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10 Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds

10 Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds

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Index and Glossary

2-Pentanol, 665

Pentose, 700t, 703f

Peptide linkage, 691

Percent composition, 225–227

empirical formula from, 234–235

Percent yield The actual yield of a product

as a percentage of the theoretical yield,

273–275

Perchloric acid, 133

Periodic table A chart showing all the

elements arranged in columns in such a way

that all the elements in a given column

exhibit similar chemical properties

atomic properties and, 347–351, 350f

with atomic symbols, 346f

electron configurations and, 342–346,

342f, 344f, 345f, 346f

interpretation of, 93

introduction to, 90–93, 91f, 93f

ion charges and, 101

trace elements in, 690f

Permanent waving of hair, 696, 696f

PET, 625

Petroleum A thick, dark liquid composed

mostly of hydrocarbon compounds

composition and uses of, 654–655, 654t

as energy source, 306

molecule of, 477, 477f

production of, 306–307

Petroleum fraction, uses for, 307t

pH

calculation of, 527

of strong acid solutions, 532–533

pH meter, 528f

pH scale A log scale based on 10 and equal

to –log [Hϩ], 525–533

Phenanthrene, 662t

Phenol, 667

Phenolphthalein, 526

Phenyl group The benzene molecule minus

on hydrogen atom, 660

Phenylalanine, 692f

Phorphorus-32, 626t

Phosphate, 704f

Phospholipid, 709

Phosphoric acid, 704f

equivalent weight and, 498–499

naming of, 133

normality and, 500–501

Phosphorus

distribution of, 76t

as essential element, 690t

in human body, 77t

as molecular solid, 461, 462f

symbol for, 79t

Phosphorus pentachloride, 557–558,

566–567

Phosphorus trichloride, 566–567

reaction with ammonia, 563–564

Photon A “particle” of electromagnetic

radiation

color of, 330, 330f

light and, 326, 329

Physical change A change in the form of a

substance but not in its chemical nature;

