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3 Relations Between E°, ΔG°, and K

3 Relations Between E°, ΔG°, and K

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Periodic Table of the Elements

1

1



H



1.008



2



3



4



Li



6.941

11



Na



Metalloids



Metals



Be



Nonmetals



Transition Metals



9.012

12



Mg



22.99



24.30



3



4



5



6



7



8



9



19



20



21



22



23



24



25



26



27



47.87



50.94



K



Ca



Sc



Ti



V



Cr



Mn



Fe



40.08



44.96



37



38



39



85.47



87.62



88.91



91.22



92.91



95.94



(97.91)



101.1



102.9



55



56



71



72



73



74



75



76



77



Rb

Cs



Sr



Ba



Y



Lu



40



Zr



Hf



41



52.00



54.94



55.85



42



43



44



Co



39.10



Mo



Nb



W



Ta



Tc



Re



Ru

Os



58.93

45



Rh

Ir



132.9



137.3



175.0



178.5



180.9



183.8



186.2



190.2



192.2



87



88



103



104



105



106



107



108



109



(262.1)



(263.1)



Fr



Ra



(223.0) (226.0)



Lr



Rf



(262.1) (261.1)



Db



Sg



Lanthanides

58

57



La



138.9



Ce



Bh



Hs



Mt



(264.1)



(265.1)



(266.1)



59



60



61



Pr



Nd



140.1



140.9



144.2



90



91



92



Pm



(144.9)



Actinides

Note: Atomic masses shown

here are 1999 values, rounded

to 4 digits.



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89



Ac



(227.0)



Th



232.0



Pa



231.0



U



238.0



93



Np



(237.0)



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17



18



1



2



H



He



13



14



15



16



1.008



4.003



5



6



7



8



9



10



B



C



N



O



F



Ne



10.81



12.01



14.01



16.00



19.00



20.18



13



14



15



16



17



18



Al



Si



P



S



Cl



Ar



10



11



12



26.98



28.09



30.97



32.07



35.45



39.95



28



29



30



31



32



33



34



35



36



Ni



Cu



Zn



Ga



Ge



As



Se



Br



Kr



58.69



63.55



65.39



69.72



72.61



74.92



78.96



79.90



83.80



46



47



48



49



50



51



52



53



54



127.6



126.9



Pd



Ag



Cd



106.4



107.9



112.4



78



79



80



Pt



Au



195.1



197.0



110



111



(271)



(272)



62



63



Ds



Sm



Rg



Eu



Hg



In



114.8

81



Tl



Sn



118.7

82



Pb



Sb



121.8

83



Bi



Te

84



Po



I



85



At



Xe



131.3

86



Rn



200.6



204.4



207.2



209.0



(209.0)



(210.0)



(222.0)



112



113



115



116



117



118



(285)



*



114



64



65



66



67



68



69



70



Cn



Gd



Tb



*



Dy



*



Ho



*



Er



*



Tm



*



Yb



150.4



152.0



157.2



158.9



162.5



164.9



167.3



168.9



173.0



94



95



96



97



98



99



100



101



102



Pu



(244.1)



Am



(243.1)



Cm



(247.1)



Bk



(247.1)



Cf



(251.1)



Es



(252.1)



Fm



(257.1)



Md



(258.1)



No



(259.1)



* These elements have been discovered but not authenticated by the IUPAC.



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Chemistry: Principles and Reactions,

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William L. Masterton, Cecile N. Hurley, and

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27108_FM__i-xxvi.indd 2



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Chemistry

Principles and Reactions



7e



William L. Masterton

University of Connecticut



Cecile N. Hurley



University of Connecticut



Edward J. Neth



University of Connecticut



Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States



i



27108_FM__i-xxvi.indd 1



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To the memory of our parents:

Jose and Paulita Nespral,

Edward and Ann Neth





27108_FM__i-xxvi.indd 3



Gratitude is the memory of the heart.

(French Proverb)



12/21/10 8:59 AM



Brief Contents





1



Matter and Measurements 1







2



Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 27







3



Mass Relations in Chemistry; Stoichiometry 60







4



Reactions in Aqueous Solution 90







5



Gases 120







6



Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table 155







7



Covalent Bonding 190







8



Thermochemistry 225







9



Liquids and Solids 259







10







11



Rate of Reaction 328







12



Gaseous Chemical Equilibrium 370







13



Acids and Bases 401







14



Equilibria in Acid-Base Solutions 435







15



Complex Ion and Precipitation Equilibria 467







16



Spontaneity of Reaction 496







17



Electrochemistry 526







18



Nuclear Reactions 563







19



Complex Ions 590







20







21



Chemistry of the Nonmetals 633







22



Organic Chemistry 658







23



Organic Polymers, Natural and Synthetic 691







Appendix 1



Units, Constants, and Reference Data 715







Appendix 2



Properties of the Elements 721







Appendix 3



Exponents and Logarithms 723







Appendix 4



Molecular Orbitals 728







Appendix 5Answers to Even-Numbered and Challenge

Questions and Problems 734











Solutions 295



Chemistry of the Metals 612



Index/Glossary 755



v



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This page intentionally left blank



Contents

1



Matter and Measurements 1

1.1



Matter and Its Classifications 2



1.2



Measurements 7



The Human Side: Antoine Lavoisier 15



1.3



Properties of Substances 15



Beyond the Classroom: Arsenic 21



Chapter Highlights 22

Summary Problem 23

Questions and Problems 23



2



Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 27

2.1



Atoms and the Atomic Theory 28



2.2 Components of the Atom 28

The Human Side: John Dalton 29



2.3 Quantitative Properties of the Atom 31

2.4 Introduction to the Periodic Table 37

2.5 Molecules and Ions 40

2.6 Formulas of Ionic Compounds 45

2.7



Names of Compounds 47



Beyond the Classroom: Ethyl Alcohol and the Law 53



Chapter Highlights 54

Summary Problem 54

Questions and Problems 55



3



Mass Relations in Chemistry; Stoichiometry 60

3.1



The Mole 61



3.2 Mass Relations in Chemical Formulas 68

3.3 Mass Relations in Reactions 73

Beyond the Classroom: Hydrates 82



Chapter Highlights 83

Summary Problem 84

Questions and Problems 84



4



Reactions in Aqueous Solution 90

4.1



Precipitation Reactions 91



4.2 Acid-Base Reactions 96

4.3 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 103

The Human Side: Svante August Arrhenius 104

Beyond the Classroom: Reversible Color Changes 112



Chapter Highlights 113

Summary Problem 114

Questions and Problems 114

vii



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