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5 Epoxides and C-, Se-, and H-Nucleophiles in Water

5 Epoxides and C-, Se-, and H-Nucleophiles in Water

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D. Lanari et al.

Scheme 7.22 b-CD

promoted addition of sodium

cyanide to chlorophenyl

glycidol 39 [108]













r.t., 90%


additional 15 examples - 77-90% yield

b-CD was able in two cases to promote the process with a 15–17% ee. In Scheme 7.22,

the case of chlorophenyl glycidol 39 has been representatively reported.

Similarly Rao et al. reported the use of b-CD for the promotion of the reaction of

epoxides with benzeneselenol in water. A variety of epoxides were considered (10

examples), and the corresponding b-hydroxy selenides were obtained always in

short times (25–40 min) and good yields (75–86%) [109].

Concellón et al. reported the ring opening of 3-aryl-2,3-epoxyamides in water or

deuterium oxide by samarium iodide. The reaction proceeded with a complete

b-regioselectivity (12 examples, 50–79% yields), and by starting from enantioenriched epoxides, 3-aryl-2-hydroxyamines were prepared with complete retention of

configuration [110].

The use of a-, b-, and g-cyclodextrins (a-, b-, and g-CDs) was investigated for

the kinetic resolution of epoxides in water by sodium, lithium, or potassium borohydrides [111–114]. Takahashi et al. [113, 114] found that in the reaction of styrene

oxide (Scheme 7.23) with NaBH4, as it happened in the case of azidolysis of epoxide (Scheme 7.12) [76], the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the

amount of CD used. The best results were obtained by using 2 equivs of b-CD and

after 72 h at room temperature. The (S)-1-phenylethanol (42b) was the main product (94%) with a 46% ee, and the (S)-epoxide 41 was recovered in 49% yield and

31% ee. The use of a-CD and g-CD led to almost 1:1 mixture of products 42a/42b

(Scheme 7.23) [114].

β-CD, NaBH4


(2 mol equiv)



H2O, r.t., 72 h


42a (6)

42b (94)

42b: 46% ee, recovered 43: 49% yield, 31% ee

Scheme 7.23 b-CD promoted enantioselective reduction of styrene oxide 41 in water [114]

b-CD was also used as a promoter for the reduction of ortho- and para-substituted

styrene oxides 43 and 45, respectively. When sodium borohydride was used as

reducing agent, better results than the corresponding lithium and potassium reagents

were obtained [111, 112].

7 Water as Reaction Medium in the Synthetic Processes Involving Epoxides


The authors found that by using 1.0 or 2.0 equivs of b-CD and 4.0 equivs of

hydride, the b-regioselectivity for the formation of chiral alcohol 44b was generally

high (92–100%) except in the case of o-methoxystyrene oxide (Scheme 7.24, 43

R = OMe) where 14% of the corresponding 44b was formed when NaBH4 was used.

More interestingly, it was found that para-substituted styrene oxides 45 preferentially gave the corresponding chiral (S)-alcohol 46b, while the ortho-substituted

gave the (R)-enantiomer (Scheme 7.24).











(1.0-2.0/ 2.0-4.0 mol equiv)



β-CD / NaBH4










8 examples - r.t., 48-72 h

44a/44b:(86-0)/(14-100), 44b: 5-51% yield, 0-42% ee

46a/46b: (23-0)/(77-100), 46b: 45-53% yield, 5-48% ee

Scheme 7.24 b-CD promoted enantioselective reduction of ortho- and para-styrene oxides in

water [111, 112]



Water is a very efficient reaction medium for several organic transformations.

The unique properties of water make this medium attractive for individuating

novel environmentally and chemically efficient organic transformations. Water

should be used not as a simple substitution of the organic medium or as an exotic

option to claim the greenness of a process, but because it plays a crucial role for

reaching the highest chemical efficiency. In the case of the nucleophilic ring

opening of epoxides, this environmentally benign reaction medium has proved to

be able to improve the efficiency of these processes both in terms of yields and


Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università

e della Ricerca (MIUR) and the Università degli Studi di Perugia within the projects “Firb–

Futuro in Ricerca” (prot. n. RBFR08TTWW and prot. n. RBFR08J78Q), PRIN 2008 for financial



D. Lanari et al.


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Chapter 8

Ionanofluids: New Heat Transfer Fluids

for Green Processes Development

Carlos A. Nieto de Castro, S.M. Sohel Murshed,

Maria J.V. Lourenỗo, Fernando J.V. Santos,

Manuel L.M. Lopes, and Joóo M.P. Franỗa

Abstract Ionanofluids represent a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids

that encompass multiple disciplines like nanoscience, mechanical, and chemical

engineering. Apart from fascinating thermophysical properties, the most compelling

feature of ionanofluids is that they are designable and fine-tunable through base

ionic liquids. Besides presenting results on thermal conductivity and specific heat

capacity of ionanofluids as a function of temperature and concentration of multiwall

carbon nanotubes, findings from a feasibility study of using ionanofluids as replacement

of current silicon-based heat transfer fluids in heat transfer devices such as heat

exchangers are also reported. By comparing results on thermophysical properties

and estimating heat transfer areas for both ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model

shell and tube heat exchanger, it is found that ionanofluids possess superior thermophysical properties particularly thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require

considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids.