chemical bonds are not broken in a physical

change, 60–61

Physical properties A characteristic of a

substance that can change without the

substance becoming a different substance,

58–59

Piston, 561–562, 562f

Platinum, 79t

Pleated sheet, 694, 694f

Plug-in hybrid, 262–263

Plum pudding model, 83–84



Plumbum, 79t

pOH, 528–530

hydroxide ion and, 531

Poisoning

arsenic, 94

lead, 6–7, 116

Polar covalent bond A covalent bond in

which the electrons are not shared equally

because one atom attracts them more

strongly than the other, 361, 364

Polar molecule

interaction of, 454, 454f

water, 364, 364f

Polar R group amino acid, 692f

Polar water molecule, 476, 476f

Polarity of bond, 361, 362

Pollution, air, measurement of, 22, 22f

Polyacrylonitrile, 674t

Polyatomic ion An ion containing a number

of atoms, 368

naming compounds with, 129–132

Polybutadiene, 674t

Polyester, 677

Polyethylene, 673, 674t

Polymer A large, usually chain-like molecule

built from many small molecules

(monomers), 673–677, 674t

Polymerization A process in which many

small molecules (monomers) are joined

together to form a large molecule, 658

addition, 674

condensation, 674

Polypeptide, 693

Polypropylene, 674t

Polysaccharide, 701, 701f

Polystyrene, 674t

Polyvinyl chloride, 220, 674t

Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), 206

Popcorn, 424

Porphyria, 6

Poseidon Resources Corporation, 478

Positron A particle that has the same mass

as an electron but opposite charge, 617

Positron emission tomography (PET), 625

Positron production A mode of nuclear

decay in which a particle is formed that has

the same mass as an electron but opposite

charge. The net effect is to change a proton

to a neutron, 617

Potassium

decomposition of, 428

distribution of, 76t

as essential element, 690t

in human body, 77t

reacting with water, 155

reaction with water, 149, 149f

symbol for, 79t

Potassium chlorate, decomposition of,

428–429

Potassium chromate, reaction with barium

nitrate, 168–169

Potassium dichromate, solution of, 487–488

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 131

Potassium hydroxide, 153

calculating normality of, 500

dissolved in water, 155

equivalent weight and, 498t

formula for, 134

Potassium sulfide, 128

Potential energy Energy due to position or

composition, 289

Power of 10, 16–18

Precipitate, 167–168

Precipitation, 167–168

Precipitation reaction A reaction in which

an insoluble substance forms and separates



A71



from the solution as a solid, 167–177, 168f,

186

solid forming in, 172–174

of two ionic compounds, 175–177

Prefixes in metric system, 19t

Pressure

atmospheric, 404, 404f

Boyles’ law and, 407–411, 407f, 407t,

408t

equilibrium and, 550f

gas and, 403–411, 404f, 405f

kinetic molecular theory and, 431, 432f

partial, 425–429, 425f, 426f, 427n, 427t

standard, 434–436

unit conversions, 406–407

units of, 405–407, 405f, 405n

vapor, 456–458, 457f

volume and, 407–411, 407f, 407t, 408f

of water, 428, 428t

Primary alcohol, 668

Primary structure (of a protein) The order

(sequence) of amino acids in the protein

chain, 693, 694n

Principle energy levels Discrete energy

levels, 333, 333f

Probability map, 332, 332f

for hydrogen fluoride, 361, 361f

Problem solving, conceptual, 215–218

Problem-solving, 5–7

Product, solubility, 568

Product of chemical equation A substance

resulting from a chemical reaction. It is

shown to the right of the arrow in a

chemical equation, 147

recognition of, 149–151

Progesterone, 711f

Proline, 692f

Propane

formula for, 307t, 645t

oxygen reacting with, 256–259

reaction with oxygen, 156–157

structure of, 643–644, 644f

Propanoic acid, 671t

Properties, chemical vs physical, 58–59

Propionic acid, 671t

Propyl, 649, 649t

n-Propyl alcohol, 665t

Protactinium-234, 616

Protein A natural polymer formed by

condensation reactions between amino

acids, 691–698

enzymes, 696–698, 697t

fibrous, 691

function of, 696–698, 697t

globular, 691, 695, 695f

primary structure of, 691–693, 692f

secondary structure of, 694–695, 694f,

695f

synthesis of, 704, 705f, 706, 706f

tertiary structure of, 695–696, 696f

Proton A positively charged particle in an

atomic nucleus

discovery of, 85

mass and charge of, 85t

in radioactive decay, 616

in Rutherford’s model, 323

Pure element, 211f

Pure substance A substance with constant

composition, 63–64

Pure water, 448

hydrochloric acid and, 534

Pyrolytic cracking, 307, 654

Qualitative observation, 8

Quality versus quantity of energy, 305–306

