG research found chain retail stores don’t have an advantage with locations

in the same city as corporate headquarters. Customers rated their satisfaction at chain

locations as follows:







Corporate headquarters market:

All other markets:



Ov erall Satisfaction



Likely To Return



71%

72%



74%

75%



_________________________________________________________________



“Customers visiting retail stores in the same

city as the brand’s corporate headquarters are

actually slightly less satisfied than customers

visiting locations in other cities. Customers

may have slightly higher expectations of brands

that are headquartered close to their home.”

Service Management Group

_________________________________________________________________



First-Time vs. Returning Customers

SMG found that first-time customers are generally more difficult to satisfy than

returning customers. Survey results are as follows:



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Highly Satisfied



Returning customers:

First-time customer:



Highly Likely to Return



Highly Likely to Recommend



67%

59%



72%

57%



70%

67%



_________________________________________________________________



“Across retail segments, first-time customers

are generally less satisfied overall than

returning customers. Loyalty to a brand is

generally built up over time – one experience is

often not enough to create a loyal customer.”

Service Management Group

_________________________________________________________________



Large vs. Small Stores

Based on the size of the store, customers rated their satisfaction with retail

locations as follows:

Overall Satisfaction













Smallest footprint:

Smaller footprint:

Larger footprint:

Largest footprint:



Likely To Return



64%

63%

63%

62%



65%

64%

64%

63%



_________________________________________________________________



“Customers in the smallest footprint stores are

slightly more satisfied. As stores increase in

size, customers are somewhat less satisfied

and less likely to recommend the store to their

friends and family. These findings support the

recent move by retailers to create smaller

footprint locations in order to deliver better

experiences. Most typically, customer issues in

larger stores center on locating products and

finding assistance.”

Service Management Group

_________________________________________________________________



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