This chapter is dedicated to introducing, analyzing, and discussing ionanofluids

together with their thermophysical properties for their potential applications as heat

transfer fluids. Analyzing present results and other findings from pioneering

researches, it is found that ionanofluids show great promises to be used as innovative heat transfer fluids and novel media for the exploitation of green energy


C.A. Nieto de Castro (*) • S.M.S. Murshed • M.J.V. Lourenỗo F.J.V. Santos

M.L.M. Lopes J.M.P. Franỗa

Centre for Molecular Sciences and Materials, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,

Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, Lisbon 1749-016, Portugal

e-mail: cacastro@fc.ul.pt; smmurshed@fc.ul.pt; mjvl@fc.ul.pt; fjsantos@fc.ul.pt;


A. Mohammad and Inamuddin (eds.), Green Solvents I: Properties

and Applications in Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1712-1_8,

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012




C.A. Nieto de Castro et al.


The concept of “ionanofluids” was recently coined by Nieto de Castro and

coworkers [1], and it represents a very new class of heat transfer fluids where

nanoparticles are dispersed in ionic liquids only [2]. Since ionanofluids are a

specific type of nanofluids, that is, ionic liquid-based nanofluids, it is important

to provide background of nanofluids before discussing development and potential applications of ionanofluids in this section.



Many high-tech industries and thermal management systems are facing great technical challenges for cooling of smaller features of microelectronic and more power

output-based devices. However, the conventional method to increase the cooling

rate is to use extended heat transfer surfaces, but this approach requires an undesirable increase in the size of the thermal management systems. In addition, the inherently poor thermal properties of traditionally used heat transfer fluids (HTFs) such

as water, ethylene glycol (EG), or engine oil (EO) greatly limit the cooling performance. Thus, these conventional cooling techniques are not suitable to meet the

cooling demand of the high-tech industries and advanced devices. It is known that

fluids possess order-of-magnitude smaller thermal conductivity than metallic or

nonmetallic materials. Therefore, the thermal conductivities of fluids that contain

suspended metallic or nonmetallic particles are expected to be significantly higher

than those of traditional heat transfer fluids.

It was only in 1995 that Choi [3] at Argonne National Laboratory of USA coined the

concept of “nanofluids” to meet the aforementioned cooling challenges facing many

advanced industries and devices. This new class of heat transfer fluids (nanofluids) is

engineered by dispersing nanometer-sized solid particles, rods, or tubes in traditional

heat transfer fluids, and they were found to exhibit significantly higher thermophysical

properties, particularly thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity than those of base

fluids (BFs) [4–9]. From practical application-based studies such as convective and

boiling heat transfer characteristics [10–16], nanofluids (NFs) were also found to be

even more promising as their convective heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux

were reported to be substantially higher as compared to those of their base fluids. In

particular, nanofluids containing high thermal conductive materials such as carbon

nanotubes (CNT) show anomalously enhanced thermal performance [16–18]. Thus,

nanofluids have attracted great interest from the research community due to their

enhanced thermophysical properties, potential benefits, and applications in numerous

important fields. Recent record shows that there is an exponential growth of annual

research publications on nanofluids, and there are also more than 300 research groups

and companies worldwide who are involved with nanofluids research [19].

The impact of nanofluid technology is expected to be great considering that heat

transfer performance of heat exchangers or cooling devices is vital in numerous

industries. When the nanoparticles are properly dispersed, nanofluids can offer

8 Ionanofluids: New Heat Transfer Fluids for Green Processes Development


numerous benefits besides their anomalously high effective thermal conductivity.

The benefits include improved heat transfer and thermal stability, microchannel

cooling without clogging, miniaturized systems, and reduction in pumping power.

With these highly desirable thermal characteristics and potential benefits, nanofluids can have a wide range of applications such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, transportation, manufacturing, instrumentation,

medical, and heating-ventilating-air-conditioning systems [8].