Quantitative observation, 8



A72 Index and Glossary

Quantized energy level Energy levels where

only certain values are allowed, 330, 330f

Quicklime, 295

R group amino acid, 692f

Radiation

atmosphere and, 326

electromagnetic, 324–327, 324f, 325f,

326f

energy of, 631

heat, 309

infrared, 309

Radiation effects, 631, 631f, 633, 633t

Radiation exposure, 633t

Radioactive decay (radioactivity) The

spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus to

form a different nucleus, 614–639

dating by, 623

detection of, 621–623, 621f, 622t

medical applications of, 624, 625f, 626,

626t

nuclear energy and, 626–631. See also

Nuclear energy

nuclear equations and, 618–620

radiation effects, 631, 631f, 633, 633t

transformations of, 620–621, 621t

Radioactive nuclide A nuclide that

spontaneously decomposes, forming a

different nucleus and producing one or more

particles, 516

Radiocarbon dating A method for dating

ancient wood or cloth on the basis of the

radioactive decay of the carbon-14 nuclide,

623

Radiotracer A radioactive nuclide,

introduced into an organism for diagnostic

purposes, whose pathway can be traced by

monitoring its radioactivity, 624

Radiowave, 324

wavelength of, 325f

Radium

radionuclides of, 622–623, 622t

symbol for, 79t

Radium-222, 616

Radon, 421

Radon-218, 616

Rate of chemical reaction, 546–549, 547f,

549f

Ratio

conversion factors as, 31

mole, 252–254, 256–259

Reactant The starting substance in a

chemical reaction. It appears to the left of

the arrow in a chemical equation, 147

calculating mass of, 492

limiting, 266–273

in solution, 493

recognition of, 149–151

Reaction, 61

chain, 627, 627f

chemical. see Chemical reaction

combustion, 655–656

dehydrogenation, 656

neutralization, 495–496

substitution, 655–656

Reactor, nuclear, 628–630, 628f, 629f

Red blood cell, pH and, 529n

Reducing agent (electron donor) A

reactant that donates electrons to another

substance, reducing the oxidation state of

one of its atoms, 589

Reduction A decrease in oxidation state; a

gain in electrons

defined, 583–584

half-reaction, 592

oxidation state and, 589



Refrigeration, 545

Rem A unit of radiation dosage that accounts

for both the energy of the dose and its

effectiveness in causing biological damage

(from roentgen equivalent for man), 633

Representative element, 346

Resonance A condition occurring when more

than one valid Lewis structure can be

written for a particular molecule. The actual

electron structure is represented not by any

one of the Lewis structures but by the

average of all of them, 376

Resonance structures Various Lewis

structures, 376

for NO2 anion, 378

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) A large nucleotide

polymer that along with DNA functions to

transport genetic material, 703–704, 703f,

704f, 705f, 706, 706f

Ribose, 700t, 704f

Ribulose, 700t

Ring, benzene, 658, 659f

Roman numerals in naming compounds,

119–123

Rounding off, 26–27

Rule

for rounding off numbers, 26–27

solubility, 171–177

for using significant figures, 27–28

Ruler, 20f

Rutherford, Ernest, 83–85, 83f, 84f

atomic theory of, 323–324, 324f

Saccharin, 383

Salts Ionic compounds, 181

solubility product of, 567–570

Saltwater, separation of elements in, 65–66,

66f

Sapa syrup, 116

Saponification, 707

Saturated bond, 643

Saturated solution A solution that contains

as much solute as can be dissolved in that

solution, 480–481

Schrödinger, Erwin, 331–332

Scientific method A process of studying

natural phenomena that involves making

observations, forming laws and theories,

and testing theories by experimentation,

8–9, 8f

Scientific notation Expresses a number in

the form N ϫ 10M; a convenient method for

representing a very large or very small

number and for easily indicating the number

of significant figures, 15–18

stoichiometric calculations with,

259–260

Scintillation counter An instrument that

measures radioactive decay by sensing the

flashes of light that the radiation produces

in a detector, 621–622

Seawater, separation of elements in, 65–66,

66f

Second law of thermodynamics The

entropy of the universe is always increasing,

314–315

Secondary alcohol, 666

Secondary structure (of a protein) The

three-dimensional structure of the protein

chain (for example, ␣-helix, random coil, or

pleated sheet), 694

Semimetal, 93

Separation of mixtures, 65–66, 65n, 66f, 67f

Sequestration of carbon dioxide, 375

Serine, 692f

Sex attractant, light as, 325, 325f



Sex hormone, 710–711

