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35-to-44:

45-to-54:

55-to-64:

65 and older:



22%

16%

9%

10%



Race/Ethnicity

• African American:

• Asian American/other:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



15%

6%

65%

14%



Annual Household Income

• Under $25,000:

• $25,000 to $49,999:

• $50,000 to $99,999:

• $100,000 and above:



21%

30%

33%

17%



Education

• Four-year college degree or higher:



41%



Household Composition

• Have children under age 18 living at home:



42%



19.12 Movie Theaters

Gender

• Female:

• Male:



46%

54%



Age

• 12-to-17:

• 18-to-24:

• 25-to-34:

• 35-to-44:

• 45-to-54:

• 55-to-64:

• 65 and older:



21%

18%

21%

16%

12%

9%

4%



Race/Ethnicity

• African American:

• Asian American/other:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



15%

8%

62%

15%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 136 •



Annual Household Income

• Under $25,000:

• $25,000 to $49,999:

• $50,000 to $99,999:

• $100,000 and above:



19%

27%

39%

15%



Education

• Four-year college degree or higher:



50%



Household Composition

• Have children under age 18 living at home:



42%



19.13 Public Transportation (bus, taxicab, train)

Gender

• Female:

• Male:



48%

52%



Age

• 12-to-17:

• 18-to-24:

• 25-to-34:

• 35-to-44:

• 45-to-54:

• 55-to-64:

• 65 and older:



4%

20%

23%

17%

17%

11%

8%



Race/Ethnicity

• African American:

• Asian American/other:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



20%

12%

50%

18%



Annual Household Income

• Under $25,000:

• $25,000 to $49,999:

• $50,000 to $99,999:

• $100,000 and above:



23%

26%

30%

21%



Education

• Four-year college degree or higher:



43%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 137 •



Household Composition

• Have children under age 18 living at home:



43%



19.14 Shopping Malls

Gender

• Female:

• Male:



47%

53%



Age

• 12-to-17:

• 18-to-24:

• 25-to-34:

• 35-to-44:

• 45-to-54:

• 55-to-64:

• 65 and older:



16%

18%

15%

20%

14%

8%

9%



Race/Ethnicity

• African American:

• Asian American/other:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



20%

7%

56%

17%



Annual Household Income

• Under $25,000:

• $25,000 to $49,999:

• $50,000 to $99,999:

• $100,000 and above:



23%

25%

33%

19%



Education

• Four-year college degree or higher:



43%



Household Composition

• Have children under age 18 living at home:



44%



19.15 Stadiums And Arenas

Gender

• Female:

• Male:



41%

59%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 138 •



Age

• 12-to-17:

• 18-to-24:

• 25-to-34:

• 35-to-44:

• 45-to-54:

• 55-to-64:

• 65 and older:



16%

18%

20%

20%

15%

7%

5%



Race/Ethnicity

• African American:

• Asian American/other:

• Caucasian:

• Hispanic:



11%

10%

71%

8%



Annual Household Income

• Under $25,000:

• $25,000 to $49,999:

• $50,000 to $99,999:

• $100,000 and above:



14%

26%

35%

25%



Education

• Four-year college degree or higher:



56%



Household Composition

• Have children under age 18 living at home:



33%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 139 •



20

WORK



20.1 The American Workforce

As of May 2016, the U.S. workforce count (ages 16 and older) was 151.03

million, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov). By type of

occupation, the workforce was as follows:

• Professional and related occupations:

34.71 million

• Sales and office occupations:

33.23 million

• Service occupations:

26.93 million

• Management, business, and financial operations occupations:

24.91 million

• Production, transportation, and material moving occupations:

17.87 million

• Natural resources, construction, and maintenance:

13.94 million

Ten occupations account for 21% of American workers. These occupations,

ranked by number employed, are as follows (source: Employment By Detailed

Occupation, BLS, April 2016):

• Retail salesperson:

4.62 million

• Secretary:

3.98 million

• Building cleaning workers:

3.84 million

• Laborer:

3.59 million

• Cashier:

3.43 million

• Food prep worker:

3.16 million

• Office clerk:

3.06 million

• Registered nurse:

2.75 million

• Customer service rep:

2.58 million

• Waitstaff:

2.46 million

Ranked by BLS’s projected 2014-2024 job growth, the following are the fastestgrowing occupations (source: Fastest Growing Occupations, April 2016)



















Wind turbine service technicians:

Occupational therapy assistants:

Physical therapist assistants:

Physical therapist aides:

Home health aides:

Commercial divers:

Nurse practitioners:

Physical therapists:



Growth



Median Annual Pay



108.0%

42.7%

40.6%

39.0%

38.1%

36.9%

35.2%

34.0%



$51,050

$57,870

$55,170

$25,120

$21,920

$50,470

$98,190

$84,020



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 140 •









Statisticians:

Ambulance drivers and attendants:



33.8%

33.0%



$80,110

$23,740



Median weekly earnings of the nation's 109.1 million full-time wage and salary

workers were $830 in the first quarter of 2016. Median weekly earnings for men and

women were $912 and $750, respectively, for men and women.

The federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. Nationally, 3.3 million workers are

paid minimum wage or less. The following is a profile of minimum-wage workers:

• Percent who work full-time:

35.5%

• Percent with college experience:

42.2%

• Percent who live in the South:

46.4%

• Percent food prep workers:

46.7%

• Percent ages 25 or older:

49.6%

In 2015, 15.0 million people, or 10.1% of total U.S. workers, were self-employed.

The self-employment rate – the proportion of total employment made up of selfemployed workers – has trended down over the past two decades. In 1994, the

self-employment rate was 12.1%.



20.2 Time Spent Working

The American Time Use Survey (ATUS, www.bls.gov/tus/), published by the

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and assessed in Chapter 14 of this handbook,

reported that 44% of adults of all ages worked. Those who worked spent an average of

8.03 hours per week working or engaged in work-related activities.

ATUS, published in June 2016, provided the following profile of workers:

• Employed persons worked an average of 7.6 hours on the days they worked.

• More hours were worked, on average, on weekdays than on weekend days, 8.0

hours compared with 5.6 hours.

• Far more people worked on weekdays than on weekend days: 83% of employed

persons worked on an average weekday, compared with 34% on an average

weekend day.

• On the days they worked, employed men worked 42 minutes more than employed

women. This difference partly reflects women’s greater likelihood of working part

time. However, even among full-time workers (those usually working 35 hours or

more per week), men worked longer than women, 8.2 hours compared with 7.8

hours.

• On the days they worked, 82% of employed persons did some or all of their work at

their workplace, and 24% did some or all of their work at home. Workers spent

more time working at the workplace than at home, 8.0 hours compared with 3.2

hours.

• Multiple jobholders were more likely to work on an average day than were single

jobholders, 80% compared with 67%.

• Multiple jobholders also were more likely to work at home than were single

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 141 •













jobholders, 36% compared with 23%.

Self-employed workers were nearly three times more likely than wage and salary

workers to have done some work at home on days worked, 56% compared with

20%.

Self-employed workers also were more likely to work on weekend days than were

wage and salary workers, 43% compared with 31%.

On the days they worked, 36% of employed people age 25 and over with a

bachelor’s degree or higher did some work at home, compared with only 7% of

those with less than a high school diploma.



20.3 Job Satisfaction

Annual surveys by Gallup (www.gallup.com) ask working people about

satisfaction with their job. In 2015, responses were as follows:

• Completely satisfied:

44%

• Somewhat satisfied:

42%

• Somewhat dissatisfied:

9%

• Completely dissatisfied:

4%

The percentages of workers somewhat or completely satisfied with their jobs has

been as follows:

• 2005:

86%

• 2011:

83%

• 2006:

90%

• 2012:

89%

• 2007:

94%

• 2013:

85%

• 2008:

90%

• 2014:

89%

• 2009:

87%

• 2015:

86%

• 2010:

87%

Survey participants in August 2015 said they were satisfied with various aspects

of their job as follows:

• Relations with coworkers:

92%

• Physical safety of workplace:

90%

• Job security:

84%

• Boss or immediate supervisor:

83%

• Flexibility of hours:

83%

• Amount of work required:

82%

• Amount of vacation time:

77%

• Recognition for work accomplishments:

76%

• Chances for promotion:

71%

• Compensation:

69%

• Health insurance benefits:

66%

• On-the-job stress:

63%

• Retirement plan:

62%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 142 •



20.4 Workplace Flexibility

A survey by The Harris Poll (www.theharrispoll.com) assessed working adults on

their perceptions and preferences around several work/life and flexibility issues.

Findings were as follows:

• Seventy-five percent (75%) of working adults reported having “at least a little”

flexibility at work.

• Seventy-three percent (73%) of working adults said that flexibility is one of the most

important factors they consider when looking for a new job or deciding what

company to work for.

• Sixty-eight percent (68%) of working adults agree that their company would be

willing to accommodate them if they requested a flexible work schedule due to

reasons like family care, personal work preferences, health issues, etc.

• Eighty percent (80%) of working adults agree that flexible work options are just as

important for people who don’t have children as they are for those who do, and

interestingly, there is no significant difference in opinion between women (69%) and

men (66%).

• When asked if they would be willing to give up a portion of their salary for more

flexibility at work, 45% of working adults said they would be willing to relinquish at

least some portion of their salary.