Ionanofluids and Their Prospect as Heat Transfer Fluids

The term ionanofluids is defined as the suspensions of nanomaterials (particles,

tubes, and rods) in ionic liquids [1, 2, 20], and it is a new term in multidisciplinary fields such as nanoscience, nanotechnology, thermofluid, chemical, and

mechanical engineering. Since ionic liquids (ILs) are the base fluids in ionanofluids, their thermophysical properties, potential benefits, and applications will

also be discussed in short.

In the past decades, significant progress has been made toward better understanding and practical application of ionic liquids. Extensive research efforts

[21–30] have been devoted to ionic liquids which have proven to be safe and sustainable alternatives for many applications in industry and chemical manufacturing. Their prospect and success arise mainly from their thermophysical and

phase-equilibria properties, the versatility of their synthesis, and manageability to

be tailored for a given application. Their solvent properties as well as heat transfer

or heat storage and surface properties make this class of fluids possible to use in a

high plethora of applications [25, 31]. Other advantages of ionic liquids include

high ion conductivity, high volumetric heat capacity, high chemical and thermal

stabilities, negligible vapor pressure, wide range of viscosity, and very good solvent

properties [22, 24, 29, 30]. Due to all of these fascinating characteristics, they

have been investigated extensively as alternatives to molecular solvents for liquid-phase reactions [27]. Ionic liquids are of great interest to scientists as well as

chemical companies, not only because of their remarkable properties, but also for

their actual and potential applications in the chemical process industries. In the

past, the values of their thermophysical properties were found to have significant

effect on the design of physicochemical processing and reaction units by influencing directly the design parameters and performance of equipments like heat

exchangers, distillation columns, and reactors [32]. However, the optimal technological design of green processes requires the characterization of the ionic liquids

used, namely, their thermodynamic, transport, and dielectric properties. Recently,

our group has reported studies [1, 2, 31–34] where measured data on various thermophysical properties of a wide range of ionic liquids are presented besides

studying their potential application as heat transfer fluids as well as their properties

measurement methods and uncertainties. Results from these studies indicate that

ionic liquids possess promising thermophysical properties and great potential for

numerous applications, particularly as new heat transfer fluids.


C.A. Nieto de Castro et al.

The discovery that carbon nanotubes and room-temperature ionic liquids can be

blended to form gels termed as “bucky gels” which can potentially be used in many

engineering or chemical processing such as making novel electronic devices, coating

materials, and antistatic materials, and, thus, it opens a completely new field [35, 36].

The “bucky gels” are blends or emulsions of ionic liquids with nanomaterials, mostly

nanocarbons (tubes, fullerenes, and spheres), and they are actually CNT-laden

ionanofluids. The possibility of using ionic liquids containing dispersed nanoparticles with specific functionalization such as functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and fullerenes (C60,

C80, etc.) opens the door to many applications. The use of nanoparticles as heat

transfer enhancers allows us to associate small quantities of different types of nanomaterials to ionic liquids to prepare ionanofluids, which are highly flexible such that

they can be designed (target-oriented) in terms of molecular structure, to achieve the

desired properties necessary to accomplish a given task. This is possibly due to

the complex interactions of ionic liquids and nanomaterials in the created complex

emulsions. In contrast to conventional nanofluids, ionanofluids are more flexible as

their base fluids are ionic liquids which can be prepared or designed for specific

properties as well as for specific tasks.

Recent studies performed by this group (Nieto de Castro and coworkers) showed

that ionanofluids containing MWCNT exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity

(ranging from 2% to 35%) and specific heat capacity compared to their base ionic

liquids [1, 2]. Since these ionanofluids have fascinating features such as high thermal

conductivity, high volumetric heat capacity, and nonvolatility, they can potentially

be used as novel heat transfer fluids. Another important application of ionanofluids

is that they can be used in the development of new pigments for paint coatings of

solar collectors with their higher solar absorbance and thermal emissivity as compared to the base paint [37]. Except researches conducted by this group, no other

work on ionanofluids is available in the literature.

This chapter deals with the temperature and concentration dependence of thermal

conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids containing MWCNT in several ionic liquids. Results of the thermal conductivity of these ionanofluids are also

compared with the thermal conductivity data for MWCNT-nanofluids obtained from

the literature. With the remarkable thermophysical properties and great flexibility of

designing of ionanofluids for specific tasks and for particular properties, it can plausibly be considered that along with numerous applications, this new class of heat

transfer fluids can potentially be used for the development of green processes.


Preparation of Ionanofluids

As mentioned previously, ionic liquids have been considered as potential heat transfer

fluids not only due to their high volumetric heat capacity and good thermal conductivity (similar to conventional HTFs such as Dowtherm MX™, Syltherm 800™,

and engine oil) but also for their high thermal stability and low vapor pressure.

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