Shallenberger, Robert S., 383

SI units International System of units based

on the metric system and on units derived

from the metric system, 18, 18t

Side chain, 691

Significant figures The certain digits and

the first uncertain digit of a measurement

calculations using, 29

counting of, 25–26, 28–29

rounding off rules, 26–27

use of, in calculations, 27–28

Silicon

distribution of, 76t

symbol for, 79t

Silicon chip, 214

Silicon dioxide, 157

Silver

heat capacity of, 297t

symbol for, 79t

Silver nitrate

calculating mass of, 492

in solution, 486–487

Simple sugar, 699

Single bond A bond in which two atoms

share one pair of electrons, 376

Slightly soluble solid, 171–172

Soap, 709

Sodium

distribution of, 76t

electron configuration of, 340

as essential element, 690t

in human body, 77t

isotopes of, 86–88, 86f

symbol for, 79t

Sodium acetate, 534

Sodium carbonate, 134

Sodium chloride

bonding of, 360

calculating mass of, 492

dissolving of, 102, 102n, 476, 476f, 479

formation of, 182–183

as ionic solid, 461, 461f

ions in, 101

molecules of, 96, 96f

Sodium hydroxide

dissolved in water, 515

equivalent weight and, 498t

in solution, 484

Sodium iodide, naming of, 117

Sodium ion

bonding of, 360

formation of, 365t

Sodium sulfate, 131

Sodium sulfite, 131

Sodium-24, 626t

Solder, lead in, 116

Solid One of the three states of matter; has a

fixed shape and volume

atomic, 461, 463

bonding in, 460–465, 461f, 461t, 462f,

463f

change to liquid, 451–452

crystalline, 458–465, 461f, 461t, 462f,

463f

defined, 57t

formation of, 169–170

heterogeneous equilibria and, 556–557

identifying crystalline, 465–466

in precipitation reaction, 167–177

separation from liquid, 66, 67f

types of, 458–460, 459f, 460f

Solid compound, 170

Solubility, 475–479, 475t, 476f, 477f

calculating from Ksp values, 570

rule of, 171–172



Index and Glossary

Solubility equilibria, 567–570

Solubility product The constant for the

equilibrium expression representing the

dissolving of an ionic solid in water, 568

Solubility product constant, 568

Solubility product expression, 568–569

Solubility rule, 171–177

Soluble solid A solid that readily dissolves in

water, 171–172

Solute A substance dissolved in a solvent to

form a solution, 475

Solution A homogeneous mixture, 64, 64f,

474–512

acidic, 524

aqueous, 166–202, 167–202. See also

Aqueous solution

basic, 524

buffered, 534

composition of, 480–488

dilution of, 488–491, 488n, 491n

mass percent and, 481–483

mixed, 169

molarity and, 483–488, 487f

neutral, 524

neutralizing reactions and, 495–496

normality, 497–501, 498t

saturated, 480–481

solubility of, 475–479, 475t, 476f, 477f

standard, 487–488

stoichiometry of, 491–494, 492n

strong acid, 532–533

types of, 475t

Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution,

475

nonpolar, 479

Specific gravity The ratio of the density of a

given liquid to the density of water at 4 °C,

46

Specific heat capacity The amount of

energy required to raise the temperature of

one gram of a substance by one Celsius

degree, 297–301

Spectator ions Ions present in solution that

do not participate directly in a reaction, 178

Sperm whale, 451

Spontaneous process A process that occurs

in nature without outside intervention (it

happens “on its own”), 314–315

Spread

energy, 312–313

matter, 313–314

Standard atmosphere A unit of

measurement for pressure equal to 760 mm

Hg, 405

Standard solution A solution in which the

concentration is accurately known, 487–488

Standard temperature and pressure (STP)

The condition 0 °C and 1 atmosphere of

pressure, 434

Starch, 701, 701f

State function A property that is

independent of the pathway, 290

States of matter The three different forms in

which matter can exist: solid, liquid, and

gas, 57

Steam, 59, 59f

reaction with carbon monoxide, 551,

551f, 552f

Stearic acid, 707t

Steel, 463–464, 464n

Steroid, 710

Steviol, 383

Stibium, 79t

Stock solution, 488, 488n

Stoichiometric calculation

comparing two reactions, 261–263



identifying limiting reactant, 268–271

percent yield, 273–275

using scientific notation, 259–260

Stoichiometric mixture, 265

Stoichiometry The process of using a

balanced chemical equation to determine the

relative masses of reactants and products

involved in a reaction

gas, 432–436

of solution, 491–494, 492n

Storage, enzyme, 697t

Stradivari, Antonio, 675

Straight-chain hydrocarbon, 644

Strong acid An acid that completely dissociates (ionizes) to produce Hϩ ion and the