• Seventy-three percent (73%) of working adults believe it is possible to “have it all”

when it comes to work/life balance.

• Thirty-nine percent (39%) of working adults say that they have considered leaving or

have left a job because it wasn’t flexible enough.



20.5 Working At Home

According to a recent study published in the American Sociological Review,

nearly half of American workers bring work home with them regularly.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that 4.2 million adults are homeworkers; about 65% of these people work full-time at home. Fifty-eight percent (58%)

of stay-at-home-workers run their own business and 35% telecommute, working for

private companies or nonprofits located elsewhere.

_________________________________________________________________



“As communication and information technologies

advance, we are seeing that workers are

increasingly able to perform work at home.”

Peter J. Mateyka, Survey Statistician

U.S. Census Bureau

_________________________________________________________________



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 143 •



People who work exclusively from home have a median household income of

$74,000, compared with $65,600 for on-site workers. Those who work both on-site and

from home earn an average of $96,300.

Metropolitan areas in the southeast, southwest, and west have the largest share

of home-workers, according to the Census Bureau. The following are the metropolitan

areas with the highest share of people who work from home:

• Boulder, CO:

10.9%

• Medford, OR:

8.4%

• Santa Fe, NM:

8.3%

• Kingston, NY:

8.1%

• Santa Rosa, CA:

7.9%

• Mankato, MN:

7.7%

• Prescott, AZ:

7.6%

• St. Cloud, MN:

7.6%

• Athens, GA:

7.5%

• Austin, TX:

7.3%

The Harris Poll surveyed employed adults about working at home. Thirty-four

percent (34%) said they worked at home at least part of the time. The extent of working

at home was as follows:

• Work at home:

34%

- Work primarily or exclusively from home:

9%

- Spend about half of working time at home:

8%

- Less than half my time working from home:

17%

• Do not currently work from home at all:

66%

Participants in the Harris Poll had the following opinions about working at home

(multiple responses allowed):

• Working from home provides flexibility:

90%

• Working from home enables employees to balance work and family needs: 85%

• Working together in an office setting adds to team camaraderie:

84%

• Some of the best ideas and/or decisions can result from impromptu,

in-person meetings and discussions:

83%

• The option of working from home is a significant job perk:

83%

• Working in an office setting improves communication/collaboration:

81%

• Working from home increases productivity and work output:

64%

• The option to telecommute has/would have an impact on my decision

to take or stay at a job:

61%

• Working from home hurts speed and work quality:

35%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 144 •



20.6 Market Resources

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE,

Washington, DC 20212. (202) 691-5200. (www.bls.gov)

Occupational Employment and Wages, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (www.bls.gov/oes/)

Work and The Workplace, Gallup. (www.gallup.com/poll/1720/work-work-place.aspx)



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 145 •



21

USE OF TECHNOLOGY



21.1 Market Assessment

The Consumer Technology Association (CTA; www.cta.tech) estimates the

total retail consumer electronics (CE) market in 2016 at $287 billion, with wholesale

revenue at $224 billion.



21.2 Technology Device Ownership

Digital Democracy Survey (2016 Edition), published annually by Deloitte

(www.deloitte.com) since 2007, reported household ownership of technology products,

by age, and devices as follows:





























Flat panel television:

Laptop computer:

Smartphone:

Desktop computer:

Tablet:

Gaming console:

Digital video recorder:

Streaming media box:

Fitness band:

Digital TV antenna:

Smart watch:

Virtual reality headset:

Drone:



14-18



19-25



26-32



33-49



50-68



69+



80%

90%

89%

76%

69%

80%

51%

31%

17%

13%

7%

5%

2%



72%

88%

84%

57%

62%

73%

36%

28%

14%

11%

8%

6%

5%



81%

84%

87%

59%

69%

72%

49%

38%

27%

14%

15%

10%

7%



88%

84%

78%

68%

59%

66%

57%

27%

19%

14%

9%

4%

3%



87%

80%

63%

65%

46%

32%

49%

15%

8%

15%

3%

1%

2%



85%

62%

53%

77%

44%

11%

50%

10%

7%

19%

1%

0%

0%



All HH



84%

82%

74%

66%

56%

54%

50%

24%

15%

14%

7%

4%

3%



Technology Device Ownership: 2015, by Pew Research Center for Internet,

Science & Technology (www.pewinternet.org), reported technology device ownership as

follows:

















Cellphone or smartphone:

Desktop/laptop computer:

Smartphone:

Tablet computer:

MP3 player:

Game console:

E-book reader:



Millennials



All Adults



98%

78%

86%

50%

51%

56%

18%



92%

73%

68%

45%

40%

40%

19%



CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2017-2018



• 146 •



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