conjugate base, 180, 519–520, 520f, 520t

calculating pH of, 532–533

Strong base A metal hydroxide compound

that completely dissociates into its ions in

water, 180

Strong electrolyte A material that, when

dissolved in water, gives a solution that

conducts an electric current very efficiently,

168–169

Strontium, 79t

Strontium-87, 626t

Strontium oxide, naming of, 128

Structural isomerism Describes what occurs

when two molecules have the same atoms

but different bonds, 646–648

Structure

Lewis, 370–382

molecular, 381–382, 381f

resonance, 376

Styrene-butadiene rubber, 674t

Subbituminous coal, 308t

Sublevel Subdivision of the principal energy

level, 333, 333f, 337

Substance, pure, 63–64

Substitute, alkyl, 649, 649t

Substitution reaction (hydrocarbon) A

reaction in which an atom, usually a

halogen, replaces a hydrogen atom in a

hydrocarbon, 655–656

Substitutional alloy, 463

Substrate, 696–697

Sucralose, molecular structure of, 383

Sucrose, 700, 701f

Sucrose, structure of, 477, 477f

Sugar

simple, 699

structure of, 477, 477f

Sugar of lead, 116

Sulforaphane, 377

Sulfur

distribution of, 76t

electron configuration of, 344

as essential element, 690t

in human body, 77t

ions of, 100

1-mol sample of, 212t

as molecular solid, 461, 462f

symbol for, 79t

Sulfur dioxide

as pollutant, 403

reaction with oxygen, 555–556

Sulfuric acid

in acid rain, 403

calculating normality of, 499–500

dilute solution of, 490–491

as diprotic acid, 521f

equivalent weight and, 497, 498t

naming of, 133

Surfactant, 709

Surroundings Everything in the universe

surrounding a thermodynamic system, 292



A73



Sweetener, artificial, molecular structure of,

383

Swine flu virus, 16f

Symbol

for elements, 77–79, 79t

for isotopes, 88

Synthesis, protein, 704, 705f, 706, 706f

Synthesis reaction, 190

System That part of the universe on which

attention is being focused, 292

Taste, molecular structure and, 383

Technetium-99, 617n, 626t

Teflon, 224, 674t

Temperature Measure of the random

motions (average kinetic energy) of the

components of a substance, 291–292, 291f

Boyle’s law and, 408

Charles’ law of, 411–416, 412f

kinetic molecular theory and, 431, 432f

Le Châtelier’s principle and, 564–566,

565t

rate of chemical reaction and, 545, 546

standard, 434–436

of surface waters, 326–327

of water, 448

Temperature conversion, 34–42

Celsius to Kelvin, 36–37

Fahrenheit and Celsius, 39–42

Kelvin to Celsius, 37–39

problem-solving in, 34–35

scales of, 35–36, 35f, 36f

Temperature difference, 291–292, 291f

Temussi, Piero, 383

Termite mothballing, 663

tert-butyl, 649t

Tertiary structure (of a protein) The

overall shape of a protein, long and narrow

or globular, maintained by different types of

intramolecular interactions, 695–696, 696f

Testosterone, 710–711, 711f

Tetraethyl lead, 308

Tetrahedral arrangement, 384, 384n, 642,

642f

Tetrahedral structure, 381, 381f

Tetrahedron, 381, 381f

Tetrose, 700t

Thallium-201, 624, 626, 626t

Theoretical yield The maximum amount of

a given product that can be formed when the

limiting reactant is completely consumed,

273

Theory (model) A set of assumptions put

forth to explain some aspect of the observed

behavior of matter, 8

atomic, 80, 322–357. see also Atomic

theory

kinetic molecular, 430–432

Thermal denaturation, 696, 696f

Thermite reaction, 183, 183f

Thermochemistry, 301–302

Thermodynamics The study of energy,

293

Thermometer, microscopic, 38, 38f

Thomson, J. J., 83

Thomson, William, 83

Thorium-234, 616

Thymine, 703f

Thyroid, radioactive iodine scan of, 625f

Titan arum, 297

Titanium

distribution of, 76t

symbol for, 79t

Titanium(IV) chloride, 128

Titanium oxide in concrete, 63

Titration, 23, 23f



A74 Index and Glossary

Tobacco mosaic virus (TVM), 522

Toluene, 662

Torr Another name for millimeters of mercury

(mm Hg), 405

Torricelli, Evangelista, 404

Toxicity, of arsenic, 94

Trace element A metal present only in trace

amounts in the human body, 76, 78, 689,

690f

Transfer, electron, 184–185, 184f

Transfer RNA (tRNA), 706

Transition metals Several series of elements

in which inner orbitals (d and f orbitals) are

being filled

electron configuration of, 343

in periodic table, 92

Translucent concrete, 63

Transport by enzyme, 697t

Transuranium elements The elements

beyond uranium that are made artificially

by particle bombardment, 621

Triglyceride, 707, 708

Trigonal planar structure, 381, 381f

Trigonal pyramid, 385

Triose, 700t

Triple bond A bond in which two atoms

share three pairs of electrons, 376

carbon, 642

Tristearin, 706

Tryptophan, 692f

Tungsten, symbol for, 79t

Tyrosine, 692f

Ultraviolet light, 310

Unbranched hydrocarbon, 644

Underground isolation of nuclear waste,

632, 632f

Unit Part of a measurement that tells us what

scale or standard is being used to represent

the results of the measurement, 18, 18t

conversion factors and, 30–34

Universal gas constant The combined proportionality constant in the ideal gas law;

0.08206 L atm/K mol, or 8.314 J/K mol,

419

Universal indicator, 532

Unsaturated bond, 643

Unsaturated solution A solution in which

more solute can be dissolved than is dissolved already, 481

Unshared pair, 371

Uracil, 703f

Uranium

in nuclear reactor, 628

symbol for, 79t

Urea, 641

Urine farming, 698

Valence electrons The electrons in the

outermost occupied principal quantum level

of an atom, 341–342

wave mechanical model and, 345–346



Valence shell electron pair repulsion

(VSEPR) model A model the main

postulate of which is that the structure

around a given atom in a molecule is

determined principally by the tendency to

minimize electron–pair repulsions,

382–387, 385f

predicting molecular structure using,

385–387

rules for using, 387

Valeric acid, 671t

Valine, 692f

Vanillin, 668f

Vapor pressure The pressure of the vapor

over a liquid at equilibrium in a closed

container, 456–458, 457f

equilibrium and, 550f

of water, 428, 428t

Vaporization The change in state that occurs

when a liquid evaporates to form heat, 453,

456–458, 457f

molar heat of, 450

Vasopressin, 693, 693f

Virus, swine flu, 16f

Vitamin D3, 711f

Volume Amount of three-dimensional space

occupied by a substance, 20

Avogadro’s law of, 417–419, 417f

Boyles’ law and, 407–411, 407f, 407t, 408t

Charles’ law of, 411–416, 412f

density and, 42–43

gas stoichiometry and, 433–434

kinetic molecular theory and, 432

Le Châtelier’s principle and, 561–564,

562f, 563f

molar, 434

von Guericke, Otto, 404n

Voodoo lily, 297

Waage, Peter, 552–553

Wall, Robert J., 698

Walsh, William, 78

Wasp

as chemical detector, 373

tobacco mosaic virus and, 522

Waste disposal, nuclear, 632, 632f

Water

as acid and base, 523–525

acid strength and, 518–519

balanced equation for, 151–152

bond polarity and, 364, 364f

electrolysis of, 60f

as gas, 404n

greenhouse effect and, 309

heat capacity of, 297t

hydrochloric acid and, 534

ion concentrations in, 524–525

ionic compound dissolved in, 168–169,

168f

ionization of, 523

Lewis structure of, 386–387, 386f

methane reacting with, 267–268, 268t



as molecular solid, 461

molecules of, 95f

oil layer on water, 478f

potassium hydroxide in, 155

pure, 448

reaction with carbon dioxide, 547

reaction with potassium, 149, 149f

shortage of, 478

sugar dissolved in, 477, 477f

surface, temperature of, 326–327

temperature of, 291, 291f

three states of, 59, 59f

trace elements in, 78

vapor pressure of, 428, 428t

Water vapor, 404

steam and carbon monoxide, 551, 551f,

552f

Wave mechanical model, 331–332

principle components of, 337

understanding of, 337–338

valence electron configurations and,

345–346

Wavelength The distance between two

consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave, 324,

324f

of electromagnetic radiation, 325f

Wavelength of light, 328–329

Waxes, 709

Weak acid An acid that dissociates only to a

slight extent in aqueous solution, 519–520,

520f, 520t

conjugate base and, 534

Weighing

atomic mass, 208–209, 209t

counting by, 205–208

Weight

equivalent, 497

formula, 220

Wetting agent, 709

Whale, sperm, 451

White phosphorus, 462f

Wöhler, Friedrich, 641

Wolfram, symbol for, 79t

Wood alcohol, 666–667

Woodward, Scott, 623

Work Force acting over a distance, 290

Xenon, 1-mol sample of, 212t

Xenon-133, 626t

X-ray, 324

wavelength of, 325f

m-Xylene, 661

Yucca Mountain, 632

Zero, absolute, 412

Zhang, Jian, 526

Zinc

as essential element, 690t

in human body, 77t

reaction with hydrochloric acid, 149–150

symbol for, 79t



Table 5.1



Common Simple Cations and Anions



Cation



Name







Anion



Name*







hydride



Ϫ



fluoride



hydrogen



ϩ



Li



lithium



F



Naϩ



sodium



ClϪ



chloride



Ϫ



ϩ



K



potassium



Br



bromide



Csϩ



cesium







iodide











Be



beryllium



O



oxide



Mg2ϩ



magnesium



S2Ϫ



sulfide







Ca



calcium



Ba2ϩ



barium



Al







aluminum



Agϩ

Zn



silver







zinc



*The root is given in color.



Table 5.2

Ion



Common Type II Cations

Systematic Name



Older Name



Fe3ϩ



iron(III)



ferric



Fe2ϩ



iron(II)



ferrous



copper(II)



cupric



copper(I)



cuprous



cobalt(III)



cobaltic



cobalt(II)



cobaltous



tin(IV)



stannic



tin(II)



stannous



lead(IV)



plumbic



lead(II)



plumbous



mercury(II)



mercuric



mercury(I)



mercurous



Cu







Cuϩ

Co







Co2ϩ

Sn







Sn2ϩ

Pb







Pb2ϩ

Hg







Hg22ϩ*



*Mercury(I) ions always occur bound together in pairs to form

Hg22ϩ.



Table 5.4



Names of Common Polyatomic Ions



Ion



Name

ϩ



NH4



ammonium



Ϫ



NO2



nitrite



NO3Ϫ



nitrate



SO32Ϫ



sulfite



SO42Ϫ



sulfate



HSO4Ϫ



hydrogen sulfate

(bisulfate is a widely

used common name)



Ϫ



Ion



Name







carbonate



CO3



Ϫ



HCO3



hydrogen carbonate

(bicarbonate is a widely

used common name)



ClOϪ



hypochlorite



ClO2Ϫ



chlorite



Ϫ



chlorate



ClO3



ClO4Ϫ



perchlorate

Ϫ



OH



hydroxide



C2H3O2



acetate



CNϪ



cyanide



MnO4Ϫ



permanganate











PO4



phosphate



Cr2O7



dichromate



HPO42Ϫ



hydrogen phosphate



CrO42Ϫ



chromate







peroxide



H2PO4



Ϫ



dihydrogen phosphate



O2



Table 7.1



General Rules for Solubility of Ionic Compounds (Salts) in Water at 25 °C



1. Most nitrate (NO3Ϫ) salts are soluble.

2. Most salts of Naϩ, Kϩ, and NH4ϩ are soluble.

3. Most chloride salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are AgCl, PbCl2, and Hg2Cl2.

4. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO4, PbSO4, and CaSO4.

5. Most hydroxide compounds are only slightly soluble.* The important exceptions are NaOH and KOH. Ba(OH)2

and Ca(OH)2 are only moderately soluble.

6. Most sulfide (S2Ϫ), carbonate (CO32Ϫ), and phosphate (PO43Ϫ) salts are only slightly soluble.*

*The terms insoluble and slightly soluble really mean the same thing: such a tiny amount dissolves that it is not possible to detect it with the naked eye.



SI Units and Conversion Factors*

Length



SI Unit: Meter (m)



1 meter



ϭ 1.0936 yards



1 centimeter



ϭ 0.39370 inch



1 inch



ϭ 2.54 centimeters

(exactly)



1 kilometer



ϭ 0.62137 mile



1 mile



ϭ 5280. feet

ϭ 1.6093 kilometers



SI Unit: Cubic Meter (m3)



Volume

1 liter



ϭ 10Ϫ3 m3

ϭ 1 dm3

ϭ 1.0567 quarts



1 gallon ϭ 4 quarts

ϭ 8 pints

ϭ 3.7854 liters

1 quart



ϭ 32 fluid ounces

ϭ 0.94635 liter



Pressure

Mass



SI Unit: Kilogram (kg)



1 atmosphere



1 kilogram ϭ 1000 grams

ϭ 2.2046 pounds

1 pound



1 atomic

mass unit



ϭ 453.59 grams

ϭ 0.45359 kilogram

ϭ 16 ounces



Energy

1 joule



ϭ 1.66057 ϫ 10Ϫ27 kilograms



SI Unit: Pascal (Pa)

ϭ 101.325 kilopascals

ϭ 760. torr (mm Hg)

ϭ 14.70 pounds per square

inch



SI Unit: Joule (J)

ϭ 0.23901 calorie



1 calorie ϭ 4.184 joules



*Note: These conversion factors are given with more significant figures than those typically used in the body of the text.



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